|Ocean governance: Sustainable development of the Seas (UNU, 1994, 369 pages)|
|Conclusions and recommendations|
Pacem in Maribus XIX,
Convinced of the critical importance of the oceans: (a) in the global economy; (b) as a critical factor in determining our climate; (c) as a lead sector in international law and international relations; and (d) in providing a model for management of sustainable development.
Firmly believing, therefore, that ocean space and its resources must be considered a common heritage of mankind.
Aware that the problems of ocean space in turn are closely interrelated and need to be considered as a whole.
Bearing in mind that the World Commission on Environment and Development has called on all States to ratify and adhere to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as the most significant initial step they can take for the benefit of the marine environment.
Noting that the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) builds on the substantial achievements represented by the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea as the most advanced legal instrument for international cooperation in the management and development of resources, the protection of the environment, and the reservation of large parts of the globe for peaceful purposes.
Recognizing that the problems of ocean space are closely interrelated with those of land, the atmosphere, and outer space.
Conscious that the integrated and interdependent nature of the new challenges and issues contrasts sharply with the sectoral nature of the institutions that exist today.
Bearing in mind that processes previously contained within national boundaries are becoming so dynamic that traditional distinctions between national and international issues are becoming blurred, and that regional cooperation provides an indispensable link between global and national levels of activities.
Noting that "public" and "private" sectors are interdependent and complementary, and that new forms of public/private cooperation are needed, at the national, regional, and global levels.
Affirming that joint action must be based on true solidarity between nations and peoples.
Has adopted the following conclusions and recommendations1:
1. Ocean governance should be examined as a possible pattern for the governance of other global concerns such as energy, food, atmosphere, outer space, environment, climate, and science and technology. The emerging institutional framework for sustainable development of ocean space and resources, which are the common heritage of mankind, must be part of and could be a model for global, regional, and national governance in the twenty-first century.
2. At each level: national, regional, global institutions must be restructured to reflect the shift from a sectoral to an intersectoral approach to planning and decision-making. Ocean policy must be integrated horizontally, across disciplines, departments, and specialized agencies, and between the public and private sectors, as well as vertically, across levels of governance, national, regional, and global, in a coherent system.
3. Human resources development, including the strengthening of scientific capabilities, must be a priority of national governments and should be pursued through national efforts as well as through regional and global cooperation. Without the capability of monitoring and of scientific research, ocean management and the conservation of the environment, responses to climate change, sealevel rise or other global environmental issues remain illusory.
4. The enhancement of the scientific and technological capabilities of developing countries is essential if they are to be active partners in the development and conservation of ocean space and its resources.
5. Environmental security is an essential component of common and comprehensive security, which has economic, environmental, political, and military dimensions. Measures of denuclearization of ocean space, naval arms control, cooperation of navies for peaceful purposes, and other confidence-building measures, must be taken at regional and global levels to complement the advancement of the peaceful uses of ocean space. The use of force makes havoc of development as well as of environment, as has been tragically demonstrated by recent events.
6. States should integrate sustainable ocean development and the supporting research into their general development strategy. Improved knowledge and information are essential as a basis of management if States are to respond to the new challenge of integrating development and environment. An active planning infrastructure and inter-ministerial coordinating mechanisms could contribute to integrated policy-making in ocean affairs. Marine scientists, coastal communities, and producers and consumers of ocean-related goods and services should be involved in the policy-making process. They might be consulted through periodic national ocean assemblies.
7. Developed and developing countries should complete their legislation dealing with all uses of ocean space and harmonize it with the provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea.
8. Developing countries should endeavour to strengthen their scientific and technological infrastructures. For this purpose a percentage of their educational budget should be earmarked. Marine research and development should, in a balanced way, serve to enhance understanding of ocean resources and processes, as a basis for their management as well as for international negotiations and agreements.
9. Marine science teaching on the sustainability of ocean space and its resources should be strengthened at all levels, from primary to adult education: in curricula at university level; in adult education programmes for ocean users (fishermen, seamen, workers in the oil industry, coastal engineers) and for managers of ocean affairs.
10. Shortcomings of the present systems of national income accounting, such as the omission of the costs of pollution and depletion of natural resources, should be rectified. Ongoing activities aimed at incorporating environmental costs and benefits into national accounts should be extended to include the marine sector. This should also lead to the establishment of global ocean accounts for marine resources beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.
11. Attention should focus on the next phase of regional cooperation so as to respond to the challenge of integrating development and environment.
12. The geographic scope of regional cooperation should be reexamined. Integrated water management and the protection of the marine environment from river-borne and atmospheric pollution require the participation of hinterlands.
13. Regional economic institutions should be encouraged to develop an integrated policy with respect to marine affairs. Recent efforts towards this goal by the Commission of the European Community are supported and their merits will be carefully analysed in the future.
14. For the advancement of marine sciences and environmentally sustainable technology, Regional Centres, in accordance with articles 276 and 277 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, should be established. These should take into account the most advanced models for managing and financing high technology R&D, such as EUREKA and its proposed Latin American/ Caribbean counterpart in Project Bolivar, generating synergisms between public and private, national and international investment. In this context Pacem in Maribus XIX welcomed and supported the initiative of Venezuela to host a meeting of regional experts on the establishment of a Caribbean Centre for R&D in Marine Industrial Technology (Caracas, 2-5 December 1991).
15. Joint development and management zones can be established, even in situations of overlapping claims. They offer the most constructive and cost-effective way to bypass boundary disputes. Joint development and management zone concepts should be expanded in their geographical scope. Regional seas as a whole could benefit from such expanded concepts in the future. Coastal and non-coastal States should participate in these regimes. Existing models for exploration and exploitation systems and for institutional machinery should be adapted for this purpose and should include systematic ocean observations as part of the Global Ocean Observing System.
16. Denuclearization of ocean space, following the example of the Treaty of Rarotonga, should be applied to regional seas wherever possible. This would also enhance environmental security.
17. Wherever feasible and desirable, regional cooperation among navies for peaceful purposes should be encouraged. This may include joint monitoring and surveillance, inspection in cases of (threats of) serious pollution, enforcement of compliance with fishery and environmental regulations, disaster relief, search and rescue, and hydrological mapping.
18. A global forum should be established within the United Nations system where all ocean issues may be discussed periodically, with the participation of all governments and relevant international bodies. Such a forum must also involve the economic and non-governmental sector. It could take a number of forms: Special Sessions of the United Nations General Assembly; a wider mandate to the envisaged periodic meetings of States Parties to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea; a standing committee of ECOSOC; or some other form. But such a United Nations Ocean Assembly is essential for supervising and coordinating the institutional framework for ocean governance.
19. As part of the collective security system, the United Nations should have the capability to observe peace arrangements in the oceans. Such a peacekeeping component could also be deployed in emergencies as those outlined in paragraph 17 above, as well as be used for naval inspection of trade embargoes by the Security Council.
20. Global regimes as envisaged in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea are essential for the effective management of the living resources of the high seas; this requirement is most explicitly stated in the case of the highly migratory species. The 1946 Convention for the Regulation of Whaling and the Convention for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, provide useful models in this regard. Negotiation on new instruments for other highly migratory species and high sea fisheries should be initiated immediately.
21. International assistance, which relies almost completely on unpredictable voluntary contributions, is woefully inadequate. A new approach to international public finance is needed. Systems of international taxation should be introduced. A tax of just 0.1 per cent on international trade, for example, could yield over $3 billion per annum. In addition, a tax on tourism and corrective taxes on other uses of ocean space, such as energy tax, are desirable for sustainable development in the oceans.
22. The entry into force and the effective implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea are essential for the orderly, sustainable development of ocean space and resources and the progressive development of the law of the sea.2 They will also contribute substantially to the UNCED process.
23. The Conference welcomed the joint initiative of President Mario Soares of Portugal and Professor Federico Mayor, the Director-General of UNESCO, to convene in 1992 with the support of the Portuguese Government a high level meeting to raise awareness and promote a strategy for partnership in ocean research, through building up national and regional capabilities in marine science, ocean services, and human resources, particularly in developing countries.
1. These Conclusions and Recommendations do not necessarily carry the endorsement of the organizations, inside or outside the United Nations system, having officers at PIM XIX.
2. Some participants expressed their support for the UN Secretary-General's efforts to make the Convention universally acceptable.