1. The World Bank, the United Nations Centre for Regional
Development (UNCRD), and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC),
among others, have supported studies on urban management and service provision
issues. The United Nations Population Division has supported a series of
individual city studies.
2. Japanese scholars first initiated studies of the "flying geese"
in the 1930s, with Yamazawa's volume as the latest in this tradition.
Interestingly, an independent but parallel explanation of the same phenomenon
was propounded by Vernon (1966).
3. See also product life cycle theory (Vernon, 1966) and
Akamatsu-Yamazawa's flying-geese theory (Yamazawa,