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close this bookProceedings of the Khartoum Workshop on Arid Lands Management (UNU, 1979, 96 pages)
close this folderAppendices
View the documentAppendix A: agenda of the United Nations University-university of Khartoum workshop on arid lands management
View the documentAppendix B: workshop participants
View the documentAppendix C: draft statutes, institute of environmental studies, university of Khartoum
View the documentAppendix D: syllabus details for proposed M.Sc. programmes in environmental studies at the university of Khartoum
View the documentAppendix E: selected list of books and monographs published by the central arid zone research institute, Jodhpur, India
View the documentAppendix F: content of training programmes in arid lands management proposed by the university of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia
View the documentAppendix G: information on the research centre on development in tropical dry areas, university of Rouen, France
View the documentAppendix H:course outline in training for arid lands management proposed by H-U.Thimm

Appendix D: syllabus details for proposed M.Sc. programmes in environmental studies at the university of Khartoum

Compulsory Core Subjects

First semester

Principles of environmental science
Applied climatology and geomorphology
Integrated ecology
Remote sensing and cartography
Production technology and engineering
Methods of environmental research
One optional subject

Second semester

Environmental management and planning
Applied rural sociology
Environmental and resource law
Community health and demography
Environmental economics
Methods of environmental research and assessment, including environmental case studies
One optional subject

Options and Relevant Subjects of Study

Fresh water eco-systems management

Limnology and fisheries
Hydrology and water resources management
Soil and water conservation
Range and wildlife management

Arid land management

Marginal land use
Environmental forestry
Soil and water conservation
Range and wildlife management

Coastal zone management

Oceanography and marine eco-systems
Hydrology and water resource management
Minerals and energy resource management
Industrial and urban water-use

Urban and regional management

Environmental health, including pollution
Minerals and energy resource management

Industrial and urban water-use

Details of the Syllabus

First semester

Principles of environmental science (30 hours of lectures). Logic of the course; biophysical systems; socio-economic systems; history of man and the environment; emergence of agriculture; man, resources, and technology; population growth; environmental impacts of development; environmental perception; natural hazards.

Applied climatology and geomorphology (15 hours of lectures and 15 hours practical). Basic concepts; energy flows; storage; moisture; mass flows; basic transformations; budgeting techniques; techniques of application at macro and micro levels; problems of desertification; irrigation and crop growth; impact of man-made structures of fluvial and marine processes; properties of soils; other man-made impacts.

Integrated ecology (30 hours of lectures and excursions). Principles of ecology; eco-system structure; bio-geochemical cycles; population dynamics; competition; predation; dispersion; dispersal; ecological genesis and evolution; animal-plant interaction; food chains; biotic communities; ecological successions.

Remote sensing and cartography (10 hours of lectures and 20 hours practical). Basic physics of remote sensing; remote sensing technology, including multi-spectral scanning; Sudanese and world coverage; interpretation of remotesensing data; resolution of surface details; ground verification surveys; use and interpretation of aerial photographs; presentation of data and maps; choropleth and isopleth maps; cartographic graphics; basic properties of maps and their interpretation; computer mapping; topographic and resource maps of the Sudan.

Production technology and engineering (30 hours of lectures). World food demand; protein and calorie needs; constraints on agricultural production; Green Revolution; agriculture in the Sudan and Africa; irrigation and dam construction; world fisheries; fisheries in the Sudan and Africa; fishery management; resources of the Sudan and Africa in timber, minerals, and fuels; principles of forestry; forest production in the Sudan and Africa; mineral production; mining and the environment; power production and the environment; history of industrial growth; industry and the environment; processes in chemical engineering; appropriate technology; urban growth; housing; transport planning.

Methods of environmental research (30 hours of lectures). The importance of quantitative methods in the solution of environmental problems; basic mathematics; calculus; differentiation; matrix algebra; descriptive statistics; introduction to probability theory; frequency distribution and dispersion; tests of hypothesis and significance; chi-square and student t-tests; non-parametric tests; correlation and regression.

Second semester

Environmental management end planning (15 hours of lectures and 15 hours practical). Basic concepts; physical, socio-political, and economic approaches to management problems; multiple-objective and multiple-solution planning; integrated management approach; planning models; institutional factors affecting planning and management in the Sudan; applications to watersheds, arid lands, and urban environmental management and planning; impact assessment as a planning tool.

Applied rural sociology (20 hours of lectures and 10 hours practical). Theories of rural society; structure and process in Sudanese rural society; perception and attitude towards health, environmental hazards, innovation, adaption, resistance, and diffusion; processes and patterns of migration in the Sudan; nomadism; social impact assessment of programmes and policies and their mitigation; implications for planners; participatory planning and management; investigative techniques.

Environmental and resource law (20 hours of lectures). Principles of law; basis of Sudanese Law; customary and traditional law; Islamic law; land-use law and land tenure; water-use rights; forest law; mineral resources law; fishery regulations; laws relating to pollution, health, and safety regulations in factories; international law; law of the sea; effects of environmental regulations on trade.

Community health and demography (20 hours of lectures and 5 hours practical). Population geography; demographic principles; population projections; population control and family planning; concepts of health and environment; introduction to infectious diseases; principles of epidermiology; enteric diseases; cholera; safe water supply; case studies of smallpox, malaria, and schistosomiasis; organization of community health services; carcinogens; health hazards of heavy metals and pesticides; food hygiene.

Environmental economics (25 hours of lectures and 20 hours practical). Nature of economics; allocation of resources; micro-economic theory; supply and demand; decision theory (case studies from agriculture); common property problems; fishery economics; cost-benefit and cost effectiveness analysis; project evaluation (case studies); economics of land-use; resource depletion and conservation; economics of pollution control.

Methods of environmental research and assessment-including environmental case studies (35 hours). Linear programming; environmental modeling; research techniques; experimental design; sampling and data acquisition; questionnaire design; case studies.

Details of Optional Subjects

Fresh water eco-systems management

Limnology and fisheries (45 hours). Introductory limnology; water productivity; biotic communities; Nile eco-system; Weld ecology; ichthyology systematics; fishery management; principles of fish culture; methods of fishing and preservation.

Hydrology and water resources management (45 hours). The hydrological cycle; precipitation; evaporation and evapotranspiration; infiltration; storage; run-off; ground water; sediment transport; water-use (irrigation, industry, domestic, navigation, fisheries, recreation); sources of water (precipitation, lakes, rivers, ground water, swamps, re-use, desalination); conservation of water quality (in irrigation, industry and domestic use); introduction to optimization and water resources management.

Soil and wafer conservation (45 hours). Soil formation; horizon development; soil genesis; soil classification; the catena concept; water movement in soils; soil structure; nutrient properties of soils; salinization; soil capability evaluation.

Range and wildlife management (45 hours). Range ecosystems (soils and vegetation); range land-use; carrying capacities; animal husbandry; animal diseases; concept of wildlife conservation; population levels of various species; interactions and seasonal migrations; hunting and harvesting of wildlife; socio-economic aspects of wildlife; future of wildlife in the Sudan.

Arid lands management

Marginal land use (45 hours). Definitions; climatic and manmade hazards; soil and plant degradation; cultural evolution of arid lands; adaptive approaches to arid land use in the Sudan; reclamation policies, strategies, and techniques.

Environmental forestry (45 hours). Forestry and the environment; shelter belts; wind-breaks; use of trees in rehabilitation of land; amenity trees; urban green space and country parks; interaction of forestry with other land-uses; forests and problems of energy supply; community forests; forest production and concept of sustained yield; silvicultural systems; institutional aspects of forestry and national forest policies.

Soil and wafer conservation. As under "Fresh water ecosystems management."

Range and wildlife management.As under "Fresh water eco-systems management."

Coastal zone management

Oceanography and marine eco-systems (45 hours). Introduction to oceanography; environmental factors and methods of measurement; water movements; salinity; regional oceanography; up-welling; the Red Sea; the seashore; mangrove swamps; coral reefs; coastal fisheries; pelagic fisheries.

Hydrology and water resources management.As under "Fresh water eco-systems management."

Minerals and energy-resource management.Under preparation.

Industrial and urban water use (45 hours). Sources and problems of obtaining water; use and re-use; water quality; water planning for future needs.

Urban and regional management

Environmental health, including pollution (45 hours). (Partly under preparation.) Sources of pollution; natural geological sources; mining; agriculture; domestic and industrial solid and liquid wastes; atmospheric pollution; vibration and noise; effects of pollution on health; water-borne diseases; effects of pollution on agriculture and wildlife; damage to buildings; measurement and monitoring of pollutants; chemical, physical, biological, and remote-sensing; surveys and statistical patterns; control and abatement; methods of treatment; control policy and legislation.

Transport (45 hours). Problems of urban and rural transportation in developing countries; relationship of transportation to land-use; environmental impacts of transportation; economics of transportation systems; integrated transportation planning.

Minerals and energy resource management.As under "Coastal zone management."

Industrial and urban water use. As under "Coastal zone management."