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close this bookTechnological Independence The Asian experience (UNU, 1994, 372 pages)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentNote to the reader from the UNU
close this folderIntroduction
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe region and the global historical setting
View the documentPost-second world war geopolitics
View the documentNew technologies
View the documentThe study
View the documentNotes
close this folder1. India
View the documentBackground
View the documentDevelopment perspectives in the indian economy
View the documentTechnology policy
View the documentR&D and self-reliance
View the documentIndia's technological capability: an international comparison
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentFactors in technological development
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentNotes
close this folder2. China
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentHistorical perspective
View the documentNational factor endowments
View the documentCase-studies in the different economic sectors
View the documentExogenous sources for technological progress and self-reliance
View the documentA desirable path and a strategy for S&T development
close this folder3. The Republic of Korea
View the documentPreamble
View the documentHistory
View the documentDevelopment policies and strategies from the 1960s to the 1980s
View the documentThe plans
View the documentImpact on the agricultural and industrial sectors
View the documentScience and technology in korea before the 1960s
View the documentThe role of science and technology in recent development
View the documentScience and technology and the exogenous environment
View the documentEducation and training
View the documentResearch and development
View the documentReassessment of the policy and strategy
View the documentAchievements in industrial development
View the documentThe electronics industry as a case-study
View the documentSelf-reliance targets at each stage
View the documentProblems and issues
View the documentFuture plan for self-reliance of science and technology
View the documentThe long-term goals and strategy of national development
View the documentRole of science and technology for future development
View the documentLong-term goal of S&T development
View the documentSumming-up and regional cooperation
View the documentRegional cooperation
View the documentBibliography
close this folder4. Thailand
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentTraditional path of development
View the documentDevelopment of the country in the national plans (1961-1986)
View the documentAn evaluation of thailand's present S&T situation: a macro-level study
View the documentCase-studies in agriculture
View the documentA desirable path
View the documentBibliography
close this folder5 The Philippines
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe historical roots of technological dependence
View the documentS&T policy: rhetoric and reality
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentCase-study results
View the documentTechnological dependence: nature and consequences
View the documentS&T in the Philippines: inputs and outputs
View the documentThe vicious circle paradigm
View the documentThe anatomy of technology transfer
View the documentThe search for models: learning from Asia
View the documentVision and commitment
View the documentToward a leap-frogging strategy
View the documentNotes
View the documentBibliography
View the documentAppendix 1
View the documentAppendix 2. major achievements of S&T in the Philippines
close this folder6. Japan
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentFive stages from ''technology transfer'' to ''self-reliance''
View the documentThree stages to technological self-reliance
View the documentDegree of self-reliance of technology
View the documentLow estimation of imported technology
View the documentHistorical perspectives on self-reliance
View the documentCase-studies
View the documentJapan's experience and Asian perspectives
View the documentJapanese multinational enterprises and their role in technological self-reliance in Asia
View the documentPerformance of Japanese affiliates in Asia
View the documentTechnological self-reliance in Asia: in search of a new international technology order
View the documentNotes
close this folder7. The lessons from Asia: From past experience to the future
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentChina
View the documentIndia
View the documentRepublic of Korea
View the documentThailand
View the documentPhilippines
View the documentJapan
View the documentThe geopolitical environment and the local socio-economic situation
View the documentFormal S&T structure and industry
View the documentThe rural-urban relationship
View the documentInformal and formal sectors
View the documentNew generic technologies
View the documentSocial shaping of technology
View the documentConscious shaping of the technology
View the documentExisting agendas for shaping technology
View the documentConcluding remarks
View the documentNotes
View the documentContributors
View the documentOther titles of interest

Social shaping of technology

The country studies have revealed aspects of the social effects and implications of technology acquisition. The studies supplement a large number of others done on Western societies, covering such aspects as the relationship of technology to society and how society shapes technology and vice versa,17 as well as a smaller number of similar studies done on the Asian region. Could this combined knowledge be more directly applied to Asian societies in order to generate socially useful technologies, as well as to develop technologies that are associated with desirable social arrangements? With 40 years of experience, can one socially shape technologies in Asia in the future? In posing these questions the concept of self-reliance is crucial, since it implies the social shaping of the technology through local social and cultural needs and not through predominantly non-Asian ones.

This question is more important in that the newer technologies - information technology and biotechnology - are more socially responsive than the earlier ones. They can be "cut" and shaped socially in many more ways than the earlier technologies. Since the end of the field research for this study, a considerable number of research studies have been published on the social dimensions of the new technology. The new technologies, they indicate, are intimately coloured by the social assumptions of the societies that gave birth to them.18 As a consequence, information technology19 carries within it certain orientations and cultural assumptions arising from the way it has been socially constructed.20 The variations in social shaping are seen, for example, in the very strong differences between nations in the characteritics of their computer-integrated manufacture (CIM) systems.21 The social shaping is also seen in software, where cultural factors, including gender relations, influence the technology.22 In a similar manner, social factors directly shape biotechnology.23