|Energy and Protein requirements, Proceedings of an IDECG workshop, November 1994, London, UK, Supplement of the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (International Dietary Energy Consultative Group - IDECG, 1994, 198 pages)|
|Energy requirements: general principles|
|Energy expenditure as the basis for estimating energy requirements|
|Importance of body composition|
|Points of uncertainty requiring further research|
|Summary of research needs|
|Energy requirements of adults: an update on basal metabolic rates (BMRs) and physical activity levels (PALs)|
|Variability in adult BMRs|
|Predictive equations to estimate bmrs of adults|
|Ethnic differences in BMR|
|Effects of migration from tropical to temperate climate on BMR|
|Adaptation and energy requirements|
|Total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) in adults: doubly-labelled water data|
|Energy requirements of infants|
|Energy requirements of infants based on energy intake|
|Compilation of energy intakes published before and after 1980|
|Total energy expenditure of infants|
|Energy requirement for growth|
|Energy requirements of infants predicted from total energy expenditure and growth|
|Energy requirements and dietary energy recommendations for children and adolescents 1 to 18 years old|
|Total daily energy expenditure (TEE)|
|Estimates of basal metabolic rate to calculate total energy expenditure|
|Time allocation to different activities|
|Physical activity levels of children and adolescents|
|Dietary energy intake|
|General conclusions and recommendations|
|Energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women|
|Recommendations for pregnancy|
|Recommendations for lactation|
|Energy requirements of older individuals|
|Methodology for determination of total energy expenditure|
|Total energy expenditure of older individuals|
|Relationship between total energy expenditure and physical activity|
|Effects of energy balance on nitrogen balance|
|Summary of energy requirements in older individuals and recommendations for future research|
|Protein requirements of infants and children|
|2. Protein requirements of infants|
|3. Protein requirements of children and adolescents|
|4. Protein needs during catch-up growth|
|5. protein needs associated with infection|
|6. Assessment of protein quality of weaning diets|
|7. Future research needs|
|The requirements of adult man for indispensable amino acids|
|2. The problem in defining requirements|
|3. Protein quality|
|4. The maintenance requirement (MR)|
|5.Diurnal cycling: the Millward-Rivers model|
|6. Theoretical basis of the MIT tracer balance studies|
|7. Technical problems of tracer balance studies|
|8. Results of the MIT tracer balance studies|
|9. Relation between leucine oxidation and nitrogen excretion|
|10. Factors relating to the design of tracer balance experiments|
|11. Breakpoint analysis|
|12. Effect of protein/amino acid intake on protein synthesis and breakdown|
|13. The colon: losses or gains?|
|Protein requirements of elderly people|
|Introduction: current dietary protein requirement recommendations|
|Protein requirement studies in elderly people: previously reviewed data|
|Protein requirement studies in elderly people: reassessment of previously reviewed data|
|Report of the working group on general principles of assessing energy requirements|
|Report of the working group on energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents|
|Children and adolescents|
|Report of the working group on energy requirements for pregnancy and lactation|
|Report of the working group on energy requirements of older individuals|
|Recommendations on requirements|
|Recommendations for future research|
|Report of the working group on protein and amino acid requirements|
|Infection and catch-up growth|
|Children and adolescents|
|Research needs: Infants and children|
|Research needs: adults|
|Appendix Criteria for valid nitrogen balance measurement of protein requirements|
|Analysis of multilevel short-term balance studies|
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