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close this bookTechnological Independence The Asian experience (UNU, 1994, 372 pages)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentNote to the reader from the UNU
close this folderIntroduction
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe region and the global historical setting
View the documentPost-second world war geopolitics
View the documentNew technologies
View the documentThe study
View the documentNotes
close this folder1. India
View the documentBackground
View the documentDevelopment perspectives in the indian economy
View the documentTechnology policy
View the documentR&D and self-reliance
View the documentIndia's technological capability: an international comparison
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentFactors in technological development
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentNotes
close this folder2. China
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentHistorical perspective
View the documentNational factor endowments
View the documentCase-studies in the different economic sectors
View the documentExogenous sources for technological progress and self-reliance
View the documentA desirable path and a strategy for S&T development
close this folder3. The Republic of Korea
View the documentPreamble
View the documentHistory
View the documentDevelopment policies and strategies from the 1960s to the 1980s
View the documentThe plans
View the documentImpact on the agricultural and industrial sectors
View the documentScience and technology in korea before the 1960s
View the documentThe role of science and technology in recent development
View the documentScience and technology and the exogenous environment
View the documentEducation and training
View the documentResearch and development
View the documentReassessment of the policy and strategy
View the documentAchievements in industrial development
View the documentThe electronics industry as a case-study
View the documentSelf-reliance targets at each stage
View the documentProblems and issues
View the documentFuture plan for self-reliance of science and technology
View the documentThe long-term goals and strategy of national development
View the documentRole of science and technology for future development
View the documentLong-term goal of S&T development
View the documentSumming-up and regional cooperation
View the documentRegional cooperation
View the documentBibliography
close this folder4. Thailand
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentTraditional path of development
View the documentDevelopment of the country in the national plans (1961-1986)
View the documentAn evaluation of thailand's present S&T situation: a macro-level study
View the documentCase-studies in agriculture
View the documentA desirable path
View the documentBibliography
close this folder5 The Philippines
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe historical roots of technological dependence
View the documentS&T policy: rhetoric and reality
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentCase-study results
View the documentTechnological dependence: nature and consequences
View the documentS&T in the Philippines: inputs and outputs
View the documentThe vicious circle paradigm
View the documentThe anatomy of technology transfer
View the documentThe search for models: learning from Asia
View the documentVision and commitment
View the documentToward a leap-frogging strategy
View the documentNotes
View the documentBibliography
View the documentAppendix 1
View the documentAppendix 2. major achievements of S&T in the Philippines
close this folder6. Japan
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentFive stages from ''technology transfer'' to ''self-reliance''
View the documentThree stages to technological self-reliance
View the documentDegree of self-reliance of technology
View the documentLow estimation of imported technology
View the documentHistorical perspectives on self-reliance
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentJapan's experience and Asian perspectives
View the documentJapanese multinational enterprises and their role in technological self-reliance in Asia
View the documentPerformance of Japanese affiliates in Asia
View the documentTechnological self-reliance in Asia: in search of a new international technology order
View the documentNotes
close this folder7. The lessons from Asia: From past experience to the future
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentChina
View the documentIndia
View the documentRepublic of Korea
View the documentThailand
View the documentPhilippines
View the documentJapan
View the documentThe geopolitical environment and the local socio-economic situation
View the documentFormal S&T structure and industry
View the documentThe rural-urban relationship
View the documentInformal and formal sectors
View the documentNew generic technologies
View the documentSocial shaping of technology
View the documentConscious shaping of the technology
View the documentExisting agendas for shaping technology
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentNotes
View the documentContributors
View the documentOther titles of interest


If China, India, and Japan had explicit debates on science and technology, as well as on the relationships to the external world which were translated in varying degrees to action, the Philippines case showed a lack of both significant debate and significant industrialization.

The Philippines report takes into account the external environment as well as the historical sequence of technologies. Self-reliance at the macro level for the Philippines is defined as the replicative capacity of "second-wave" technologies. The latter correspond to the technologies that were developed from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution up to the Second World War. Third-wave technologies comprise those that have been developed subsequently, such as information technology and biotechnology.

The report emphasizes that there was a large gap between the rhetoric of policy makers and the Philippines reality. A viable S&T policy was not a major concern of policy makers, and no serious attempt was made to introduce industrial technology. Moreover, a scientific community in the modern sense did not come into being as a functioning entity.

Cultural imperialism strongly influenced the nascent Philippines scientific community, the latter often looking over their shoulders at their mentors abroad. Furthermore, the interests of scientists were primarily in agriculture and medicine, whilst industrial research and basic research in the physical sciences were downplayed. The scientist as technician and taxonomist, rather than as discoverer, is an image that has persisted to the present.

The three major policy episodes in science and technology from the 1960s to the present had a tangible result only in education. The announced policy thrusts during these periods varied from import substitution in the 1960s, to the mission-oriented policies of the 1970s, and to the "demand-pull" strategy of the 1980s, which was accompanied by a Science and Technology Plan. Although some of these different attempts had some success, there was no significant departure from the basic framework of a dependent S&T system.

Thus, although the manufacturing sector in the Philippines grew in the initial period, it was built up on indiscriminate import substitution. The latter did not help to build organic linkages between industry and the rest of the economy. Furthermore, the proportion of scientists and engineers increased only marginally. Funding for R&D as a percentage of GNP also remained roughly stagnant.

The study attributes the weakness of the Philippines S&T capacity basically to an inability to break the colonial mould. Either the rules and regulations to filter the inflow of technology had loopholes, or the local bodies expected to do the screening did not have sufficient expertise. The Philippines is thus in contrast to China, India, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, where there was a national will to make a breakthrough in a technology-dependent world.