|Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: Systems for Sustainability (UNU, 1993, 297 pages)|
84. Saccharum edule Haask. POACEAE/GRAMINAE
"edible sugar cane inflorescence," "Fiji asparagus," "pitpit" (PNG Pidgin)
Indigenous to Malesia and possibly New Guinea; probably an aboriginal introduction to the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji. Large, perennial, sugar-canelike grass, up to 2.5-4 m high, with erect, yellow or green to reddish stems; nodes marked but obscured by leaf sheaths; leaf blades tapering to a sharp point; a soft, fibrous, white to light yellow, cigar-shaped inflorescence enclosed in non-opening, leaf sheaths. Common in garden areas and widely naturalized, often in extensive stands; common in poorly drained valley bottoms, alluvial plains, or low-lying sites. Commonly cultivated or wild supplementary food plant in Melanesia; unopened (aborted) inflorescence eaten roasted over an open fire or cooked in an earthen oven in the leaf sheathes, cooked in coconut milk, and made into curries by Indians in Fiji; inflorescence a major seasonal cash crop; cooked inflorescence canned commercially in Fiji.
85. Saccharum officinarum L. POACEAE/GRAMINAE
"sugar cane," "noble sugar cane"
Indigenous to Malesia or New Guinea; an aboriginal introduction throughout island Melanesia and high-island Polynesia and Melanesia to as far east as Hawaii and Easter Island; a recent introduction to Nauru and some atolls. Large, perennial grass, up to 4 m tall, with erect, unbranched, yellow or green to dark red or almost black, sometimes striped, stems; nodes close together at base of stems and more widely spaced distally; leaves, long, broad, overlapping at base; and a dense, long, erect or drooping, branched panicle bearing silvery white to pinkish flowers. Common in rural garden areas, often in contiguous stands, as an intercrop or border planting; common in home gardens in both rural and urban areas; uncommonly naturalized; present, but not wellestablished, on atolls. Plant of important ceremonial or legendary importance in many areas of the Pacific, such as in Tonga, where it is presented along with kava in ritual offerings, or Hawaii, where its flowering signals the onset of the octopus season; common supplementary food plant throughout the Pacific, for which numerous named cultivars exist in most localities; juicy stems chewed as a source of refreshment and energy; stems chewed for medicinal purposes in New Britain; chewing the fibrous cellulose is believed to keep teeth and gums in good condition; a major commercial export crop or for industrial processing into sugar for local consumption in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Hawaii, where interspecific hybrid cultivars (often crosses between the noble caneslS. officinarum and woodier, more disease-resistant, wild canes such as S. spontaneum L. and S. robustum Brandes and Jeswiet ex Grassl) are cultivated for this purpose; formerly cultivated commercially by the Japanese in the Marianas Islands; by-products of commercial sugar manufacture include molasses, which is fed to livestock, alcohol, which is made into rum, gin, vodka, and whiskey for export and local sale in Fiji, and fertilizer (mill mud); leaves of some varieties are used as durable thatch for roofing; leaves provide fodder for cattle in commercial sugar-cane farming areas of Fiji; fibre from flower stalk used in braided hats in Hawaii.
86. Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. MIMOSACEAE/LEGUMINOSAE
"rain tree," "monkey-pod tree"
syns. Albizia saman (Jacq.) F. v. Muell.; Mimosa saman Jacq.; Enterolobium saman (Jacq.) Prain ex King; Pithecellobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.; Inga saman (Jacq.) Willd.
Indigenous to tropical America; a post-European-contact introduction to the Pacific Islands. Large to massive tree, 7-25 m high, the trunk up to 1 m in diameter, the crown rounded, usually broader than tall, with bipinnate leaves; pink flowers with greenish or yellowish lobes; and straight or slightly curved pods containing sweet, sticky, brown pulp and brown seeds. Common in both rural and urban areas; commonly naturalized and invasive in some areas, such as Vanuatu, where it is a major weed in abandoned or poorly maintained plantations, and in Fiji, where it is among the most common trees on smallholder sugar-cane farms, particularly along stream banks; not found on atolls. Important ornamental, shade, or roadside tree; timber used in general construction and for firewood; a favoured species for wood carving and furniture such as small table tops; a nitrogen-fixing species of some value for Breen manure; pods occasionally fed to livestock.
87. Scaevola sericea Vahl. GOODENIACEAE
"scaevola," "saltbush, " "half-flower"
syns. S. taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb.; S. sericea var. raccada Makino; S. frutescens sensu auct. non (Mill.) Krause; S. frutescens var. sericea (Forst. f.) Merr. (nom. nud.); S. koenigii Vahl; S. lobelia Murr.; Lobelia taccada Gaertn.; L. koenigii (Vahl) Wight
Indigenous from East Africa through tropical Asia, southern Japan, northern Australia, and Malesia to eastern Polynesia, Micronesia, and Hawaii. Erect, freely branching, spreading, somewhat succulent, soft-wooded, pithy-stemmed shrub, up to about 2 m high, with slightly fleshy, light bright green leaves crowded near the ends of the branches; white or pale green flowers that appear to be split in two with only half the petals remaining; and grape-like bunches of fleshy, white, subglobose fruit. Very abundant in coastal strand vegetation, often bordering inland garden areas, throughout the Pacific; common in understorey vegetation in coconut plantations on atolls; dominant species and one of first colonizers on strip-mined areas of Nauru. Protected in garden areas on atolls and occasionally planted in home gardens; associated with phases of the moon in Kiribati; features in legends and chants in Hawaii; wood sometimes used for roofing strips, rafters, supports, and house decking, rafts, canoe paddles and poles, scoop-net handles, eel traps, reef markers, net gauges, shark rattles, throwing sticks, and toy darts; hollow branches used as popguns or blowguns in games in Tuvalu, Tokelau, Kiribati, and Nauru; pith of large trees cut into strips and made into paper-like garlands and headbands in Kiribati and Nauru, and to caulk canoes in Tuvalu; pith chewed as gum in Kiribati; leaves made into tuna lures in Tokelau; leaves boiled with women's grass skirts in Kiribati to dye them brown and make them durable; bark, white heartwood, roots, leaves, fruit, and seeds used medicinally; leaves used as a contraceptive in New Guinea; leaves used for wrapping penis in Vanuatu circumcision ceremony; leaves used to wrap food and to cover earthen ovens; leaves used as pig feed in Tokelau; fruits used in magic in Kiribati; fruit used in fishing magic in Ulithi; leaves used for cleansing diving goggles in Polynesia, for shelter in fish traps in Kiribati, to scent coconut oil in Micronesia, in head garlands, and worn in ear slits in Tuvalu, and occasionally for compost or fertilizer; flowers used in garlands in Tuvalu, Kiribati, and Nauru; fruit eaten by pigeons or fed to them in Tokelau.
88. Schizostachyam spp. POACEAE/GRAMINAE
"bamboo," "aboriginal bamboo," "native bamboo"
spp. S. glaucifolium (Rupr.) Munro; S. lima (Blanco) Merr. (syn. Bambusa lima Blanco); S. stenocladum A. Camus; S. tessellatum A. Camus
Indigenous species from tropical Asia through Melanesia (S. glaucifolium, S. stenocladum, and S. tessellatum) to Palau and Yap in the Caroline Islands (S. lima); S. glaucifolium probably an aboriginal introduction from Fiji into Polynesia as far east as the Marquesas and Hawaii; possibly a naturalized aboriginal introduction in parts of Melanesia. Tall, clump-forming bamboos, up to 15 m tall, with hollow, thinwalled stems with branches above the upper nodes; linear-oblong leaves; and inconspicuous flowers. Common to occasional in secondary vegetation, often dominant in intermediate climatic zones of Fiji; common in hillside thickets and along streams and rivers; occasional in garden areas, often in large stands; widely naturalized throughout the Pacific. Stems used in construction, for house walling, rafters, battens for affixing thatch, shelving and scaffolding, fencing and poultry pens, fishing rods, yam stakes or trellising, makeshift spears, cooking and water containers, nose flutes, and pillows; leaves used to cover cooking containers in the Solomon Islands. Widely being replaced in importance by the larger, recently introduced Bambusa vulgaris.
89. Securinega flexuosa Muell.-Arg. EUPHORBIACEAE
syns. S. samoana Croizat.; S. virosa ?; Flueggea flexuosa Muell.Arg.
Indigenous from the Moluccas and Philippines eastward to the Solomon Islands; also present, but probably an aboriginal introduction, in Vanuatu, Fiji, Rotuma, Uvea (Walks Island), Tonga, and Samoa; a recent introduction into Rarotonga in the
Cook Islands. Shrub or small tree, up to 15 m high, with rough bark; ovate leaves; small, petal-less flowers in axillary clusters; and globose berries with many small seeds. Common tree in forests, usually near villages, and in agricultural lands, and occasionally planted near villages and in home gardens, particularly in Samoa; important, apparently naturalized, pioneer species in abandoned gardens. Planted along boundaries; dark, heavy wood favoured for house posts, general construction, and fencing; occasionally used for firewood; shredded root used medicinally in New Guinea; fruit used as a source of dye on Uvea.
90. Spondias dulcis Park. ANACARDIACEAE
"Polynesian vi-apple," "Polynesian plum," "Otaheiti apple," "golden apple"
syn. S. cytherea Sonn.
Probably indigenous to tropical Asia; an aboriginal introduction to Melanesia, Polynesia as far east as the Marquesas, and to the Caroline Islands and Nauru in Micronesia; a post-European-contact introduction to Hawaii. Medium to large, stiffbranched, smooth, gray-barked, deciduous tree, up to 15 m or taller, with pinnately compound leaves; numerous, small, whitish flowers in particulate clusters; and ovalobovate, edible fruit with green to yellow-orange skin and light green to dark yellow pulp. Common tree in rural garden areas, fallow forests, and home gardens; sometimes growing in an almost wild or naturalized state in mature fallow forests; almost always preserved when clearing fallow vegetation for new gardens. Soft, light wood used for interior purposes in house building and formerly made into canoe hulls; immature and ripe fruit eaten throughout the Pacific, occasionally cooked in the Solomon Islands, and a minor seasonal cash crop for local sale; immature fruit grated and mixed with coconut as a refreshment or dessert and made into spiced pickles (achar) by Indians in Fiji; juice of fruit an important food for pregnant women in the Solomon Islands; young leaves eaten in some areas, often with pork or to flavour meat; bark, leaves, and fruit used medicinally.
91. Swierenia macrophylla King MELIACEAE
"West Indian mahogany," "large-leaved mahogany," "Honduras mahogany"
Indigenous to eastern Central and South America from Mexico southward to Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil; a recent introduction into the Pacific Islands. Large tree, up to 34 m high, with hard, heavy, reddish wood; pinnately compound leaves; panicles of numerous, small, white flowers; and ovoid, woody fruit. Major exotic species used in reforestation programmes in the wet zone of Fiji; occasionally planted as a timber tree in Niue, Tonga, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and elsewhere; occasionally planted in agricultural areas, in and around villages, on sugar-cane farms, in home gardens, and as a street tree. Timber used for high quality construction, furniture, veneer, mouldings, panelling, general joinery work, boat planking and decking; other uses, depending on the grade, include carving, light handles, drawing boards, light construction and cases; waste wood used as firewood.
92. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels MYRTACEAE
"jambolan," "Java plum"
syns. Myrtus cumini L.; Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce; E. jambolana Lam.
Indigenous or naturalized from India and Sri Lanka to Malesia; a recent introduction into the Pacific Islands. Medium-sized tree, up to 15 m high, with stiff, leathery, oblong to oblong-elliptic leaves; clustered, white flowers with numerous stamens; and small, oblong, thin-skinned, dark red or purple, tart, edible fruit. Occasional to common in rural areas and in home gardens; occasionally naturalized. Planted in some areas, such as Fiji, Niue, the Cook Islands, and French Polynesia, as a windbreak, street tree, or fruit or fuel-wood tree; timber used occasionally in light construction; a good firewood and one of the main sources of fuel in the Marquesas; ripe fruit eaten, usually by children, as snack food and sometimes made into preserves.
93. Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. and Perry MYRTACEAE
"Malay apple," "mountain apple"
syns. Eugenia malaccensis L.; Carophyllus malaccensis (L.) Stokes; Jambosa malaccensis (L.) DC.
Probably indigenous to tropical Asia, but now pantropical in cultivation; an aboriginal introduction into most islands of Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia. Medium tree, up to 10 m or higher, with glossy, oval- or elliptic-oblong leaves; flowers in dense, pedicellate cymes with numerous, scarlet to red-pink stamens; and subglobose to oblong, light green to reddish pink, fleshy, edible fruit containing a large seed. Common in mature fallow forests and open forests, and planted or protected in agricultural areas; protected when clearing for new gardens; common to occasional in home gardens; does not seem to grow on atolls. Planted or protected fruit-tree throughout the Pacific; fruit eaten green and ripe; timber occasionally used in construction; one of the most important medicinal plants in the Pacific, with its bark and leaves used medicinally as a general tonic and for a wide range of maladies.
94. Syzygium spp. (Eugenia spp.) MYRTACEAE
spp. S. brackenridgei (A. Gray) C. Muell.; S. carolinensis (Koidz.) Hosok.; S. clusiaefolium (A. Gray) C. Muell.; S. corynocarpum (A. Gray) C. Muell.; S. curvistylum (Gillesp.) Merr. and Perry; S. dealatum (Burkbill) A.C. Smith; S. diffusum (Turrill) Merr. and Perry; S. effusum (A. Gray) C. Muell.; S. gracilipes (A. Gray) Merr. and Perry; S. inophylloides (A. Gray) C. Muell.; S. myriadena Merr. and Perry; S. neurocalyx (A. Gray) Christoph.; S. onesima Merr. and Perry; S. palauensis Kaneh.; S. richii (A. Gray) Merr. and Perry; S. samarangense (Bl.) Merr. and Perry; S. stelechanthum (Diels) Glassman; Eugenia buettneriana K. Schaum.; E. fierneyana F. Muell.
Indigenous species from tropical Asia through Malesia and Melanesia to western Polynesia and the Caroline Islands in Micronesia; some species may have been aboriginal introductions to western Polynesia and some other islands because of their fruit or cultural importance for making leis and medicine (e.g. S. corynocarpum, S. neurocalyx, and S. samarangense). Variable shrubs to large trees, up to 20 m high, usually with prominently-veined leaves; variable, many-stamened flowers; and generally ovoid to fusiform fruit, both of which are often borne along the branches and trunk. Common in lowland forest, mature fallow forest, open forest, coastal forest, and thickets throughout the high-island Pacific; some species planted or protected in agricultural areas and home gardens. Some species very important timber trees for local use, with some being milled commercially; wood used in house construction, tools and handicrafts, and for firewood; bark, leaves, and buds of fruit used medicinally; fruit of some species eaten; fruit and flowers used in leis and garlands; fruits used to produce dyes and skin lotions.
95. Tamarindus indica L. CAESALPINIACEAE/LEGUMINOSAE
Probably indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia, although exact origin unknown due to its long existence in cultivation throughout this area; a post-Europeancontact introduction into the Pacific Islands. Medium to large, spreading tree, up to 25 m high, with a rounded crown; pinnately compound leaves with many small leaflets; pink to yellow or cream-coloured flowers with red or purple veins; and oblong, curved or straight, brittle-skinned, velvety brown fruit that are irregularly constricted between the seeds and contain hard, dark brown, obovate seeds embedded in greenish to yellow-brown, acid pulp. Commonly cultivated or protected in rural agricultural areas, particularly on smallholder Indian sugar-cane farms in Fiji; occasional in home gardens and in urban areas; uncommonly naturalized in secondary vegetation and near seashores. Commonly cultivated shade, ornamental, and fruit-tree; timber occasionally used for light construction and firewood; acid pulp of ripe fruit eaten uncooked and used in beverages and jams, and in chutneys by Indians in Fiji; balls of extracted pulp sold in produce markets in Fiji; used medicinally by Indians in Fiji.
96. Teminalia catappa L. COMBRETACEAE
"beach almond," "Indian almond," "Malabar almond," "tropical almond," "coastal almond," "sea almond"
Indigenous to tropical Asia through Malesia, northern Australia, and Melanesia to eastern Polynesia and Micronesia: probably an aboriginal introduction into many areas in the eastern parts of its range, such as Hawaii and some of the atolls. Medium to large, deciduous tree, up to 30 m tall, with whorled, horizontal, widespreading branches arranged in tiers; reddish timber; leathery, shiny, dark green leaves that turn red and yellow before dropping, the new leaves appearing almost immediately; and subobovoid, hard, flattened, two-keeled fruit, green turning yellow, then red, containing thin, fleshy pulp surrounding a single, edible, almond-like kernel. Occasional in coastal strand forests and coastal thickets; common in lowland, inland agricultural areas as a protected or cultivated tree; occasional in home gardens and as a roadside or tourist resort tree. Favourite tree of the ancestral goddess Nei Tituaabane in Kiribati; tree important in sorcery in Nauru; commonly cultivated as an ornamental shade and nut-tree; timber used in general construction and for canoe hulls, paddles, kava bowls, tool handles, war clubs, walking sticks, slit-gongs, and drums; used for firewood; bark and leaves occasionally used to make black dye for pandanus leaves in Fiji and Niue; bark of young stems used for cordage; leaves used for wrapping food for cooking in earthen ovens in Kiribati; roots, bark, young leaves, and fruit used medicinally; mature seed kernel widely eaten; seeds preserved twice yearly in the Solomon Islands for storage; ripe fruit surrounding seeds occasionally eaten in Nauru and Puluwat; fruit eaten by fruit bats; desiccated pith of fruit used to rub corpses in Kiribati; necklaces made of fruit in Nauru; seeds occasionally made into oil in Samoa for mixing with coconut oil.
97. Theobroma cacao L. STERCULIACEAE
Indigenous to tropical South America and long cultivated in Central America; a post-European-contact introduction to the Pacific Islands. Shrub or small tree, up to 8 m high, with fine, soft, pubescent, new branches; thin, leathery, oblong-ovate, acu minate leaves; white flowers with white to pale violaceous or reddish sepals and clawed, white petals with purplish or red nerves, a yellow blade and red or purplish stamens, borne on cauliflorous pedicles at the fallen leaf axils or on branches; and large, ovoid-ellipsoid, ridged, red, purple, or yellow (when ripe), indehiscent fruit (pods) containing ellipsoid, white to deep purple seeds embedded in sweet, edible, mucilaginous pulp. Common in smallholder monocultural plantations and sometimes on extensive estates in Melanesia and Samoa; occasionally intercropped with coconuts, bananas, other overstorey tree species or undercropped with shadetolerant food plants such as Xanthosoma taro; infrequent in rural and home gardens; occasionally naturalized near abandoned plantations; not found on atolls. Commercial export crop in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, and Western Samoa; minor or residual fruit-tree in some other areas; seeds (beans) fermented and roasted for export for the manufacture of chocolate; seeds dried and roasted on a small scale to make local cocoa in Samoa; pulp of mature fruit eaten as a refreshment or snack food; mature fruit and processed cocoa occasionally sold locally.
98. Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa MALVACEAE
syns. Hibiscus pulpulneus L.; Hibiscus bacciferus Forst. f.; Malvaviscus populneus (L.) Gaertn.
Indigenous from eastern Africa and southern Asia through Malesia to eastern Polynesia and the Marshall and Gilbert Islands in Micronesia; probably an aboriginal introduction into some areas, such as Hawaii, in the eastern part of its range. Shrub or medium tree, up to 20 m high, with leathery, heart-shaped leaves; yellow, cupshaped flowers with a crimson blotch at the base of the throat; and globose, capsular fruit containing a prominently-veined seed. Occasional along seashores, on the inner margins of mangroves, in disturbed habitats, and in rural gardens, home gardens, and urban areas. Believed to be the shadow and spirit medium of the god of prayer and chanting in Tahiti and Hawaii; planted in sacred places in Tahiti, surrounding the house of Kamehameha I of Hawaii, and along bunds between taro gardens in Tuvalu; occasionally cultivated as an ornamental shade or street tree; branches attached to masts of canoes in Tahiti as a token of peace; currently planted as part of a replanting programme in the Cook Islands; durable (especially under water) attractive wood highly esteemed for general construction and wood carving of calabashes, containers, pestles, kava bowls, paddles, drums, weapons, fishing poles and fish-net handles, and carved figures, spirit images, ceremonial thrones, and handicrafts throughout Polynesia; used for canoe hulls and floats in Papua New Guinea; provides sticks for stick games in Nauru; branches held by priests when praying and leaves offered to gods as a substitute for kava in Tahiti; leaves used in making fire by friction; bark used for tannin and dye; bark, stems, leaves, and green fruit used medicinally; young leaves edible; leaves provide black dye for pandanus in Tuvalu; inner bark used for cordage in Hawaii; fruit used for tops in eastern Polynesia; flowers used in garlands in Kiribati; leaves occasionally used in compost in Kiribati.
99. Tournefortia argentea L. f. BORAGINACEAE
syns. Messerschmidia argentea (L. f.) I.M. Johnst.; Argusia argentea (L. f.) Heine
Indigenous from eastern Africa, South-East Asia through Malesia to the Ryukyu Islands, eastern Polynesia, including Hawaii and the Marshall Islands and Kiribati in Micronesia. Small to medium, wide-spreading, short-bunked tree, 2-12 m tall, with rather stout twigs; deeply grooved bark; dense, silvery grey pubescent, leathery leaves; numerous, small, white flowers in branching, cymose clusters; and greenish white to brown, grape-like fruit. Common in coastal strand forests and beach thickets throughout the Pacific; occasional in agricultural areas, often surrounding excavated taro pits, on atolls; occasionally planted or protected in coastal home gardens on atolls and in coastal areas. Tree features in Tuamotuan and Kiribati mythology; timber occasionally used in light construction, occasionally for canoe hulls, connective and other parts, and for tools, cooking equipment, bailers, backrests, ladles, slit-gongs, diving goggles, carved masks, and rat traps, and for wood carving; a favoured firewood and formerly used in making fire by friction in Kiribati; leaves reportedly eaten raw in "salads" by boat crews in Kiribati; important pig feed in Tokelau and Micronesia; leaves, leaf buds, growing tips, roots, bark, stems, and fruit used medicinally; tender leaves and meristem used to cure fish poisoning in Nauru; leaves used as a female deodorant in Kiribati, in ceremonial dress in New Guinea, and as fish bait and to stuff pigs for cooking in Tokelau; seeds shot through hollow branch tubes in children's games; leaves used in compost and fertilizers in Kiribati; branches at ground surface and immature flower stalks used in voyaging and love magic in Micronesia.
100. Vitex spp. VERBENACEAE
"vitex," "beach vitex," "blue vitex"
spp. Vitex negundo L. (syns. V. incisa Lam.; V. paniculata Lam.); V. trifolia L. (syn. V. rotundifolia L. f.)
Indigenous from southern Africa and the Indian Ocean islands through southern Asia, Malesia, and northern Australia; possibly an aboriginal introduction into some islands in the easternmost parts of its range; probably a recent introduction to some of the atolls. Small, aromatic shrub or small, freely branching tree, up to 10 m high, with tri- to 5-foliate, downy, aromatic leaves, blueviolet flowers in narrow panicles, and small, drupe-like, blue to black fruit. Occasional in beach thickets, along margins of mangroves, in disturbed sites, often along roads near the sea, and in fallow areas; rarely in undisturbed forest; common weed in pastures in the dry zone of Fiji; occasional in home gardens. Sometimes cultivated in home gardens; V. trifolia widely planted as mosquito-repellent hedges and wind-breaks on Majuro and Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands; wood used in light construction and for tools and axe handles in Melanesia; used for firewood; branches used for fishing rods in Nauru; leaves burned as an insect/mosquito repellent; leaves, bark, and fruit used medicinally; leaves eaten with dried coconut and leaves and wood made into tea in Hawaii; flowers, fragrant leaves, and growing tips used in garlands.
General: Backer and Bakuizen van den Brink 1963; Mernll 1943,1945; Purseglove 1975a and 1975b; Sterly 1970; Whistler 1980a, 1983a, 1991; Yen 1991; and personal records, in-field observations and interpretation of available literature by the author.
Papua New Guinea: Clarke 1971; Henty 1982; Powell 1976a; Sterly 1970; Tarepe and Bourke 1982.
New Caledonia: Jardin 1974; Rageau 1973; Schmid 1981.
Solomon Islands: Kirch and Yen 1982; Sterly 1970; Whitmore 1966, 1969; Yen 1974.
Vanuatu: Cabalion 1984; Gowers 1976; Lebot and Cabalion 1986; Mescarm 1989; Sterly 1970.
Fiji: J.W. Parham 1972; Seemann 1873; Smith 1979, 1981, 1985, 1988, 1991.
Tonga: Sykes 1981; Thaman 1976; Yuncker 1959.
Samoa: Amerson et al. 1982; B.E.V. Parham 1972; Setchell 1924; Whistler 1980b, 1983a, 1983b, 1984.
Niue: Sykes 1970.
Wallis and Futuna: St. John and Smith 1971.
Cook Islands: Sykes 1976; Wilder 1931.
Tuvalu: Chambers 1975; Hedley 1896, 1897; Koch 1983; Woodroffe 1985.
Tokelau: Parham 1971; Whistler 1987.
French Polynesia: Decker 1971; Guerin 1982; Oliver 1974; Petard 1986; Sachet 1983.
Easter Island: Metraux 1940.
Hawaii: Handy et al. 1972; Kaaiakamanu and Akina 1922; Krauss 1974; Neal 1965; Rock 1974; St. John 1973.
Kiribati: Catala 1957; Fosberg and Sachet 1987; Koch 1986; Luomala 1953; Moul 1957; Overy et al. 1982; Polunin 1979; Thaman 1987b, 1990, 1992.
Nauru: Tharnan et al.1985; Thaman 1992.
Micronesia: Fosberg et al. 1979, 1982, 1987; Fosberg and Sachet 1984; Kanehira 1933; Lessa 1977;
Manner 1987; Stemmermann 1981; Wiens 1962.
Marshall Islands: Bryan 1972; Fosberg and Sachet 1975; Lamberson 1982.
Pohnpei: Lessa 1977; Niering 1956; St. John 1948.
Truk: Lessa 1977; Marshall and Fosberg 1975.
Palau: Alkire 1974; Fosberg et al. 1980.
Guam and Marianas: Fosberg et al. 1975; Stone, 1970.