|Bibliography of Studies of the Energy Cost of Physical Activity in Humans (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 1997, 162 pages)|
|4.3 Sports and recreation|
1. Abernethy P & Batman P (1994): Oxygen consumption, heart rate and oxygen pulse associated with selected exercise-to-muscle class elements. Br.J.Sports Med. 28, 43-46.
Department of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative oxygen consumption VO2 heart rate and oxygen pulse associated with the constituent elements of an exercise-to-music class. Six women exercise-to-music leaders with a mean(s.d.) age, weight and height of 33.2(5.2) years, 51.0(2.8) kg and 157.9(5.6) cm respectively, completed five distinct exercise-to-music movement elements. The movement elements were of a locomoter (circuit, jump and low impact) and callisthenic (prone and side/supine) nature. The movement elements were distinguishable from one another in terms of their movement patterns, posture and tempo. Relative VO2 values were greatest for the circuit element (40.6 ml kg-1 min-1) and least for the side/supine element (20.0 ml kg-1 min-1). The differences in VO2 between the locomotor and callisthenic elements were significant (circuit approximately jump approximately low impact > prone approximately side/supine). However, effect size data suggested that the differences between the low impact and jump elements and the prone and side/supine elements were of practical significance (circuit approximately jump > low impact > prone > side/supine). With a single exception similar parametric statistics and effect size trends were identified for absolute heart rate. Specifically, the heart rate associated with the low impact element was not significantly greater than the prone element. The oxygen pulse associated with the locomotor elements was significantly greater than the callisthenic elements (circuit approximately jump approximately low impact > prone > side/supine). This suggested that heart rate may be an inappropriate index for making comparisons between exercise-to-music elements. Reasons for differences in oxygen uptake values between movement elements are discussed.
2. Chatard JC, Lavoie JM & Lacour JR (1991): Energy cost of front-crawl swimming in women. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 63, 12-16.
Laboratoire de Physiologie, Faculté de Medecine de Saint-Etienne, C. H. R. U . de Saint-Etienne, France. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the energy cost of swimming per unit distance (Cs) at different velocities (v) and performance level, body size and swimming technique in women. A total of 58 females swimmers were studied. Three performance levels (A, B. C) were determined, ranging from the slower (A) to the faster (B. C). At level C and at 1.1 m.s-1, Cs,1.1 was reduced by 7% when directly compared to level B. The Cs,1.1 was reduced by 10% when calculated per unit of height (h) and by 37% when calculated per unit of h and hydrostatic lift (HL). For the whole group of swimmers, the equation regression was Cs,1.1 = 0.27 h-2.38 HL - 7.5 (r = 0.53, P less than 0.01). To evaluate the specific influence of arm length two groups of long- and short-armed swimmers were selected among swimmers of similar h and performance. The Cs was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) by 12%, SD 2.2%, for short-armed than for long-armed swimmers. To evaluate the influence of different types of swimming technique, two other groups of similar performance and anthropometric characteristics were selected. The Cs was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) by 12%, SD 4.5% for swimmers using for preference their legs rather than their arms. The Cs of the sprinters was 15.7%, SD 2% higher than that of the long-distance swimmers. For all groups, Cs increased with v on average by 8% to 11% every 0.1 m.s-1. These findings showed that Cs variations of these women were close to those previously demonstrated for men. The Cs depends on performance level, body size, buoyancy, swimming technique and v.
3. Figura F. Cama G & Guidetti L (1993): Heart rate, alveolar gases and blood lactate during synchronized swimming. J.Sports Sci. 11, 103-107.
Istituto di Fisiologia Umana, Universita La Sapienza, Roma, Italy. Heart rate, alveolar gas partial pressures and blood lactate (BLa) concentration were measured during synchronized swimming in six subjects. During upside-down breath-holding lasting 50 s, heart rate fell progressively from 98 +/- 14 to 70 +/- 7 beats min-1 (mean +/- S.D.). While breath-holding during the compulsory figures, the subjects' heart rate increased to 142 +/- 5 beats min-1 and then fell to 72 +/- 10 beats min-1. At the end of breath-holding, alveolar oxygen pressure had fallen significantly (60 mmHg), whereas alveolar carbon dioxide pressure showed only minor changes (48 mmHg). The increase in BLa concentration due to the execution of compulsory figures was approximately 1 mM; in the free routines, BLa concentration increased by 3.4 +/- 0.5 mM. The net energy cost of completing a compulsory figures lasting 45 s was 34.6 kJ.
4. Nelson DJ, Pels AK, Geenen DL & White TP (1988): Cardiac frequency and caloric cost of aerobic dancing in young women. Res.Q.Exerc.Sport, 59, 229-233.
Our primary purpose was to characterize cardiac frequency during aerobic dancing. A continuous ECG tape recording was obtained on 13 women (21+- .5 yrs; X+- SEM) during aerobic dance classes. The tape was subsequently analyzed by microcomputer for min-by-min heart rate (HR) characteristics. During the main dancing phase of 35 min. the total elapsed time the subjects' HR was greater than or equal to HR reserve thresholds of 60%, 70%, and 80% was 23.9 +- 2.29 min. 17.2 +- 2.75 min. and 9.5 +- 2.24 min. respectively. The longest continuous time that HRs exceeded the minimal threshold of 60% was 17.8 +-2.64 mini this value decreased at the higher threshold of 70% and 80% to 12.4 +- 2.28 and 6.8 +- 1.80 min. respectively. Aerobic dancing can sustain an elevated cardiac frequency, although not all participants demonstrated this response. The caloric cost of aerobic dancing was estimated from HR during dance and the subjects' HR-oxygen consumption relationship determined in the laboratory. The caloric cost during the main dancing phase of the class was estimated to be 8 +- 1.3 kcal/min.
5. Noble L (1975): Heart rate and predicted VO2 during women's competitive gymnastic routines. J.Sports Med. 15, 151-157.
This study attempted to determine the energy expenditure of three highly skilled women gymnasts while participating in competitive optional and compulsory routines on the uneven parallel bars, balance beam, and floor exercise. Activity telemetered heart rates were used to predict VO2 using individual heart rate-VO2 regression lines obtained in the laboratory. The subjects were aged 16, 18 and 22 years. Two subjects were finalists in the 1972 U.S. Junior Olympic competition. Mean maximum VO2 and heart rates of the three subjects were 61.77 ml/kg/min and 184 bpm, respectively. Mean heart rates during performance of the routines ranged from 132 to 176 b/min. Predicted VO2 during performance of the routines ranged from 28.73 to 55.64 ml/kg/mint Optional routines were more strenuous than compulsory routines. Floor exercise routines were most strenuous and routines on the beam were least strenuous.
6. Noble RM & Howley ET (1979): The energy requirement of selected tap dance routines. Res.Q. 50, 438-442.
The primary purpose of this study was to measure the oxygen requirement of two tap dance routines. A secondary purpose was to determine if differences existed between beginning and intermediate tap dance students in the energy requirements for these dance routines. Fifteen female subjects, ranging in age from 17 to 26 years, participated in the study. Eight of the subjects were classified as beginners and seven as intermediates in their ability to tap dance. Each subject performed two tap dance routines, soft shoe and slow buck, to a medley of recorded music of 112 beats per minute (bpm). Expired gas samples were obtained from 2.5 to 3.5 and 3.5 to 4.5 minutes into each routine. There was a short rest period between routines. The mean and standard deviation of oxygen uptake was 16.6 ± 3.1 ml/kg x min for the soft shoe routine and 16.8 + 3.4 ml/kg x min for the buck routine. There was no significant difference between these two routines or between the beginners and intermediates for the energy requirements of either dance routine (p>.05). The above values place tap dancing at 112 bpm at the same intensity as the waltz, foxtrot, rumba, Petronella, and Eightsome Reel.
7. Scharff Olson M, Williford HN, Blessing DL & Greathouse R (1991): The cardiovascular and metabolic effects of bench stepping exercise in females. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 23, 1311-1317.
Human Performance Laboratory, Auburn University, Montgomery, AL 36117. The purpose of this investigation was to measure cardiovascular and metabolic responses to 20 min continuous bouts of "choreographed" bench stepping exercise in healthy females. Four frequently used bench heights were employed in E' cross-over design: 15.2 cm (6 inches, B-6), 20.3 cm (8 inches, B-8), 25.4 cm (10 inches, B-10), and 30.5 cm (12 inches, B-12). Oxygen uptake (VO2) responses were significantly more pronounced in direct relationship to the bench height: B-12 >
B-10 > > B-8 > B-6 (P< 0.05). Mean responses for VO2 ranged from 28.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 for B-6 to 37.3 ml.kg-1.min-1 for B-12. Interestingly, no difference was revealed for heart rate and the respiratory exchange ratio between B-12 and B-10 despite a higher VO2 for B-12 (B-12, B-10 > B-8 > B-6, P < 0.05). The incorporation of 0.91 kg (2 lb) hand weights with exercise on the 20.3 cm bench elicited a modest but statistically significant increase in VO2 compared with no hand weights. No significant increase in VO2 was revealed for conditions that employed 0.45 kg (1 lb) hand weights. The results demonstrate that aerobic bench stepping is an exercise modality that provides sufficient cardiorespiratory demand for enhancing aerobic fitness and promoting weight loss in females.
8. Skubic V & Hodgkins J (1966): Energy expenditure of women participants in selected individual sports. .J.Appl.Physiol 21,133-137.
Energy expenditure was determined for two women subjects while exercising on a treadmill. Ventilation, oxygen consumption, and caloric determinations were made when the heart rate reached levels during exercise. The subjects also participated in the playing of five individual type sports and their heart rates were telemetered throughout the activity. Resting and recovery rates were also obtained each day of testing. Regression coefficients for each subject were found showing the relationship between heart rate and ventilation, heart rate and kilocalories, and heart rate and oxygen consumption for work on the treadmill. From these data, estimates were made for the energy cost of game participation as calculated from the known heart rates. The various calculations indicated that badminton and tennis are significantly more strenuous than golf, bowling, and archery, and that golf and archery are more strenuous than bowling. According to available classifications on energy cost, badminton and tennis were rated as moderate activities and golf, bowling, and archery were rated as mild activities.
9. Williford HN, Blessing DL, Olson MS & Smith FH (1989): Is low-impact aerobic dance an effective cardiovascular workout? Physician Sportsmed. 16, 95-109.
Ten women performed four different aerobic dance routines in a randomized crossover study to evaluate energy expenditure. The routines consisted of the following combinations: low intensity, low impact; high intensity, low impact; low intensity high impact; and high intensity and high impact. The women warmed up for five minutes, then did a 20-minute routine. Metabolic measures were monitored by means of open circuit spirometry and heart rates measured by ECG. Statistical analyses showed that for both high and low intensities, the high-impact routines. required a significantly greater energy expenditure, regardless of heart rate. Thus for low-impact dance to meet the minimum guidelines for exercise suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine, it should be performed at high intensity.