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close this bookEffects of Improved Nutrition in Early Childhood : The institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) Follow-up Study; Proceedings of an IDECG workshop, July 1990, Bellagio, Italy, Supplement of The Journal of Nutrition (International Dietary Energy Consultative Group - IDECG, 1994, 198 pages)
close this folderNutritional impact of supplementation in the INCAP longitudinal study: Analytic strategies and inferences(¹,²)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentUsing the randomized design
View the documentDose response to supplementation
View the documentCombining randomized and dose-response analyses
View the documentDifferentiating among the contributions of energy and other nutrients
View the documentConclusions
View the documentLiterature cited


This paper presents the statistical significance of causality for an effect of the supplementation of the growth of 3-y-old children. It presents credible evidence for an effect of the supplement during pregnancy on the birth weight of infants. Finally, it presents evidence and the significance of causality for the effect of the supplement on the recuperation of malnourished children. The combination of the probability tests for causality with tests of association for credibility is necessary to make the most persuasive argument that the supplement had a nutritional effect on the outcome of concern. Credibility analyses are always possible and should always be done. Where the probability analysis for causality cannot be done, more analyses for credibility are necessary.


We thank Catherine Geissler for comments on an early draft of this paper.