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close this bookProtein-Energy Interactions (International Dietary Energy Consultative Group - IDECG, 1991, 437 pages)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderSome basic aspects of protein-energy interrelationships
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View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Energy dependency of protein and amino acid metabolism
View the document2.1. Qualitative aspects
View the document2.2. Quantitative aspects
View the document2.3. Correlations between energy and protein metabolism
View the document3. Summary and conclusions
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close this folderAmino acid oxidation and food intake
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View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Nitrogen balance and amino acid oxidation
View the document3. Amino acid oxidation during periods of positive or negative energy balance
View the document4. Interactions between energy and protein metabolism
View the document5. Amino acid degradation and gluconeogenesis
View the document6. Summary
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close this folderThe metabolic basis of amino acid requirements
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction: The nature of the problem
View the document2. Nutrient requirement models
View the document3. The Millward & Rivers requirement model: Qualitative aspects
close this folder4. The variable extrinsic component of the maintenance requirement
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View the document4.1. Indispensable amino acids as toxic metabolites
View the document4.2. Diurnal cycling
View the document5. The anabolic drive
View the document6. Hormonal components of the anabolic drive
View the document7. Protein requirements: Formal statement
close this folder8. The issue of protein quality
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View the document8.1. Accretion: Both net and transient
View the document8.2. Minimum obligatory needs: Theoretical predictions
View the document9. Stable isotope studies
View the document10. Practical experience of biological values of dietary protein
View the document11. Urea salvage
View the document12. Indispensable amino acid requirements for the anabolic drive
View the document13. Conclusions
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close this folderCommentary on paper by D.J. Millward
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close this folderCritique of protein-energy interactions in vivo: Urea kinetics
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. General considerations
View the document2.1. Functional metabolic demand
View the document2.2. Carbon flux and nitrogen flux
View the document2.3. Functional metabolic mass of protein
View the document2.4. Specific limiting nutrients
View the document2.5. Limitations imposed by protein quality
View the document2.6. Amino acids: Essential, non-essential and conditionally essential
close this folder3. The Millward model
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View the document3.1. Present perception of nitrogen disposal
View the document3.2. Urea production
View the document3.3. Urea excretion
View the document3.4. Salvaged urea nitrogen
View the document3.5. The 'effective dietary intake' of nitrogen
View the document3.6. Limits of adaptation to low-protein diets
View the document3.7. Implications of salvaged urea nitrogen
View the document4. Conclusions
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close this folderThe effects of different levels of energy intake on protein metabolism and of different levels of protein intake on energy metabolism: A statistical evaluation from the published literature
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. The effects of different levels of energy intake on protein metabolism
View the document2.1. Adults
View the document2.2. Children
View the document3. The effects of different levels of protein intake on energy metabolism
View the document4. Protein/energy ratios
View the document5. Summary and conclusions
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close this folderEffect of different levels of carbohydrate, fat and protein intake on protein metabolism and thermogenesis
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Influence of nutrient intake on nutrient oxidation
close this folder3. Effect of energy intake on nitrogen retention
View the document3.1. Fasting and very low caloric intake
View the document3.2. Moderately hypocaloric diets
View the document3.3. Maintenance diets
View the document3.4. Energy intake in excess of maintenance
close this folder4. Effect of protein intake on nitrogen retention
View the document4.1. Normal and obese subjects
View the document4.2. Severely depleted subjects
View the document4.3. Moderately depleted subjects
close this folder5. The role of glucose and lipid in nitrogen sparing
View the document5.1. Healthy young subjects
View the document5.2. Patients receiving total parenteral nutrition
close this folder6. Mechanisms of the sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate and fat
View the document6.1. Effect of dietary glucose on leucine oxidation
View the document7. Effect of amino acid plasma levels on protein synthesis
View the document8. Practical considerations: Role of the thermic effect of nutrients
View the document9. Conclusions
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close this folderRespiratory quotients and substrate oxidation rates in the fasted and fed state in chronic energy deficiency
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View the document1. Respiratory quotients in semi-starvation
View the document2. Respiratory quotients in experimental semi-starvation
View the document3. Respiratory quotients and substrate oxidation rates in chronically energy deficient subjects
View the document4. Substrate oxidation rates during dietary thermogenesis in chronic energy deficiency
View the document5. Effects of refeeding or supplementation on respiratory quotients and substrate oxidation rates of CED subjects
View the documentAcknowledgements
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close this folderEffects of protein-energy interactions on growth
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Mechanisms for effects of protein and energy on growth
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View the document2.1. Insulin and insulin-like growth factors
View the document2.2. Growth hormone
View the document2.3. Epidermal growth factor
View the document2.4. Corticosteroids
View the document3. The determinants of catch-up growth
View the document4. Effect of the protein/energy ratio on growth of premature infants
View the document5. Effect of protein and energy on growth of children with primary malnutrition
View the document6. Effect of the P/E ratio on growth of children with malnutrition secondary to chronic renal insufficiency
View the document7. Conclusions and speculations
View the documentAcknowledgements
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close this folderProtein-energy interrelationships during rapid growth
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View the document1. Efficiency of protein deposition
View the document2. Protein turnover during rapid growth
View the document3. Energy cost of protein synthesis
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close this folderQuantitative relationships between protein and energy metabolism: Influence of body composition
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Theoretical basis
View the document3. Constancy of tissue mobilisation
View the document4. Tissue mobilisation in the obese
View the document5. Allometric analysis
View the document6. Conclusions
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close this folderProtein-energy relationships in pregnancy and lactation
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Influence of gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes
close this folder2. Protein needs during pregnancy
View the document2.1. Influence of gestational weight gain on protein needs
View the document2.2. Efficiency of protein utilization during pregnancy
View the document2.3. Influence of dietary energy on protein utilization
View the document2.4. Summary of protein requirements during pregnancy
close this folder3. Energy requirements during pregnancy
View the document3.1. Influence of gestational weight gains on energy needs
View the document3.2. Physical activity and pregnancy
View the document3.3. Summary of energy requirements during pregnancy
close this folder4. Protein needs during lactation
View the document4.1. Estimation of protein needs
View the document4.2. Influence of protein intake on milk composition
View the document4.3. Studies of whole-body protein turnover
View the document4.4. Effects of protein intake on milk production
View the document4.5. Summary of protein needs during lactation
close this folder5. Energy needs during lactation
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View the document5.1. Summary of energy needs for lactation
View the document6. Conclusions
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close this folderEffects of physical activity on protein-energy interactions: Metabolic and nutritional considerations
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Energy metabolism in exercise
View the document2. Are protein requirements affected by exercise when energy requirements are met?
View the document3. Muscle protein breakdown and amino acid oxidation
View the document4. Substrate metabolism in exercise
View the document5. Effect of exercise on protein synthesis
View the document6. Summary and dietary recommendations
View the documentAcknowledgements
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close this folderInfluence of physical activity on energy and protein metabolism
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View the document1. Exercise and efficiency of dietary energy and protein utilization
View the document2. Effects of reduced physical activity on energy and protein metabolism
View the document3. Energy substrates and changes in exercise pattern
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close this folderExercise, aging and protein metabolism
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View the document1. Body composition changes with age and their consequences
View the document2. Fuels used to meet various components of energy requirements
View the document3. Age and dietary protein needs
View the document4. Exercise-induced muscle damage and acute phase response
View the document5. Exercise and protein metabolism
View the document6. Summary
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close this folderEffect of starvation and very low calorie diets on protein-energy interrelationships in lean and obese subjects
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Early total starvation
View the document2.1. Energy metabolism
View the document2.2. Protein metabolism
View the document2.3. Protein/energy ratios
close this folder3. Prolonged total starvation
View the document3.1. Body fat
View the document3.2. Implications of initial body weight and fat stores on protein-energy interrelationships
View the document3.3. Evidence for the first postulate of the model: Survival time in relation to body composition
View the document3.4. Evidence for second postulate of the model: During prolonged starvation the contribution of protein oxidation to energy expenditure is less in obese than lean subjects
View the document3.5. Starvation in man and other species
View the document4.1. Duration of dieting
View the document4.2. Protein and energy intake
View the document4.3. Body composition
View the document4.4. Exercise
View the document5. Some other issues, conclusions and recommendations
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close this folderImpact of gastrointestinal function on protein-energy interactions and nutritional needs
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Gastrointestinal function in protein-energy malnutrition
View the document2. Diarrheal diseases
View the document3. Nutritional recommendations
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close this folderRole of the gastrointestinal tract in energy and protein metabolism
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View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Cell and protein turnover
View the document3. Nutrient absorption
View the document4. Protein synthesis
View the document5. Restriction of energy and protein intake
View the document6. Fat absorption and exocytosis
View the document7. Chronic environmental enteropathy
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close this folderEffect of protein-energy interaction with reference to immune function and response to disease
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Outlining the issues
View the document3. Host metabolism and host defense
View the document4. The metabolic profile of the infected host
View the document5. The role of cytokines
View the document6. Cytokine regulation: Natural antagonists and biological modulators
View the document7. The future
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close this folderNutrition of immune cells: The implications for whole body metabolism
View the document(introductory text...)
close this folder1. Introduction
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View the document1.1. Lymphocytes
View the document1.2. Macrophages
close this folder2. An introduction to metabolic-control logic and its application to the structure of a biochemical pathway
View the document2.1. Near-equilibrium and non-equilibrium reactions
View the document2.2. The flux-generating reaction
View the document3. Use of maximum activities of enzymes as quantitative indices of maximum flux through metabolic pathways
View the document4. Enzyme activities as indication of the capacity of major energy providing pathways in immune cells
View the document5. Glutamine and the immune cells
close this folder6. Glutamine - A link between muscle and the immune system
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View the document6.1. Glutamine synthesis in skeletal muscle
View the document6.2. The transport of glutamine across the muscle membrane: Glutamine uptake and release
View the document7. Large decreases in the concentration of glutamine in plasma
View the document8. The clinical significance of the role of glutamine in immune cells
View the document9. The effects of glutamine provision for the patient
View the document10. Branched-point sensitivity, substrate cycles and thermogenesis
View the documentReferences
close this folderMetabolic and nutritional interrelationships between energy and protein in sepsis, trauma and depletion
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. History 1900-1960
View the document3. Indirect calorimetry and N balance in surgical patients
close this folder4. Nitrogen balance: The role of energy balance and N intake
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View the document4.1. Normal subjects
View the document4.2. Depleted patients
View the document4.3. Injured patients
View the document5. Summary
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close this folderProtein and energy requirements following burn injury
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Resting energy expenditure
View the document2.1. Mechanism of hypermetabolism
View the document2.2. Prediction of resting energy expenditure in burned patients
View the document3. Relationship of total energy expenditure (TEE) to REE
View the document4. Sources of energy
View the document5. Protein requirements
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
close this folderProtein-energy relationships: Experience with parenteral nutrition
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View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Metabolic response to starvation
View the document3. Metabolic response to stress
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close this folderModifications of parenteral nutrition support for critical surgical illness
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close this folderDietary protein/energy ratios for various ages and physiological states
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View the document1. Definition, interpretation and uses
View the document2. Calculation of recommended P/E ratios
View the document3. Recommended P/E ratios
View the document4. Food sources of energy and proteins
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close this folderEffects of disease on desirable protein/energy ratios
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close this folder1. Effects of infections on nutritional status
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View the document1.1. Anorexia
View the document1.2. Cultural and therapeutic practices
View the document1.3. Malabsorption
View the document1.4. Catabolic losses
View the document1.5. Anabolic losses
View the document1.6. Fever
View the document1.7. Additional intestinal losses
View the document2. Environmental ('tropical') enteritis
View the document3. Other chronic infections
View the document4. Energy vs protein requirements
close this folder5. Possible role of specific amino acids
View the document5.1. Branched-chain amino acids
View the document5.2. Glutamine
View the document5.3. Cancer
View the document6. Summary
View the document7. Recommendations
View the documentReferences
close this folderAmino acid scoring in health and disease
View the document(introductory text...)
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Amino acid scoring in health
View the document2.1. Protein quality evaluation: The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method
View the document2.2. Protein digestibility
View the document2.3. Amino acid scoring patterns
close this folder3. Amino acid scoring in special cases and disease
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View the document3.1. Amino acid essentiality
View the document3.2. Glycine
View the document3.3. Glutamine
View the document3.4. Arginine
View the document3.5. Cysteine/taurine
View the document3.6. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)
View the documentReferences
close this folderResearch needs
View the document(introductory text...)
close this folder1. Energy expenditure and metabolism
View the document1.1. Energy expenditure of free-living populations
View the document1.2. More measurements of activity patterns in free-living populations
View the document1.3. Effects of carbohydrates in the diet on fat deposition
close this folder2. Protein metabolism and requirements
View the document2.1. Amino acid oxidation
View the document2.2. Amino acid requirements
View the document2.3. Protein requirements during pregnancy and lactation
View the document2.4. Control of urea recycling from the gut
View the document2.5. Limits to the de novo synthesis of 'conditionally essential' amino acids
View the document2.6. Special roles of particular amino acids
close this folder3. Body composition
View the document3.1. Methods of measurement
View the document3.2. Composition of lean body mass
View the document3.3. Composition of weight gain during pregnancy
close this folder4. Weight gain in children
View the document4.1. Variability of weight gain and its effect on protein requirements
View the document4.2. Factors limiting protein deposition
View the document4.3. Effects of frequent versus intermittent feeding on growth
View the document4.4. Quantitative and qualitative requirements for catch-up growth
close this folder5. Linear growth
View the document5.1. Potential causes of stunting
View the document5.2. Reversibility of stunting
close this folder6. Physical activity
View the document6.1. Effects of physical activity on metabolism and body composition
View the document6.2. Energy intake and physical activity
View the document6.3. Changes in life-style
close this folder7. Infection
View the document7.1. Interactions between energy, protein and amino acid intakes and cytokine responses
View the document7.2. Methods of quantifying losses imposed by infection
View the document7.3. Development of field methods for assessing the severity and intensity of infection
View the document7.4. Interaction of protein-energy status, immunizations and immune status
View the document8. Functional consequences
View the document9. Variation
View the documentList of participants

(introductory text...)

E. JÉQUIER*

* Institute of Physiology, University of Lausanne, 7, rue du Bugnon, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland.