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close this bookTechnological Independence The Asian experience (UNU, 1994, 372 pages)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentNote to the reader from the UNU
close this folderIntroduction
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe region and the global historical setting
View the documentPost-second world war geopolitics
View the documentNew technologies
View the documentThe study
View the documentNotes
close this folder1. India
View the documentBackground
View the documentDevelopment perspectives in the indian economy
View the documentTechnology policy
View the documentR&D and self-reliance
View the documentIndia's technological capability: an international comparison
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentFactors in technological development
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentNotes
close this folder2. China
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentHistorical perspective
View the documentNational factor endowments
View the documentCase-studies in the different economic sectors
View the documentExogenous sources for technological progress and self-reliance
View the documentA desirable path and a strategy for S&T development
close this folder3. The Republic of Korea
View the documentPreamble
View the documentHistory
View the documentDevelopment policies and strategies from the 1960s to the 1980s
View the documentThe plans
View the documentImpact on the agricultural and industrial sectors
View the documentScience and technology in korea before the 1960s
View the documentThe role of science and technology in recent development
View the documentScience and technology and the exogenous environment
View the documentEducation and training
View the documentResearch and development
View the documentReassessment of the policy and strategy
View the documentAchievements in industrial development
View the documentThe electronics industry as a case-study
View the documentSelf-reliance targets at each stage
View the documentProblems and issues
View the documentFuture plan for self-reliance of science and technology
View the documentThe long-term goals and strategy of national development
View the documentRole of science and technology for future development
View the documentLong-term goal of S&T development
View the documentSumming-up and regional cooperation
View the documentRegional cooperation
View the documentBibliography
close this folder4. Thailand
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentTraditional path of development
View the documentDevelopment of the country in the national plans (1961-1986)
View the documentAn evaluation of thailand's present S&T situation: a macro-level study
View the documentCase-studies in agriculture
View the documentA desirable path
View the documentBibliography
close this folder5 The Philippines
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe historical roots of technological dependence
View the documentS&T policy: rhetoric and reality
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentCase-study results
View the documentTechnological dependence: nature and consequences
View the documentS&T in the Philippines: inputs and outputs
View the documentThe vicious circle paradigm
View the documentThe anatomy of technology transfer
View the documentThe search for models: learning from Asia
View the documentVision and commitment
View the documentToward a leap-frogging strategy
View the documentNotes
View the documentBibliography
View the documentAppendix 1
View the documentAppendix 2. major achievements of S&T in the Philippines
close this folder6. Japan
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentFive stages from ''technology transfer'' to ''self-reliance''
View the documentThree stages to technological self-reliance
View the documentDegree of self-reliance of technology
View the documentLow estimation of imported technology
View the documentHistorical perspectives on self-reliance
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentJapan's experience and Asian perspectives
View the documentJapanese multinational enterprises and their role in technological self-reliance in Asia
View the documentPerformance of Japanese affiliates in Asia
View the documentTechnological self-reliance in Asia: in search of a new international technology order
View the documentNotes
close this folder7. The lessons from Asia: From past experience to the future
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentChina
View the documentIndia
View the documentRepublic of Korea
View the documentThailand
View the documentPhilippines
View the documentJapan
View the documentThe geopolitical environment and the local socio-economic situation
View the documentFormal S&T structure and industry
View the documentThe rural-urban relationship
View the documentInformal and formal sectors
View the documentNew generic technologies
View the documentSocial shaping of technology
View the documentConscious shaping of the technology
View the documentExisting agendas for shaping technology
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentNotes
View the documentContributors
View the documentOther titles of interest

Science and technology in korea before the 1960s

The introduction of Western culture and technology to Korea began around 1880. Until 1910, the introduction of modern technology was dominated by Japan and the Western powers. Some technologies in small arms, explosives, agriculture, paper, mining, printing, leather goods, communications, and railroads were introduced from Japan, the US, Germany, and Russia. Electricity was introduced from the US in 1898. The first scientific institution was the Industrial Research Institute, founded in 1883.

Under their rule, the Japanese introduced, between 1910 and 1945, Western technology on a large scale. During this period hydroelectric power, fertilizers, cement, textiles, and steel industries developed, along with a general consumer goods industry. But the development of industry was determined by the Japanese strategy for controlling the Far East and preparing for the Second World War, with a main emphasis on mining and transportation.

The production of crude and semi-processed agricultural and mineral products was intended for export to Japan and its other colonies. Manufacturing during the colonial period also had a heavy Japanese imprint with regard to the capital equipment, entrepreneurs, engineers, and technicians involved, and even the labour, particularly skilled labour.

Steady progress was made during this time in the education system. The first modern university was established under Japanese rule in 1924, while the first college of engineering was set up in 1938. How ever, a strict ratio between Korean and Japanese students severely restricted Korean participation. By 1945, only 800 Koreans had graduated, of which 300 were from the Medical School and about 40 from the School of Science and Engineering. After independence, education, including technical and higher education, was sharply accelerated. During this colonial period, Koreans acquired mostly on-the-job knowledge of the operation of modern industries.

Industrial development during the Japanese period, it should be noted, was concentrated in the North. So, when Korea was divided into North and South after the Second World War, there was almost no heavy industry in South Korea.

After the end of Japanese colonialism, the relationship with the United States served to augment Korean resources, both directly and indirectly, especially in the formation of human capital. American aid directly contributed to the rapid expansion of education, which by 1960 led to universal primary education and nearly universal adult literacy, while contributing to increasingly higher enrolment rates at all grade levels above the primary. Aid also financed the overseas education and training of thousands of Koreans.

An indirect contribution, because of universal military service, was made by American military advisers. The Korean military learnt modern concepts and techniques of management and organization. For the labour force, military service was an important source of skill formation, similar to training in modern industry. An important channel of industrial technology was technical advisers.