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close this bookTechnological Independence The Asian experience (UNU, 1994, 372 pages)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentNote to the reader from the UNU
close this folderIntroduction
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe region and the global historical setting
View the documentPost-second world war geopolitics
View the documentNew technologies
View the documentThe study
View the documentNotes
close this folder1. India
View the documentBackground
View the documentDevelopment perspectives in the indian economy
View the documentTechnology policy
View the documentR&D and self-reliance
View the documentIndia's technological capability: an international comparison
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentFactors in technological development
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentNotes
close this folder2. China
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentHistorical perspective
View the documentNational factor endowments
View the documentCase-studies in the different economic sectors
View the documentExogenous sources for technological progress and self-reliance
View the documentA desirable path and a strategy for S&T development
close this folder3. The Republic of Korea
View the documentPreamble
View the documentHistory
View the documentDevelopment policies and strategies from the 1960s to the 1980s
View the documentThe plans
View the documentImpact on the agricultural and industrial sectors
View the documentScience and technology in korea before the 1960s
View the documentThe role of science and technology in recent development
View the documentScience and technology and the exogenous environment
View the documentEducation and training
View the documentResearch and development
View the documentReassessment of the policy and strategy
View the documentAchievements in industrial development
View the documentThe electronics industry as a case-study
View the documentSelf-reliance targets at each stage
View the documentProblems and issues
View the documentFuture plan for self-reliance of science and technology
View the documentThe long-term goals and strategy of national development
View the documentRole of science and technology for future development
View the documentLong-term goal of S&T development
View the documentSumming-up and regional cooperation
View the documentRegional cooperation
View the documentBibliography
close this folder4. Thailand
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentTraditional path of development
View the documentDevelopment of the country in the national plans (1961-1986)
View the documentAn evaluation of thailand's present S&T situation: a macro-level study
View the documentCase-studies in agriculture
View the documentA desirable path
View the documentBibliography
close this folder5 The Philippines
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe historical roots of technological dependence
View the documentS&T policy: rhetoric and reality
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentCase-study results
View the documentTechnological dependence: nature and consequences
View the documentS&T in the Philippines: inputs and outputs
View the documentThe vicious circle paradigm
View the documentThe anatomy of technology transfer
View the documentThe search for models: learning from Asia
View the documentVision and commitment
View the documentToward a leap-frogging strategy
View the documentNotes
View the documentBibliography
View the documentAppendix 1
View the documentAppendix 2. major achievements of S&T in the Philippines
close this folder6. Japan
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentFive stages from ''technology transfer'' to ''self-reliance''
View the documentThree stages to technological self-reliance
View the documentDegree of self-reliance of technology
View the documentLow estimation of imported technology
View the documentHistorical perspectives on self-reliance
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentJapan's experience and Asian perspectives
View the documentJapanese multinational enterprises and their role in technological self-reliance in Asia
View the documentPerformance of Japanese affiliates in Asia
View the documentTechnological self-reliance in Asia: in search of a new international technology order
View the documentNotes
close this folder7. The lessons from Asia: From past experience to the future
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentChina
View the documentIndia
View the documentRepublic of Korea
View the documentThailand
View the documentPhilippines
View the documentJapan
View the documentThe geopolitical environment and the local socio-economic situation
View the documentFormal S&T structure and industry
View the documentThe rural-urban relationship
View the documentInformal and formal sectors
View the documentNew generic technologies
View the documentSocial shaping of technology
View the documentConscious shaping of the technology
View the documentExisting agendas for shaping technology
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentNotes
View the documentContributors
View the documentOther titles of interest


Korea's written history, stretching back over 4,000 years, has been influenced by Buddhism and Confucianism. Its "closed door" policy towards the Western world was abandoned in 1867 under pressure from Japan and other countries. Korea was now obliged to allow access to Western trade and technology. Further, starting in 1910, Korea was occupied by Japan for 35 years.

Japanese rule significantly influenced Korea She suffered the consequential misfortunes of economic dependence and cultural repression, although the customs and structure of society were not deeply affected. Japanese influence was most evident in the administrative and legal fields. During this period, a substantial inflow of Japanese capital and administrators changed Korea's economic structure, particularly through the introduction of new agricultural practices and the development of a fairly significant industrial base. However, the potential impact of the Japanese was limited by the restrictions placed on Korean participation in economic and political planning and management.

Korea regained her independence in 1945, but was partitioned into two states along the 38th Parallel. This had far-reaching consequences. The division destroyed an interdependent economy, giving the South less than half the land, about three-fifths of the population, most of the agriculture, and very little of the industrial capacity of undivided Korea.

With the establishment of the Republic of Korea in 1948 in the South, some economic progress was made in the first two years of the new republic. The most significant development was the land reform programme, which redistributed about three-fourths of the cultivatable land and benefited over half the rural households.

Soon afterwards, the Korean War (1950-1953) devastated almost the entire country: large sections of the economy were destroyed and a quarter of the population became refugees. War deaths alone were estimated at over 3 million for both sides.

With financial assistance, largely from the US and the UN, the process of reconstruction of the ruined economy was undertaken after the war, and the foundations of the industrial sector were laid. During the next few decades, the economy notched a respectable rate of growth, mainly by the expansion of industry.