|Bibliography of Studies of the Energy Cost of Physical Activity in Humans (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 1997, 162 pages)|
|4.1 Activities common to everyday life|
1. Bandyopadhyay B & Chattopadhyay H (1980): Energy metabolism in male college students. Indian J.Med.Res. 71, 961-969.
Studies were undertaken on two groups of male college students in West Bengal i.e. 9 athletes and 11 non-athletes to determine their energy metabolic status. It was found that the body fat percentage (8.2 +-1.66) and energy intake (2248 +-114 kcal) were lower in athletes than in the non-athletes (fat percent being 10.1 i-2.21 and energy intake being 2370+-273 kcal), whereas athletes had a comparatively higher body weight (56.0+-7.33 kg) and higher energy expenditure (2326+-194 kcal) than the non-athletes (whose body weight- was 51+-6.73 kg, energy expenditure, 1938+-233 kcal). All non-athlete subjects were in positive caloric balance (+431.63+139.39 kcal) whereas most of the athletes were in a negative caloric balance (77.45+-190.56) in a 7-day study period. Energy expenditure in resting conditions i.e. (Lying, sitting, standing) did not differ significantly between the two groups, but on increasing the work load, athletes showed lower energy expenditure (kcal/kg LBW) than did the non-athletes. In both groups of subjects, the body weight was positively correlated with energy expenditure.
2. Brotherhood JR (1973): Studies on energy expenditure in the antarctic. In: Polar human biology, edited by O.G. Edholm, et al, pp. 182-192. William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd. Great Brittain.
Energy expenditure of men at two British Antarctic Survey bases was measured by indirect calorimetry for both inside and outside activities. The energy cost of most indoor activities was not different from that reported for temperate zones. This suggests that there is little change in basal metabolism in Antarctica. Some individuals worked at unexpectedly high rates at domestic chores. Outside, energy expenditure was high. A number of factors was involved in this increase: (1) Many essential activities involved heavy manual labour. (2) The terrain greatly increased the energy cost of progression, and this was exacerbated by men's requirement to maintain a certain minimum speed. (3) The weight and restricting effect of the clothing worn increased the effort required to perform (1) and (2). (4) With the clothing most often worn, relatively high heat outputs were required to maintain thermal comfort. If the three previous factors did not fulfil this requirement, heat outputs were increased by a) "muscular thermogenesis", but rarely shivering; b) behaviour, in the form of muscular exercise extraneous to the prime activity. (5) On many occasions men were prepared to work at fifty to sixty per cent of their maximum oxygen intakes in order to complete tasks quickly.
3. Brun T. Bleiberg F & Goihman S (1981): Energy expenditure of male farmers in dry and rainy seasons in Upper-Volta. Br.J.Nutr. 45, 67-75.
1. Thirty Mossi male farmers from Upper-Volta were investigated, twenty-three in the dry season (March-April) and sixteen in the rainy season (July-August), eight of them being studied twice. A 48 h time-and-motion study was carried out and the daily energy expenditure was computed. 2. The mean height was 1.70 m and the mean weight 58.5 kg. The averaged percentage of body fat calculated from skinfold thickness was 10. 3. During the dry season the subjects could be classified as very moderately active with an energy output of 10.0 MJ (2410 kcal)/d. By contrast, with an energy expenditure of 14.4 MJ (3460 kcal)/d, they were considered as exceptionally active in July-August when performing the agricultural work. 4. In this study we measured the intensity of physical work in a society where human labour is still the main tool of production. The determination of seasonal variations in energy expenditure may be useful to assess the nutritional requirements in arid zones of West Africa.
4. Cole AH & Ogbe JO (1987): Energy intake, expenditure and pattern of daily activity of Nigerian male students. Br.J.Nutr. 58, 357-367.
Department of Human Nutrition, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 1. Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian male students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and expenditure and pattern of their daily activities. 2. The mean age (years) of the group was 24.0 (SD 3.23, range 20-30), mean height (m) 1.71 (SD 0.06, range 1.61-1.84) and body-weight (kg) was 61.1 (SD 5.01, range 51.0-69.5). 3. The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing and its energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Patterns of daily activities were recorded and the energy costs of representative activities were determined by indirect calorimetry. 4. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean 580 (SD 167, range 394-732) min/d. Sleeping and standing activities took a mean of 445 (SD 112) and 115 (SD 75) min/d respectively. Personal domestic activities took a mean of 94 (SD 40) min/d. 5. The mean energy intake of the group was 11,182 (SD 1970) kJ/d or 183 (SD 32) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than the 12.5 MJ/d recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for an adult man engaged in moderate activities, but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 10.8 MJ/d for a male office clerk (light activity). It is also lower than the recommended energy requirement of 11.6 MJ/d for a subsistence farmer (moderately active work) (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). 6. The mean energy expenditure of the male subjects was 9876 (SD 1064, range 7159-12,259) kJ/d and was lower than mean intake. 7. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the groups participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is an indication that the Nigerian male students expended less but probably consumed more energy than required. It is suggested for health reasons and for mental fitness that the Nigerian male students might undertake more physical exercise.
5. De Guzman PE, Kalaw JM, Tan RH, Recto RC, Basconcillo RO, Ferrer VT, Tumbokon MS, Yuchingtat GP & Gaurano AL (1974): A study of the energy expenditure, dietary intake and pattern of daily activity among various occupational groups. III. Urban jeepney drivers. Philip.J.Nutr. 27, 182-188.
This study is the third of a series on basic and occupational activities. Selection was made based on the distribution of employment by percentage of occupation in the national labor force. The subjects include 10 jeepney drivers plying the San Juan-Mandaluyong route. The same methodology was used as in the previous studies made, (1), (2), wherein one week data on metabolic cost of their basic and occupational activities were measured by indirect calorimetry. The total food intake of each subject was measured daily for seven days by the individual inventory method and data on the time activity pattern was likewise determined.
6. Didier JP, Mourey F. Brondel L, Marcer I, Milan C, Casillas JM, Verges B & Winsland JK (1993): The energetic cost of some daily activities: a comparison in a young and old population. Age Ageing, 22, 90-96.
Groupe d'Etude et de Recherche sur le Handicap, C.H.R.U. de Dijon, France. The energetic costs of some daily activities were compared in two groups, 10 young people (24.3 +/- 2.8 years) and 10 old people (74.4 +/- 2.2 years): rising and sitting back down on a seat, getting up from and Lying down on a bed and getting up from the floor. The oxygen consumption and the time necessary for the activities were measured. The results showed a noteworthy economical energetic procedure when rising and sitting back down on a seat among the older group. The values of the energy expenditure were respectively 3.9 +/- 1.3 car/kg in the older group and 5.8 +/- 1.6 in the younger one with a standard seat (45 cm) and 2.7 +/- 1.2 vs 5.2 +/- 1.5 with a raised seat (60 cm). The activities did not vary significantly in time in the two age groups. This procedure could be understood as an adaptation of the energy expenditure to the reduced aerobic capacity with ageing. Conversely, getting up from and Lying down on the floor or a standard hospital bed involved the same energy expenditure in the older and younger group, but performing these activities took significantly longer for the older people (+60% for getting up from the floor, +33% from the bed). As these activities revealed no economical energetic procedure in the older group, they appeared responsible for a strong factor of dependence. The importance of a learning process particularly for the most usual movements in everyday life is discussed.
7. Dieng K, Lemmonier D, Bleibers F & Brun TA (1980): Differences in the rate of energy expenditure of resting activities between European and African men. Nutr.Rep.lnt. 21, 183-187.
The rates of energy expenditure were measured for two groups of healthy men when lying at rest and standing inactive. 10 West Africans who had been living in France for several years were compared to a control group of 10 French men matched for height and weight. The increase in energy expenditure when changing from lying to standing erect was significantly lower in the Africans. This finding confirms previous results and suggests a racial difference in the rate of energy expenditure when standing inactive.
8. Fellingham GW, Roundy ES, Fisher AG & Bryce GR (1978): Caloric cost of walking and running. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 10, 132-136.
Twenty-four young adult male subjects were used to study the relationship between total caloric costs (exercise and recovery costs) incurred and speed of movement over a distance of 1 mile. Caloric costs were determined at walking speeds of 3, 4, and 5 mph and at running speeds of 5, 7, and 9 mph. Energy costs were assessed every 20 sec during the activity and during the recovery until the caloric cost returned to pre-established resting levels. The fitness level of the subjects was considered as a moderating variable. Regression equations to predict caloric cost from body weight, speed of movement, and VO2 max were also developed. Conclusions for the given speeds were: (1) running is more costly than walking, (2) the cost of walking a mile increases with speed of movement, and (3) for running speeds, total caloric cost and VO2 max are inversely related. The independent variables for the regression equation for walking included body weight and speed squared times body weight (R2 = 0.86). The independent variables for the running equation were identical to the ones used in the walking equation with the addition of speed times VO2 max (R2 = 0.62).
9. Kamon E (1973): Rest allowance for stair climbing: a case study. J.Occup.Med. 15, 720-723.
The energy expenditure of eight males who climbed 25 flights of stairs, which totalled 600 footsteps, was measured by using a Kofranyi-Michaelis respirometer. The mean climbing rate was 9.8 ± 2.6 m/min, which equalled a workload of 868 ± 227 kg.m/min, and mean total oxygen uptake was 1595 ± 290 mlO2/min. The mean total and net oxygen uptakes standardized by workload were 1.88 ± 0.20 and 1.53 + - 0.20 ml 02/ kg.m respectively.
10. Kashiwazaki H. Inaoka T. Suzuki T & Kondo Y (1986): Correlations of pedometer readings with energy expenditure in workers during free-living activities. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 54, 585-590.
In a total of 23 subjects consisting of 10 clerical and 13 assembly workers in a factory, the pedometer readings during a day of free-living activity were analyzed for the relation with energy expenditure as determined by the simultaneously recorded 24-hour heart rate. The 24-hour energy expenditures in the clerical and assembly workers were 9515 kJ (2274 kcal) and 9698 kJ (2318 kcal) respectively. The whole day readings of the pedometer for all the subjects moderately correlated (r=0.438, p<0.05) with the net energy cost (NEC) as determined by subtracting the sleeping metabolic cost from the energy expenditure (clerical workers: r=0.781, p<0.01; assembly workers: r=0.188, p>0.05). The correlation- analysis of the pedometer readings with the NEC in three activity phases in a day (work, commuting and staying at home) showed that the extent of the relationship differed by job types and activity phases. The best correlation was obtained during commuting in both of the job types (clerical workers: r=0.843. p<0.01; assembly workers: r=0.743, p<0.01). During work, a quite strong correlation (r=0.889, p<0.01) was obtained with the clerical workers but not with the assembly workers. No significant correlations were found in the data while the subjects were at home. The capacity of the pedometer to detect the impacts of body movements and the characterisitics of activity is responsible for the differences in correlation. The limitations of the pedometer suggested in the present study must be taken into account if the device is to be used for measuring physical activity. A particular advantage of the device appears to be in its use for a sedentary population without regular strenuous exercise of static contractions.
11. Pandolf KB, Givoni B & Goldman RF (1977): Predicting energy expenditure with loads while standing or walking very slowly. .J.Appl.Physiol 43, 577-581.
Previously a formula was presented to predict metabolic rate (M) for walking and load carrying; it could not be used for walking speeds below 0.7 m.s-1 (2.5 km.h-1). In this study, six men each carried backpack loads of 32, 40 and 50 kg while walking at 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2 m.s-1 to extend the range of speed down to the stand still level. Metabolic cost of standing with 0-, 10-, 30, or 50-kg backpacks was also investigated in 10 men to evaluate the energy expenditure of load carriage while standing. Energy expenditure increased with external load, both standing and walking. No increased inefficiency occured with very slow walking; M decreased as speed approached zero. The revised predictive formula which now covers standing and the whole range of walking speeds, has the form M= 1.5W + 2.0(W + L)(L/W)² + m(W+L)[1.5V² + 0.35VG] where M= metabolic rate, watts; W = subject weight, kg; L = load carried, kg; V = speed of walking, m.s-1; G= grade, %; m = terrain factor (m = 1.0 for treadmill). The new formula not only extends the range of application but also allows an adjustment for load as a function of body weight and permits easier calculation of energy expenditure.
12. Pandolf KB, Haisman ME & Goldman RF (1976): Metabolic energy expenditure and terrain coefficients for walking on snow. Ergonomics, 19, 683-690.
Ten male subjects each walked at two speeds, 0.67 and 1.12 m.s-1 (1.5 and 2.5 mph), on a level treadmill and on a variety of snow depths. Energy expenditure increased linearly with increasing depth of footprint depression and was expressed considering clothed weight, by the regression equation: energy expenditure (W kg-1 hor km-1.h-1)= 1.18 + 0.089 depression (cm). At 45 cm footprint depression as compared to a 0 cm depression, energy expenditure increased by a ratio of approximately 5:1. Although subjects were considered above average in terms of fitness [average VO2max=51.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 (n=6)], all terminated walking due to exhaustion at an average footprint depth of 35.0 cm at a walking speed of 1.12 m.s-1. Practical limits for prolonged snow walking not exceeding approximately 50% VO2max were developed with 20 cm being the maximal depth at 0.67 m.s-1, and 10 cm at 1.12 m.s-1 without snow shoes. At increased footprint depths, limiting factors for snow walking were the increasing lift work, inefficient stooping posture and balancing difficulty.
13. Sheldahl LM, Wilke NA, Dougherty SM, Levandoski SG, Hoffman MD & Tristani FE (1992): Effect of age and coronary artery disease on response to snow shoveling. J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 20,1111-1117.
Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53295. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age and coronary artery disease on responses to snow shoveling. Background: Little information is available on the hemodynamic and metabolic responses to snow shoveling. Methods: Sixteen men with asymptomatic coronary artery disease and relatively good functional work capacity, 13 older normal men and 12 younger normal men shoveled snow at a self-paced rate. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood pressure were determined. In nine men with coronary artery disease left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated with an ambulatory radionuclide recorder. Results: Oxygen consumption during snow shoveling differed (p < 0.05) among groups; it was lowest (18.5 +/- 0.8 ml/kg per min) in those with coronary artery disease, intermediate (22.2 +/0.9 ml/kg/min) in older normal men and highest (25.6 +/- 1.3 ml/kg/min) in younger normal men. Percent peak treadmill oxygen consumption and heart rate with shoveling in the three groups ranged from 60% to 68% and 75% to 78%, respectively. Left ventricular ejection fraction and frequency of arrhythmias during shoveling were similar to those during treadmill testing. Conclusions: During snow shoveling 1) the rate of energy expenditure selected varied in relation to each man's peak oxygen consumption; 2) older and younger normal men and asymptomatic men with coronary artery disease paced themselves at similar relative work intensities; 3) the work intensity selected represented hard work but was within commonly recommended criteria for aerobic exercise training; and 4) arrhythmias and left ventricular ejection fraction were similar to those associated with dynamic exercise.
14. Tibarewala DN & Ganguli S (1983): Correlation between walking energy expenditure and tachographic gait parameters. J.Med.Eng.Technol. 7, 58-65.
A group of 53 adult men, normal subjects as well as victims of different types of lower-extremities handicaps, took part in tachographic gait studies and measurements of physiological energy expenditure whilst walking at a self-selected pace. The observations were analyzed to explore the relationships between walking energy expenditure and various gait parameters. This analysis allowed the authors to identify some biomechanical indices which can be used for objective evaluations of human performance in locomotion. The investigation reported in this paper is a follow-up to the authors' pilot study which was published in an earlier issue of 'JMET'.
15. Tibarewala DN, Ghosh AK & Ganguli S (1980): An integrated biomechanical-bioenergetic technique for evaluation of human locomotion. J.Med.Eng.Technol. 4, 241-246.
The existing locomotion evaluation techniques are based either on bioenergetic measurements or on biomechanical principles and procedures. While the former basis has been preferred by a few, published literature in this field has contained more information on the latter. No significant work combining both the approaches in a single measurement system is known so far. This paper reports an investigation where an attempt was made to combine both the techniques in relation to a mixed handicapped population composed of 10 test subjects as well as a matching control group. It has been found from the present investigation that the combined application of the above two types of measurements might lead to more useful information about the performance level of the subjects in locomotion. Further, the statistical analysis of the experimental data revealed the existence of a linear correlationship among the parameters used for such performance evaluation. Finally, the study findings have been discussed to indicate how the biomechanical measurements alone can throw sufficient light on the subject's locomotor status.
16. Waters RL, Hislop HJ, Perry J. Thomas L & Campbell J (1983): Comparative cost of walking in young and old adults. J.Orthop.Res. 1, 73-76.
Normative data that summarize the energy requirements and gait characteristics of level outdoor walking were determined in 111 normal subjects between the ages of 20 and 80 years. Subjects were divided into two age groups: young adults (20-59 years) and senior subjects (6080 years). The mean rate of oxygen consumption for young adults and senior subjects did not significantly differ, averaging 11.9 ml/kg-min for both groups. The data on heart rate paralleled the findings on oxygen consumption, averaging 100 and 103 beats/min, respectively. The net oxygen cost per meter walked for senior subjects, 0.16 ml/kg-m, was significantly greater (p<0.0005) than the value for young adults, 0.15 ml/kg-m, due to a decline in the average walking speed. The average gait velocity for senior subjects, 73 m/min, was statistically significantly less (p<0.0005) than the values for the younger adults, 80 m/min.
17. Wyndham CH, Van der Walt WH, van Rensburg AJ, Rogers GG & Strydom NB (1971): The influence of body weight on energy expenditure during walking on a road and on a treadmill. Int. Z. angew. Physiol. einschl.Arbeitsphysiol. 29, 285-292.
Four measurements of oxygen consumption were made on 8 subjects (varying in weight from 54.5-66.1 kg) at each of 3 speeds of walking (3.2, 4.8 and 6.4 km/hr) both on a treadmill and a road. Correlations between weight and oxygen consumption of 0.76-0.96 were significant at the 0.1% level of significance, at all three speeds on both treadmill and road. The relationship between body weight and oxygen consumption is linear and is markedly affected by speed. The slope of the linear regression lines of oxygen consumption on body weight increased hyperbolically with an increased in speed. Mean oxygen consumptions at 3.2 and 4.8 km/hr were significantly higher on the road but not at 6.4 km/hr. Curves of 02 consumption/speed are nonlinear and are markedly affected by body weight; both the intercept on the vertical axis and slope increases linearly with body weight.
18. Yousef MK & Dill DB (1969): Energy expenditure in desert walks: man and burro Equus asinus. .J.Appl.Physiol 27, 681-683.
The economy of energy expenditure of man has been compared with that of burro in grade walking. Two high school students and two female burros were subjects. Student and burro walked side by side with and without loads down and up a 2% grade on a hard-packed desert road. The net oxygen consumption, VO2 in terms of body weight and unit distance is significantly higher in man than in burro walking under similar conditions. A load on the back mounting to 33 or 50% of body weight is carried by the burro nearly as economically as live weight. For man walking downgrade carrying 33% of his body weight costs significantly more per kilogram and per unit distance than his own weight. No significant differences in net VO2 per kilogram and per unit distance was observed in man walking upgrade with and without a load. The energy cost of walking up a 2% grade is about one-half greater than walking downgrade in man and twice as great in burro. The lower cost of walking, the associated economy in food requirement, and tolerance of dehydration explain in part the superiority of the burro for desert transport.
19. Yousef MK, Dill DB & Freeland DV (1972): Energetic cost of grade walking in man and burro, Equus asinus: desert and mountain. .J.Appl.Physiol 33, 337-340.
In the desert at 800 m altitude, PB 695 mm Hg, men and burros walked on grades from 0 to 17% without a load or with a load equal to 25% of the subject's body weight. Walks on the 17% grade were made also at high altitude, 3800 m, PB 485 mm Hg. The energetic cost of walking determined by measuring VO2 for each set of conditions was significantly higher in man than burro. The net VO2 per kilogram was the same for load or no load in man and burro on all grades. The advantage of the burro over man walking upgrade was even greater walking downgrade. The energetic cost of climbing a vertical meter was only 9 and 14% higher in man than in burro; however, the cost of walking a horizontal meter required for man twice as much as for the burro. The superior economy of the burro in the desert was also evident at 3800 m altitude. In the burro as in man the cost of walking was unchanged at altitude. The economy of the burro is due to its anatomy and mechanics of walking. The lower cost of walking in the burro is of major importance to his survival in hot deserts.
20. Zarrugh MY & Radcliffe CW (1978): Predicting metabolic cost of level walking. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 38, 215-223.
Energy expenditure in walking is usually expressed as a function of walking speed. However, this relationship applies only to freely adopted step length-step rate patterns. Both the step length and the step rate must be used to predict the energy expenditure for any combination of step length and step rate. Evidence on seven subjects indicates that the energy demand for such a combination can be determined by conducting two experiments. In the first, the subject is allowed to freely choose his own walking pattern to achieve a set of prescribed speeds. In the second, the speed is kept constant but the subject is forced to adopt a range of prescribed step rates. The results of the two experiments combined yield enough data to make possible the determination of the energy equation of the pattern, encompassing both "free" and "forced" gaits. Results show that the freely chosen step rate requires the feast oxygen consumption at any given speed. Any other forced step rate at the same speed increases the oxygen cost over that required for the "free" step rate.