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close this bookFood and Nutrition Bulletin Volume 04, Number 3, 1982 (UNU, 1982, 64 pages)
View the documentMalnutrition, illness, and societies
View the documentExtension of basic services: Efforts to encourage people's participation in development
View the documentCommunity participation and nutrition: Some issues for consideration
View the documentThe effect of urbanization and western foods on infant and maternal nutrition in the South Pacific
View the documentFood habits during pregnancy and lactation in Iraq
View the documentThe nutritional consequences of agricultural and rural development projects
View the documentToward success in combating malnutrition: An assessment of what works
View the documentMaternal malnutrition
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View the documentUNU sub-programme on food, nutrition, and poverty
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UNU sub-programme on food, nutrition, and poverty


Institute Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Tel. 43762. Cable: INCAP GUATEMALA. Coordinator: Dr. Guillermo Arroyave.

The Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP) Nutrition Center of the Philippines Bldg., South Super Highway, Nichols Interchange, Makati, Metro Manila 3116, Philippines. Tel. 85-30-71 to 79. Cable: NUTRICEN MANILA. Co-ordinator: Dr. Rodolfo Florentino.

Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI) Mysore 570013, India. Tel. 22298. Cable: UNVERCENT MYSORE. Telex: 0846-241 FTRI IN. Co-ordinator: Dr. S.K. Majumder.

The International Food and Nutrition Policy and Planning Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard School of Public Health (IFNP) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20A-201, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. Tel. (617) 253-7617. Cable: MITUNATUNIV CAMBRIDGE. Telex: 92-1573 MITCAM. Co-ordinator: Dr. Richard Lockwood.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana (DNFS)
PO Box 134, Legon, Ghana. Cable: UNIVERSITY LEGON.
Co-ordinator: Dr. R. Orraca-Tetteh,

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (INMU) Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama Vl Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Tel. 282-6435. Co-ordinator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi.

National Food Research Institute (NFRI) 2-1-2 Kanondai, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaraki-ken 300-21, Japan. Tel. 029754-8011. Co-ordinator: Dr. Nobuzo Tsumura.

Universidad del Valle (UVC) Apartado Aereo 20353, Cali, Colombia. Co-ordinator: Dr. Luis Fajardo.

University of the West Indies (UWI) St. Augustine Campus: Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Tel. 662-7171. Cable: STOMATA PORT OF SPAIN. Resident Co-ordinator: Dr. Lloyd Rankine. Mona Campus: Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Tel. 9274661 Cable: UNIVERS JAMAICA. Contact: Dr. Alan Jackson.

The UNU Sub-programme on Food, Nutrition, and Poverty also cooperates with the following institutions and organizations.

Through IFNP:
Department of Nutrition, Cornell University, USA
Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, USA
Department of Nutrition, University of Connecticut, USA
Food Protein Research and Development Center, Texas A&M University System, USA
Division of Geographic Medicine, Tufts University Medical Center, USA
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Massachusets, USA

In the United Kingdom:
Tropical Products Institute (TPI), London
Dunn Laboratories, Cambridge
Department of Food Science, University of Reading, Reading
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London
Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford

Through NCP:
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Philippines
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
International Union of Food Science and Technology (lUFoST)
International Union of Nutrition Sciences (IUNS)

In the United Nations system, the UNU Sub-programme on Food, Nutrition, and Poverty co-operates with the appropriate units or divisions of the following organizations with which the University has memoranda of understanding. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) World Health Organization (WHO)

The University is represented on the Administrative Committee on Coordination-Sub-committee on Nutrition.


Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. Abraham Stekel.

Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research (IVIC), Apartado 1827, Caracas, Venezuela. Principal investigator: Dr. Miguel Layrisse.

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (INMU), Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama Vl Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Principal investigator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi.

Maternal and Child Health Services, Ministry of Health, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Loufti M. El-Sayyad.

Nutrition Research and Development Center, Komplek GIZI, Jalan Semboja, Bogor, Indonesia. Principal investigator: Dr. Darwin Karyadi.

Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Principal investigator: Dr. Benjamin Torún.


Vice-Rector: Dr. Miguel Urrutia

Staff of the Sub-programme on Food, Nutrition, and Poverty

Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw, Programme Director.
Dr. H.A.B. Parpia, Senior Programme Officer
Ms. Rozanne Chorlton, Assistant Programme Officer
Mrs. Audrey Yuse, Administrative Assistant
Mrs. Elsie Kimi Buma, Secretary
Ms. Noriko Hasegawa, Secretary Ms. Karen Bushold, Administrative Secretary.
Miss Jane Dittrich, Editorial Assistant.



The editors of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin welcome contributions of relevance to its concerns
(see the statement of editorial policy on the inside of the back cover). Submission of an article does not guarantee publication-which depends on the judgement of the editors as to its relevance and quality.

Languages. Contributions may be in English, French, or Spanish. If French or Spanish is used, the author should submit an abstract in English if possible.

Format. Contributions should be typed, double- spaced, preferably on A4 (210 x 297 mm) or American letter-size (81/2 x 11 in.) paper with margins of at least 2.5-3cm (1-11/4 in.) on each side. ( If larger paper must be used, the type area should be kept within the limits for A4 paper.)

Length. Ordinarily contributions should not exceed 4,000 words or an equivalent length in pages including figures, tables, and references.

Tables and figures. Any tables and figures should be on separate sheets of paper. Tables should use horizontal ruled lines only. Figures should be clearly and accurately drawn and clearly labelled.

Photographs. Ideally photographic material should be submitted in the form of black and white negatives or black and white glossy prints. Photographs will not be returned unless a specific request is made.

Units of measurement Preferably measurements should be expressed in metric units. If other units are used, their metric equivalents should be indicated.

References. References should be listed at the end of the article, also double-spaced. A reference to a book or other separately published work should include full indication of the name(s) of the author(s), title of the work, and publisher and place and year of publication. A reference to an article in a book should include the name(s) of the author(s) of the article, title of the article, editor(s) of the book and title of the book, publisher and place and year of publication, and the page numbers of the article. A reference to an article in a journal should include the author(s), title of the article, name of the journal, volume and issue number and date, and page numbers of the article. Unpublished material should not be listed in the references.

Identification. Contributors should give their full name and official affiliation. If the material in the article has been previously presented or is planned to be published elsewhere- in the same or modified form-a note should be included giving the details.

Manuscript copies. The contributor should keep a duplicate copy of the manuscript. Manuscripts which are not accepted for publication will not be returned.

Contributions should be addressed to: The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin The United Nations
University Cambridge Programme Office
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E38-756
Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA


La rédaction du Food and Nutrition Bulletin recherche des articles traitant de sujets correspondant à ses thèmes (voir à l'intérieure de la couverture de dos la politique éditoriale de cette revue), La remise d'un manuscrit ne signifie pas sa publication, qui dépend de l'opinion de la rédaction sur son intérêt et sa qualité.

Langues: Les manuscrits peuvent être rédigés en anglais, en français ou en espagnol, et dans ces deux derniers cas, I'auteur ajoutera, si possible, un résumé en anglais.

Format: Les manuscrits doivent être dactylographiés, en double interligne, de préférence sur du papier de format A4 (210 x 297 mm) avec des marges de 2,5 ou 3 cm de part et d'autre. (Si un papier plus grand doit être utilisé, on limitera la partie dactylographiée au format A4).

Longueur: Les manuscrits ne doivent pas, ordinairement, dépasser 4 000 mots, ou l'équivalent en nombre de pages s'il y a des figures, des tableaux et une bibliographie.

Tableaux et figures: Ils doivent être reportés sur des feuillets séparés. Les tableaux doivent être reproduits avec les partitions horizontales, mais non verticales. Les figures doivent être claires et précises, avec légendes explicites.

Photographies: En principe, les matériaux photographiques doivent être remis sous forme de négatifs noir et blanc ou d'épreuves noir et blanc sur papier brillant. Sauf demande expresse les photographies ne seront pas renvoyées.

Unités de mesure: On utilisera de préférence le système métrique. Si d'autres systèmes sont utilisés, I'équivalent métrique doit être indiqué,

Bibliographie: Elle doit figurer à la fin du manuscrit, en double interligne, La référence à un ouvrage ou à tous travaux déjà publiés doit comprendre une indication complète du nom du ou des auteurs, du titre, de la maison d'édition et de l'année de publication. La référence à une communication figurant dans un ouvrage doit comprendre le nom du ou des auteurs, le titre, le responsable de la publication et le titre de celle-ci, la maison d'édition, I'année de publication et la pagination de la communication. Une référence à un article figurant dans un périodique doit indiquer l'auteur ou les auteurs, le titre de l'article, le nom du périodique, le volume et le numéro, la date et la pagination. Ne renfermez pas les références des manuscrits inédits.

Identification: Les auteurs doivent indiquer leur nom complet et leur fonction officielle. Si l'article a déjà été remis auparavant ou est retenu pour une autre publication-sous la même forme ou sous une forme modifiée-on l'indiquera de façon détaillée.

Copies du manuscrit: L'auteur doit conserver un double. Les manuscrits non publiés ne sont pas renvoyés.

Les auteurs s'adresseront à la rédaction du Food and Nutrition
Bulletin The United Nations University Cambridge Programme
Office Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E38-756
Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA


Los editores del Food and Nutrition Bulletin agradecen el envío de contribuciones pertinentes al tema de la revista (vea la política editorial de esta revista en el interior de la tapa posterior). La presentación de un articulo no es garantía de su publicación, la cual dependerá del criterio de los editores en lo que respecta a su pertinencia y calidad.

Idioma. Las contribuciones podrán remitirse en los idiomas español, francés o inglés. En caso de utilizar español o francés, el autor deberá incluir, de ser posible, un resumen en inglés,

Formato. Las contribuciones deberán presentarse a doble espacio, mecanografiadas, preferiblemente en papeles A4 (210 x 297 mm), o tamaño carta estadounidense (81/2 x 11 pulgadas), con márgenes de por lo menos 2,5-3 cm (1-11/4 pulgadas) de cada lado. (S) se usa papel de mayor tamaño, la zona mecano-grafiada no deberá exceder los limites dei papel A4.)

Longitud. Las contribuciones ordinarias no deberán exceder las 4.000 palabras o su longitud equivalente en páginas, inclusive cuadros, cifras y referencias.

Cuadros y cifras. Todos los cuadros y cifras deberán presentarse en hojas de papel por separado. Los cuadros deberán presentarse en forma clara y precisa y con rotulado legible. Las cifras utilizarán únicamente líneas horizontales.

Fotografías. Preferentemente se utilizará material fotográfico remitido bajo la forma de negativos de color blanco y negro o impresos brillantes en blanco y negro. De no mediar un pedido especial, no se devolverán las fotograías.

Unidades de medida. Las medidas deberán expresarse preferentemente en unidades métricas. De utilizarse otras unidades, deberán indicarse sus equivalentes en el sistema métrico decimal.

Referencias. Al final del articulo deberán consignarse las referencias, también en doble espacio. La referencia a un libro u otra obra publicada por separado deberá incluir indicación completa del nombre o los nombres del autor o los autores, titulo del trabajo, editorial y lugar y fecha de publicación. La referencia a un articulo de un libro deberá comprender el nombre o los nombres del autor o los autores del articulo, el titulo del mismo, editores dei libro y titulo del mismo, editorial, lugar y fecha de publicación, y numeración de las páginas del articulo. La referencia a un articulo de una revista comprenderá nombres del autor o autores, titulo del articulo, nombre de la publicación, volumen y número y fecha, así como la numeración de las páginas del articulo. El material sin publicar no debe incluirse en las referencias.

Identificación. Los autores deberán consignar su nombre completo y la institución en que cumplen funciones. Si el material del articulo ha sido presentado previamente o se prevé su publicación en otra parte, en forma igual o modificada, se deberá agregar una nota con detalles sobre dicha publicación.

Copias manuscritas. El contribuyente deberá conservar una copia o duplicado del manuscrito. No se devolverán los manuscritos que no se acepten para publicación,

Las contribuciones deberán dirigirse a: The Editor Food and Nutrition Bulletin The United Nations University Cambridge Programme Office Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E38-756 Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA


UNU Publications on Food and Nutrition

The Use of Organic Residues in Rural Communities

The first six papers in this report, the second in the applied microbiology series, deal with residues of potential importance as animal feeds, and a further six discuss the application of fermentation technology to carbohydrate substrates for the production of materials suitable for human consumption. Alternative biological energy sources are considered, as is biotechnology for rural communities. Separate discussions on biogas, cellulosic wastes, and carbohydrate and other residues are also included.

IPWN-2/UNUP-362 ISBN 92-808-0362-X 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound, in press

Protein-Energy Requirements of Developing Countries: Evaluation of New Data

A report of a joint UNU-International Union of Nutritional Sciences working group describing and evaluating data obtained from research to determine the amounts of protein in usual diets required for nitrogen balance and, in the case of children, for growth as well. The discussions and presentations of data from nineteen countries are accompanied by a comparative tabulation and analysis of the nitrogen-balance data reported; and the working group's recommendations for the additional research most urgently required for an in-depth review of international recommendations for protein-energy requirements are outlined.

WHTR-4/UNUP-295 ISBN 92-8084295-X 268 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound

Interdisciplinary Dialogue on World Hunger

In order to define an acceptable set of goals, processes, and indicators for food and nutrition policy and to forge practicable recommendations for research and training, the UNU World Hunger Programme met with the Human and Social Development Programme in a workshop in March 1979. This report describes an attempt to apply the approaches of one group to the research and training programmes of another through substantive interdisciplinary dialogue.

IPDHW-1 /UNUP-229 ISBN 92-8084229-1 67 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound

Nutritional Evaluation of Protein Foods

A report of a joint UNU-lnternational Union of Nutrition Sciences working group presenting a revision of the methods for the comprehensive assessment of the nutritive value of food and feed protein sources. It begins with the determination of nitrogen content, the identification of the principal nitrogenous constituents of the food, and the assessment of nutritional values, including digestibility, by means of in vitro and in vivo assays. The methods and procedures as well as their significance and limitations are considered.

WHTR-3/UNUP-129 ISBN 92-808-0129-5 154 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound

Food Price Policies and Nutrition in Latin America

A workshop report analysing the effects of governmental food price policies on the nutritional status of the populations of Latin America and the Caribbean. It points out areas that need further research and suggests methods for conducting it that can be adopted by third-world governments, It also seeks to increase the awareness of industrialized countries of the impact of their international trade policies on the citizens of developing countries.

WHTR-2/UNUP-128 ISBN 92-8084128-7 170 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound

Bioconversion of Organic Residues for Rural Communities

A compilation of papers from a workshop on the development of techniques for the production of biomass from organic residues-focusing on the potential of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and algae to upgrade organic wastes into valuable feed products through simple fermentation processes. Especially for developing countries with predominantly rural populations it is imperative that such low-cost bioconversion techniques be fully encouraged for improvement of the socio-economic, nutritional, and health conditions of rural areas.

IPWN-1/UNUP-43 ISBN 92-80840434 176 pages, 21.4 x 28 cm, paper-bound

Protein-Energy Requirements under Conditions Prevailing in Developing Countries: Current Knowledge and Research Needs

A report on the current state of knowledge regarding protein and energy requirements and appropriate dietary allowances for people living under the conditions prevailing in developing countries and consuming local diets. It brings together much previously unevaluated original data-and points up the failure of present international recommendations to take sufficiently into account the protein energy needs for recovery and catch-up growth following frequent acute and chronic infections and differences in the digestibility and protein quality of local diets, A principal function of the report is to provide suggestions for further needed research.

WHTR-1 /UNUP-18 ISBN 92-8084018-3 73 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound

(See next page for information on ordering publications.)


How to Order Publications

UNU publications may be ordered from the national distributors listed below. Since some of the titles may not be in stock, the distributor will obtain these for you as soon as possible. The distributor will also be glad to put you on e mailing list to receive information about new and forthcoming UNU publications.

In countries not covered by any distributor, orders accompanied by a cheque or money order in either dollars or yen payable to the United Nations University and specifying the UNUP number and the full title may be sent to: Publications Section, Academic Services, The United Nations University, Toho Seimei Building,15-1, Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150 Japan.

UNU publications may also be ordered from the United Nations Bookstore, Distribution and Sales Section, Palais des Nations, CH-1211, Geneva 10, Switzerland. Or in Europe, Africa, and the Americas they may be ordered from UNIPUB, at the address given below.

Microform Publishing: All UNU publications, as well as selected unpublished UNU fellows' papers, can be obtained on microfiche.
On-Demand Publishing: Out of-stock publications can be obtained either on microfiche or in Xerox copies.

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2. The University shall devote its work to research into the pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare that are the concern of the United Nations and its agencies, with due attention to the social sciences and the humanities as well as natural sciences, pure and applied.

3. The research programmes of the institutions of the University shall include, among other subjects, coexistence between peoples having different cultures, languages and social systems; peaceful relations between States and the maintenance of peace and security; human rights, economic and social change and development; the environment and the proper use of resources; basic scientific research and the application of the results of science and technology in the interests of development; and universal human values related to the improvement of the quality of life.

4. The University shall disseminate the knowledge gained in its activities to the United Nations and its agencies, to scholars and to the public, in order to increase dynamic interaction in the world-wide community of learning and research.

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7. In its post-graduate training the University shall assist scholars, especially young scholars, to participate in research in order to increase their capability to contribute to the extension, application and diffusion of knowledge. The University may also undertake the training of persons who will serve in international or national technical assistance programmes, particularly in regard to an interdisciplinary approach to the problems with which they will be called upon to deal.


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1. The University shall enjoy autonomy within the framework of the United Nations. It shall also enjoy the academic freedom required for the achievement of its objectives, with particular reference to the choice of subjects and methods of research and training, the selection of persons and institutions to share in its tasks, and freedom of expression. The University shall decide freely on the use of the financial resources allocated for the execution of its functions....