|Agricultural Expansion and Pioneer Settlements in the Humid Tropics (UNU, 1988, 305 pages)|
|11. Ex-military settlements in Indonesia and the emergence of social differentiation in frontier areas|
Settlements of ax-servicemen are not necessarily self-sustaining in themselves, since the aptitude towards farming has clearly weakened.
The frontier area, often rather distant from the towns, has not generated adequate employment opportunities for settlers, such that the pull factor of urban centres is still significant.
Ex-military settlers, enjoying greater government subsidies, tend to possess a broader margin in which to apply more advanced technologies in farming and to bear greater risks in comparison to other, civilian settlers.
Such differences have given rise to the emergence of social differentiation and, in several areas, of social stratification with distinct strata among the totality of settlers, both military and civilian. Consequently, the intention to create greater equity through, for example, allocating equal land lots of 2 ha has not been realized. Land selling by the poorer and buying by the more well-to-do settlers persist very much like in the areas of origin.
In contrast to the BRN and CTN settlements of the 1950s, however, the more integrated forms of military and civilian settlements of the 1970s proved to be more democratic and viable.
The presence of better educated ax-military settlers, however, has not resulted in elevating larger settlement units to an agriculturally based stage of industrialization.