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close this bookEnvironmental Change and International Law: New Challenges and Dimensions (UNU, 1992, 493 pages)
close this folderIssues in international environmental law
close this folder4. Emerging principles and rules for the prevention and mitigation of environmental harm
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the document1. Significance and role of principles and rules of prevention and mitigation
View the document2. Traditional norms, principles, and rules
View the document3. Characteristics of global environmental change
View the document4. Double-track approach as a treaty-making technique
View the document5. Emerging principles and rules of prevention and mitigation
View the document6. Toward an international management of global environmental change
View the documentNotes


1. See the definition of pollution, e.g.. A.L. Springer. The International Law of Pollution: Protecting the Global Environment in a World of Sovereign States, 65-78 (Quorum Books, 1983). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Recommendation (77)28.

2. 3 U.N.R. Intl. Arb. Awards, 1911 (1941).

3. Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 16 June 1972.

11 I.L.M. 1416, 1420.

4. A C. Kiss, Survey of Current Developments in International Environmental Law, 141 (published with the assistance of the Fund for Environmental Studies [by the] IUCN. 1976); A.C Kiss, Droit International de L'Environnement, 349 (A. Pedone, 1989); A. L. Levin, Protecting the Human Environment: Procedures and Principles for Preventing and Resolving International Controversies, 131 (UN Institute for Training and Research, 1977).

5. See, e.g., Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. 29 July 1960, 55 A.J.I.L. 1082; Convention on the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships and Optional Protocol, 25 May 1962, 57 A.J.I.L. 268; the Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, 21 May 1963, 2 I.L.M. 727; Convention on the Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 29 Nov. 1969, 9 I.L.M. 25.

6. For specific treaties and conventions embodying these principles, see supra note 4.

7. The forty-third session of the UN General Assembly recognized in Resolution 43!53 that climate change is a common concern of humankind, since climate is an essential condition that sustains life on earth.

8. E. Brown Weiss, In Fairness to Future Generations: International Law, Common Patrimony, and Intergenerational Equity 385 (Transnational/United Nations University, 1989).

9. D.M. Johnston, 'Systemic Environmental Damage: The Challenge to International Law and Organization," 12 Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce, 257 (1985): P.S. Thacher, "International Agreements and Cooperation in Environmental Conservation and Resource Management" (a paper prepared for the Workshop on Managing the Global Commons: Decision Making and Conflict Resolution in Response to Climate Change. I Aug. 1989), p. 5.

10. Johnston, supra note 9 at 269. 11. Id. at 271.

12 See, e.g., R.E. Benedick, "Lessons from the Ozone Hole," 16 EPA Journal, 43 (1990).

13. For an overall discussion on international legal response to global environmental change,
see E. Brown Weiss, "Legal Dimensions of Global Change: A Proposed Research Agenda," International Social Science Journal (August 1989).

14. See supra note 7.

15. This draft was prepared at the working level by members of the FAO Legal Office and the FAO Working Group on Biological Diversity.

16. See discussion in O. Schacter, Sharing the World's Resources. 172 (Columbia University. 1977).

17. E. Brown Weiss, "The Planetary Trust: Conservation and Intergenerational Equity," 11 Ecology Law Quarterly, 495 (1984).

18. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, 10 Dec. 1982, Art. 136, 21 I.L.M. 1261, 1293; the Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. 5 Dec. 1979, Article 11, 18 I.L.M. 1434, 1438-1439.

19. Management of Trust Funds: Report of the Executive Director. UNEP/GC.14/23, 18 May 1987.

20. UNEP/OzL. Pro. 2. 2/L/4 Rev. 1; UNEP/OzL. Pro. 2/L/5/ Rev.1; UNEP/OzL. Pro. 2/L/6.

21. Such provision can be legally justified by the theory of the compensation of potential opportunity costs incurred by developing countries. See G. Handl, "International Efforts to Protect the Global Atmosphere: A Case of Too Little, Too Late?", I European Journal o International Law, 256 (1990).

22. See, e.g., Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 22 Mar. 1985, Art. 4, 261. L. M. 1529, 1530-1531.

23. International Law Association, "Rules of International Law Applicable to Transtrontier Pollution," Report of {he 60th Conference, 171-176 (International Law Association, 1982).

24. See documents in 17 Environmental Policy and Law, 36-37 (February 1987).

25. World Commission on Environment and Development, Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development: Legal Principles and Recommendations, 103 (Graham & Trotman, 1987).

26. F.L. Kirgis, Jr., Prior Consultation in International Law, 11 (Univ. Press of Va., 19X3).

27. Supra note 23 at 11.

28. Meeting Statement of International Meeting of Legal and Policy Experts on the Protection of the Atmosphere, 20-22 Feb. 1989, Ottawa, Canada. This conference was a follow-up conference of The Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security, held in Toronto in 1988.

29. According to the Meeting Statement, 'atmospheric interference" means any change in the physical or chemical condition of the atmosphere resulting directly or indirectly from human activities and producing effects of such a nature as to appreciably endanger human health, harm living resources, ecosystems. and material property, impair amenities or interfere with other legitimate uses of the environment.

30. For the international legal framework for coping with emergency disasters, see Bruha, "lnternationale Regelungen zum Schutz vor technisch-industriellen Umweltnotfallen," 44 Zeitschrifr für ausländisches üffentliches Recht and Völkerrecht, 1-63 (1984).

31. N. Myers. "Environmental Challenges: More Government or Better Governance?", 17 AMBIO, 411-414 (1988).

32. UNEP/OzL. Pro. 2/L.1; UNEP/OzL. Pro. 2/L.S/Rev.1.

33. E. Brown Weiss, 'A Resource Management Approach to Carbon Dioxide during the Century of Transition." in World Climate Change: The Role of International Law and Institutions 181 (V. Nanda. ea.. Westview Press, 1983).