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close this bookEnvironmental Change and International Law: New Challenges and Dimensions (UNU, 1992, 493 pages)
close this folderIssues in international environmental law
close this folder5. State responsibility, liability, and remedial measures under international law: new criteria for environmental protection
View the document(introductory text...)
View the document1. The evolving law of state responsibility
View the document2. New environmental realities and their impact upon the law
View the document3. Conceptual developments and the new basic principle of international law
View the document4. The expanding scope of the law: global reach and international cooperation
View the document5. Material changes in the law of state responsibility
View the document6. Expanding the protection of the affected interests
View the document7. Liability for acts not prohibited by international law: the ongoing debate
View the document8. The expanding role of practice: substantive and procedural developments
View the document9. The protection of the marine environment: a leading case of innovation
View the document10. The Antarctic environment: developing a comprehensive regime for responsibility and liability
View the document11. The new law of state responsibility: improvement and caution
View the document12. Avoiding environmental degradation and opposing the world ecological government: a conclusion
View the documentNotes

Notes

1. 1. Brownlie, System of the Law of Nations: State Responsibility (Part 1) (Clarendon; Oxford, 1983). F.V. García-Amador, The Changing Law of International Claims (Oceana, 1984). See also generally, with particular reference to the work of the International Law Commission, Centre for Studies and Research of the Hague Academy of International Law, International State Liability (1982), Selective Bibliography prepared by the Library of the Peace Palace.

2. Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 16 June 1972, 11 I.L.M. 1416 (1972) (hereinafter Stockholm Declaration).

3. See generally The Human Dimensions of Global Change: An International Programme on Human Interactions with the Earth, Report of the Tokyo International Symposium on the Human Response to Global Change, Tokyo, Japan, 19-22 Sept. 1988.

4. For a discussion of the work of the International Law Commission and the conceptual issues raised by the topic of "International Liability for Injurious Consequences Arising out of Acts Not Prohibited by International Law." see generally Daniel Barstow Magraw, "Transboundary Harm: The international Law Commission's Study of 'International Liability,'" 80 A.J.l.L. 305 (1986).

5. Brownlie, supra note 1 at 50.

6. Introductory Document Prepared by the Italian Government for the Forum on International Law of the Environment, Siena, 17-21 April 1990, 53 (Rome, January 1990), hereinafter cited as Siena Forum.

7. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 53.

8. Trail Smelter Arbitration (U.S. v. Can.) 1941, 11 Mar. 1941, 3 R.l.A.A. 1905 (1949).

9. Lake Lanoux Arbitration (Spain v. France) 1957 - I.L.R. 101 (1957).

10. Gut Dam Arbitration (U.S. v. Can.) 22 Sept. 1968, Report of the Agent of the United States before the Lake Ontario Claims Tribunal, 8 I.L.M. 118 (1969). The compromise of 25 May 1965 establishing the tribunal is found at T.l.A.S. No. 6114 (1965). See also the Agreement on the Settlement of Claims Relating to Gut Dam, 18 Nov. 1968, 6 U.S.T. 7863 (1968), T.l.A.S. No. 6624 (1968).

11. Restatement (Third), The Foreign Relations Law of the United States (1987), at 109-110 (hereinafter Restatement).

12. Trail Smelter Arbitration, supra note 8 at 1965.

13. Corfu Channel Case (U.K. v. Alb.) 1949, I.C.J. 4 (Judgment of 9 April 1949).

14. Restatement, supra note 11 at 100- 101.

15. Id. at 109-110.

16. Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, U.N. Doc. A/ CONF. 48/14, Rev. 1, 3, 5 (1973). See also Stockholm Declaration, supra note 2.

17. Canada, Claim against the USSR for Damage Caused by Soviet Cosmos 954, Notes of 23 Jan. 1979 and 15 Mar. 1979, 18 I.L.M. 899 (1979). Canada-USSR. Protocol on Settlement of Canada's Claim for Damages Caused by Cosmos 954, 20 I.L.M. 689 (1981). The Canadian Claim was based on the convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, 29 Mar. 1972, 24 U.S.T. 2389, T.l.A.S. No. 7762, and on general principles of international law.

18. European Economic Community, Declaration on the Environmental Action Programme, 22 Nov. 1973, 13 I.L.M. 164 (1974).

19. Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, 13 Nov. 1979, 18 I.L.M. 1442 (1979), T.l.A.S. No. 10541 (1979).

20. 1985 Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least 30 Per Cent, 8 July 1985, 27 I.L.M. 707 (1985).

21. IAEA Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, 26 Sept. 1986.25 I.L.M. 1370 (1986); IAEA Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, 26 Sept. 1986, 25 l.L.M. 1377 (1986).

22. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 54.

23. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 10 Dec. 1982. 21 I.L.M. 1261 (1982) (hereinafter Law of the Sea Convention).

24. Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, 18 May 1977, 16 I.L.M. 88. 31 U.S.T. 333, T.l.A.S. No. 9614 (1977) (hereinafter Enmod Convention).

25. Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 22 Mar. 1985, 26 I.L.M. 1529 (1987)

26. Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 16 Sept. 1987, 26 I.L.M. 1550 (1987).

27. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 54-55.

28. Restatement, supra note 11 at 99.

29. See IMO Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. 29 Dec. 1912, 2 U.S.T. 2403, T.l.A.S. No. 8165 (1972) (hereinafter Dumping Convention); London International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, MARPOL, 2 Nov. 1973, 12 I.L.M. 1319 (1973).

30. Law of the Sea Convention, supra note 23 at Part Xll.

31. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, 22 Mar. 1989, 28 I.L M. 657 (1989) (hereinafter Basel Convention).

32. Restatement, supra note 11 at 107.

33. Id. at 100 citing the opinion of Judge Lauterpacht in Oppenheim, International Law, 346 47 (8th ea., 1955).

34. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 57.

35. Id., citing Law of the Sea, supra note 23 at Articles 235(1), 263(3), 304(139).

36. Enmod Convention, supra note 24 at Article 1.

37. Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects' 29 Mar. 1972, 24 U.S.T. 2389, T.l.A.S. No. 7762, 66 A.J.I.L. 702 (1972), Article 11. See also Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 57.

38. It should be noted that in some cases due diligence has been separated from fault, thus amounting in itself to the breach of a primary obligation regardless of fault; this means that the first level of responsibility has become more stringent as well.

39. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 57.

40. Restatement, supra note 11 at 113.

41. See supra note 17.

42. Patmos case, Messina Court of Appeals, 1989 (cited in Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 60).

43. Wellington Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities. 2 June 1988, 27 I.L.M. 868 (1988) (hereinafter CRAMRA).

44. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 60-61.

45. International Law Commission, Third Report on International Liability for Injurious Consequences Arising out of Acts Not Prohibited by International Law, U.N. Doc. A/CN. 4/360 and Corr. 1 (1982); Schematic Outline, sect. 1, Art. 1, in conjunction with "Fourth Report," U.N. Doc. A/CN. 41373 and Corr. I (1983), at 29.

46. Restatement, supra note 11 at 113.

47. Id.

48. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 63.

49. Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Co., Ltd., 1970. I.C.J. 4.

50. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 65.

51. Id. at 66.

52. Restatement, supra note 11 at 104, 121.

53. Id. at 113.

54. Id. at 106. For a comment on the Bhopal accident and related views on the export of dangerous industries, see Magraw, supra note 4 at 325.

55. See supra note 32 and accompanying text.

56. Restatement, supra note 11 at 114-115.

57. Supra note 21.

58. The World Bank and the Environment, First Annual Report, 1990.

59. Restatement, supra note 11 at 118-119.

60. Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-1376. 61. Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7642.

62. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, 42 U.S. §9601.

63. U.S. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4321, 4332.

64. Executive Order 12114 on Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions, 4 Jan. 1979, 44 F.F. 1957, 3C.F.R., 1979 Comp. 356.

65. See Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. v. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 647 F. 2d 1345, 1348, 1377 (D.C.Cir. 1981); Restatement, supra note 11 at 120.

66. 31 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 10) Report of the Int'l. L. Comm. Art. 19(3)(d) at 226, U.N. Doc. A/31/10 (1976).

67. See supra note 44 and accompanying text.

68. See Brownlie, supra note I at 50.

69. "Fourth Report." supra note 45 at 29.

70. "Third Report," supra note 45 at 16.

71. Magraw, supra note 4 at 330. 72. See supra note 15 and accompanying text.

73. Schematic Outline. supra note 45 at Art. 3

74. Restatement, supra note 11 at 122-123 (with particular reference to the U.S. case-law).

75. See, e.g., CRAMRA, supra note 43.

76. Restatement, supra note 11 at 121-123.

77. Id. at 121.

78. Brussels International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 29 Nov. 1969, 9 I.L.M. 45 (1969).

79 Brussels International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 18 Dec. 1971, 11 1. L. M. 284 (1972).

80. See the Protocols to the Conventions cit., supra notes 78, 79, 19 Nov. 1976 16 I.L.M. 617, 621 (1976).

81. Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, 29 Jul. 1960, 55 A.J.I.L. 1082 (1960), Brussels Supplementary Convention, 31 Jan. 1963. 2 I.l.M. 685 (1963)

82. Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, 21 May 1963, 2 I.L.M. 727 (1963).

83. Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement Concerning Liability for Oil Pollution (TOVALOP), 7 Jan. 1969, 8 1. L. M. 497 (1969).

84. Oil Companies Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement (OPOL), 4 Sept. 1974, 13 I.L.M. 1409 (1974)

85. Oil Companies: Contract Regarding an Interim Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution (CRISTAL), 14 Jan. 1971, 10 I.L.M. 137 (1971).

86. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 77.

87. Id. at 78, 79.

88. Id. at 78.

89. See Basel Convention, supra note 31.

90. Siena Forum, supra note 6 at 79.

91. Id. at 81-82.

92. Id. at 82.

93. In Re Union Carbide Corp. Gas Plant Disaster 809 F 2d 195 (2nd Cir., 1987).

94. In Re Oil Spill of 'Amoco Cadiz" 699 F 2d 909 (17th Cir. 1983).

95. For recent developments relating to transboundary pollution cases, see A.C. Kiss, "La reparation pour atteinte a l'environnement," 23e Colloque de la Société Française pour le Droit International, "La Responsabilité dans le système international", Le Mans, 31 Mai-2 Juin 1990.

96. Restatement, supra note 11 at 124.

97. Id. at 124-12h.

98. Id.

99. A Canadian corporation involved in drilling for oil [D the Beaufort Sea, on the Canadian side of the boundary, was required to post a $20 million bond to secure compensation to potential U.S. pollution victims, in addition to the Canadian government subsidiary liability, as provided for in a special arrangement with the United States. See generally Restatement, supra note 11 at 125; Handl, "State Liability for Accidental Transnational Environmental Damage by Private Persons," 74 A.J.I.L. 525 (1980), at 547-548.

100. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Recommendation of the Council for the Implementation of a Regime of Equal Right of Access and Non-Discrimination in Relation to Transfrontier Pollution, 17 May 1977, 16 I.L M. 977 (1977).

101. Law of the Sea Convention, supra note 23 at Art. 194(2).

102. Id. at Art. I (1)(4).

103. See supra note 29 and accompanying text.

104. Law of the Sea Convention, supra note 23 at Art. 221.

105. Restatement, supra note 11 at 130-131.

106. Law of the Sea Convention, supra note 23 at Part XII, Section 6.

107. Restatement, supra note 11 at 137.

108. Brussels Convention on the Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships, 25 May 1962, 57 A.J.I.L. 268 (1963).

109. International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 29 Nov. 1969, 9 I.L.M. 45 (1970).

110. Restatement, supra note 11 at 141.

111. Id. See also the 1976 and 1984 Protocols to the 1969 Convention; 16 I.L.M. 617 (1977), 13 Envt'l Pol'y & L., 66 (1984).

112. See supra note 78, and 1976 and 1984 Protocols: 16 I.L.M. 621 (1977), 13 Envt't Pol'y & L., 61 (1984).

113. See supra notes 83, 85.

114. Brussels International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties, 26 U.S.T. 765, T.l.A.S. No. 8068, Art. 6.

115. Restatement, supra note 11 at 137, 142.

116. CRAMRA, supra note 43. See generally Laura Pineschi, "The Antarctic Treaty System and General Rules of International Environmental Law," International Law for Antarctica, 187 (Francioni, Scovazzi, eds., 1987).

117. CRAMRA, supra note 43 at Art. 4.

118. CRAMRA, supra note 43 at Art. 8(1).

119. Id. at Art. 8(2).

120. Id. al Art. 8(4), (6)

121. Id. at Art. 8(3).

122. Id. at Art. 8(7).

123. Id. at Art. 8(10).

124. "Antarctic Treaty, Recommendation XV-I on Comprehensive Measures for the Protection of the Antarctic Environment and Dependent and Associated Ecosystems," Handbook of the Antarctic Treaty System, October 1990, at 2103. The preparation of a draft Convention on the matter was undertaken by the Xlth Antarctic Treaty Special Consultative Meeting, the first session of which was held in Viña del Mar, Chile, 19 Nov.-6 Dec. 1 990.

125. For a discussion on recent proposals for the international governance of the environment, see generally Peter S. Thacher, "Institutional Options for Management of the Global Environment and Commons," United Nations Associations Project on Global Security and Risk Management, 1989.

126. Peter H. Sand, "Institutions for Global Change: Whither Environmental Governance?", Fifth Talloires Seminar on International Environmental Issues, 14-18 May 1989.

127. Laura Pineschi, "La valutazione di impatto ambientale e il diritto internazionale del mare," 3 Rivista Giuridica dell'Ambiente, 505 (198P,).

128. See generally United Nations General Assembly, "Report of the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development," A/45/46, 17 Oct. 1990.

129. See generally the discussion of this point in P.M. Dupuy, 'Action publique et crime international de l'Etat, à propos de ['Article 19 du projet de la Commission du Droit International sur la responsabilité des Etats," A.F.D.I. 539 (1979).

130. For a discussion of these proposals, see Paul C. Szasz, "The Role of International Law: Formulating International Legal Instruments and Creating International Institutions," Research Workshop on Managing the Global Commons, Knoxville, Tennessee, 1-4 Aug. 1989, at 14.

131. Edith Brown Weiss, "Our Rights and Obligations to Future Generations for the Environment," 84 A.J.I. L. (1990)

132. Szasz, supra note 130 at 9-11.

133. Edith Brown Weiss, "Legal Dimensions of Global Change: A Proposed Research Agenda," 121 International Social Science Journal, 399 (1989), at 403-404.

134. The establishment of an International Environmental Law Commission under Article 13 of the United Nations Charter was suggested at the United Nations University Workshop on International Law and Global Change. the Hague. 8-10 Nov. 1989, for which see the Report of the Co-ordinator, Edith Brown Weiss, at 4

135. Washington Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 1973, reprinted in S. Lyster, International Wildlife Law, 239 (1985).

136. See the Dumping Convention, supra note 29; Basel Convention. supra note 31.

137. Sand, supra note 126 at 17-18.

138. Szasz, supra note 130 at 8-9.

139. Sand, supra note 126 at 18-22.

140. See supra note 79.

141. UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 16 Nov. 1972, 11 I.L.M. 1358 (1972), art. 15.

142. Brown Weiss, supra note 133 at 405.

143. CRAMRA, supra note 43 at Art. 8(7).

144. "The Changing Atmosphere: Implications for Global Security," Conference Statement, Toronto, 30 June 1988, proposing the "World Atmosphere Fund" and other Trust Funds; see generally Thacher, supra note 125 at 57.

145. Brown Weiss, supra note 133 at 405.

146. Id.

147. Sand, supra note 126 at 19, n. 36.

148. Brown Weiss, supra note 133 at 406. 149. Thacher, supra note 125 at 57-60.