Cover Image
close this bookFood Composition Data: A User's Perspective (UNU, 1987, 223 pages)
close this folderThe uses of food composition data
close this folderNeed for a standardized nutrient data base in epidemiologic studies
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentLimitations of diet-related epidemiologic studies
View the documentFactors influencing diet-related epidemiologic studies, using diet and colon cancer studies as an illustration
View the documentSome potential problems with incomplete and non-standardized nutrient data bases
View the documentSummary
View the documentReferences


1. S. Gingham, R. R. Williams, J. J. Cole, and W. P. T. James, "Dietary Fibre and Regional Large-bowel Cancer Mortality in Britain," Br. J. Cancer, 40: 456-463 (1979).

2. R. R. Butrum and S. E. Gebhardt, "Nutrient Data Bank: Computer-based Management of Nutrient Values in Foods," J. Am. Oil Chemist' Soc., 53 (1976).

3. J. F. Calder, M. W. Wachira, T. Van Sant, M. S. Malik, and R. N. Bowry, "Diverticular Disease, Carcinoma of the Colon and Diet in Urban and Rural Kenyan Africans," Diagn. Imaging, 49: 23-28 (1980).

4. B. M. Calkins, D. J. Whittaker, P. P. Nair, A. A. Rider, and N. Turjman, "Diet, Nutrition Intake, and Metabolism in Populations at High and Low Risk for Colon Cancer: Nutrient Intake," A. J. C. N., 40: 896 905 (1984).

5. L. B. Dales, G. D. Friedman, H. K. Ury, S. Grossman, and S. R. Williams, "A Case-control Study of Relationships of Diet and Other Traits to Colorectal Cancer in American Blacks," Am. J. Epidemiol., 109: 132-144 (1979).

6. H. N. Englyst, S. A. gingham, H. S. Wiggins, et al., "Nonstarch Polysaccharide Consumption in Four Scandinavian Populations," Nutr. Cancer, 4: 50-59 (1982).

7. J. E. Enstrom, "Colorectal Cancer and Beer Drinking," Br. J. Cancer, 35: 674 (1977).

8. S. Graham, H. Payal, M. Swanson, A. Mittleman, and G. Wilkinson, "Diet in the Epidemiology of Cancer of the Colon and Rectum," J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 61: 709-714 ( 1978).

9. W. Haenszel, H. B. Locke, and M. Segi, "A Case-control Study of Large Bowel Cancer in Japan," J.N.C.I., 64: 17-22 (1980).

10. R. G. Hansen, B. W. Wyse and A. W. Sorenson, Nutritional Quality Index for Food (AVI, Westport, Conn., 1979).

11. M. W. Hinds, L. N. Kolonel, J. Lee, and T. Hiroshata, "Associations between Cancer Incidence and Alcohol/Cigarette Consumption among Five Ethnic Groups in Hawaii," Br. J. Cancer, 41: 929 940 (1980).

12. International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group, "Dietary Fiber, Transittime, Fecal Bacteria, Steroids, and Colon Cancer in Two Scandinavia Populations," Lancet, 2: 207-211 (1977).

13. M. Jain, G. M. Cook. F. G. Davish, M. G. Grace, G. R. Howe, and A. B. Miller, "A Case-control Study of Diet and Colo-rectal Cancer," Int. J. Cancer, 26: 757-768 (1980).

14. O. M. Jensen, "Cancer Risk among Danish Male Seventh Day Adventists and Other Temperance Society Members,"J.N.C.I., 70: 1011-1014 (1983).

15. O. M. Jensen and R. MacLennan, "Dietary Factors and Colorectal Cancer in Scandinavia," Isr. J. Med. Sci., 15: 329 334 (1979).

16. O. M. Jensen, R. MacLennan, and J. Wahrendort, "Diet, Bowel Function, Fecal Characteristics, and Large Bowel Cancer in Denmark and Finland." Nutr. Cancer, 4: 5-19 (1982).

17. L. J. Kinlen, "Meat and Fat Consumption and Cancer Mortality: A Study of Strict Religious Orders in Britain," Lancet, 1: 946-949 (1982).

18. L. K. Kolonel, J. H. Hankin, A. M. Nomura, and S. Y. Chu, "Dietary Fat Intake and Cancer Incidence among Five Ethnic Groups in Hawaii," Cancer Res., 41: 3727-3728 (1981).

19. P. A. Kurup, N. Jayakumari, M. Indira, et al., "Diet, Nutrition Intake, and Metabolism in Population at High and Low Risk for Colon Cancer: Composition, Intake, and Excretion of Fiber Constituents," A. J. C.N., 40: 942-946 (1984).

20. K. Liu, J. Stamler, D. Moss, D. Garside, V. Persky, and L. Soltero, "Dietary Cholesterol, Fat, and Fiber, and Colon-cancer Mortality," Lancet, 2: 782-785 (1979).

21. J. L. Lyon and A. W. Sorenson, ' Colon Cancer in a Low-risk Population," A.J.C.N., 31: s227-s230 (1978).

22. R. MacLennan, O. M. Jensen, J. Mosbech, and H. Vuori, "Diet, Transit Time, Stool Weight, and Colon Cancer in Two Scandinavian Populations, A.l.C.N., 31: s239-s242 (1978).

23. S. L. Malhotra, "Dietary Factors in a Study of Colon Cancer from Cancer Registry," Med. Hypotheses, 3: 122-126 (1977).

24. O. Manousos, N. E. Day, D. Trichopoulos, F. Gerovassilis, A. Tzonou, and A. Polychronopoulai, "Diet and Colorectal Cancer: A Case-control Study in Greece," Int. J. Cancer, 32: 1-5(1983).

25. R. A. McCance and E. M. Widdowson, eds., The Composition of Foods, 4th ed. (HMSO, London, 1978).

26. A. J. McMichael, M. B. McCall, J. M. Hartshorne, and T. L. Wooding, "Patterns of Gastrointestinal Cancer in European Migrants to Australia: The Role of Dietary Change," Int. J. Cancer, 25: 431-437 (1980).

27. A. J. McMichael, J. D. Potter, and B. S. Hetzel, "Time Trends in Colo-rectal Cancer Mortality in relation to Food and Alcohol Consumption: US. United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand," Int. J. Epidemiol., 8: 295-303 (1979).

28. A. B. Miller, G. R. Howe, M. Jain, K. L. P. Craib, and L. Harrison, Food Items and Food Groups as Risk Factors in a Case-control Study of Diet and Colo-rectal Cancer," Int. J. Cancer, 32: 155-161 (1983).

29. B. Modan, "Patterns of Gastrointestinal Neoplasms in Israel," ls. J. Med. Sci., 15: 301-304 (1979).

30. L. W. Pickle, M. H. Greene, R. G. Ziegler, A. Toledo, R. Hoover, H. T. Lynch, and R. F. Fraumeni, Jr., "Colorectal Cancer in Rural Nebraska," Cancer Res., 44: 363 369 (1984)

31. J. W. Powles and D. R. R. Williams, "Trends in Bowel Cancer in Selected Countries in relation to Wartime Changes in Flour Milling," Nutr. Cancer, 6: 40-48 (1984).

32. R. W. Rawson, "The Total Environment in the Epidemiology of Neoplastic Disease: The Obvious "Ain't Necessarily So," Cancer Incidence in Defined Populations, Banbury Report, no. 4 (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 1980), pp. 109-119.

33. B. S. Reddy, G. Ekelund, M. Bohe, A. Engle, and L. Domellot, "Metabolic Epidemiology of Colon Cancer: Dietary Pattern and Fecal Sterol Concentrations of Three Populations," Nutr. Cancer, 5: 3440 (1983).

34. R. L. Rizek, B. P. Perloff, and L. P. Posati. "USDA's Nutrient Data Bank," Food Tech. in Australia, 33: 3 (1981).

35. P. Rozen, S. M. Hellerstein, and C. Horwitz, "The Low Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in a High-risk Population," Cancer, 48: 2692-2695 (1981).

36. G. N. Stemmermann, A. M. Y. Nomura, and L. K. Heilbrum, 'Dietary Fat and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer," Cancer Res., 44: 4633 4637 (1984).

37. A. R. P. Walker, "The Relationship between Bowel Cancer and Fiber Content in the Diet," A.J.C.N., 31: s248-s251 (1978).

38. B. K. Watt, "Tables of Food Composition: Uses and Limitations," Contemp. Nutr., 5: 2 ( 1 980).

39. B. K. Watt and A. L. Merrill, Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared (USDA, Washington, D.C., 1963).

40. R. Zaldivar, W. H. Wetterstrand, and G. L. Ghai, "Relative Frequency of Mammary, Colonic, Rectal, and Pancreatic Cancer in a Large Autopsy Series," Zb/. Bakt. B, 169: 474-481 (1979)