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close this bookFood and Nutrition Bulletin Volume 19, Number 3, 1998 (UNU, 1998, 102 pages)
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close this folderCommentaries
View the documentResults of primary health care in Matlab, Bangladesh
View the documentPrevention of anaemia in women of child-bearing age
View the documentStability of potassium iodate as an additive to salt
close this folderPlausible evidence of effectiveness of an iron-supplementation programme for pregnant and post-partum women in rural Bangladesh
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close this folderHigh prevalence of anaemia among women in Mumbai, India
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close this folderOperationalizing household food security in rural Nepal
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close this folderTrends in body mass index in developing countries
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close this folderStability of iodine in iodized salt used for correction of iodine-deficiency disorders. II
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close this folderDietary fat in developing countries
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View the documentConsumption pattern of dietary fats in Chile
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close this folderGuidelines for the development of research proposals following a structured, holistic Approach for a Research Proposal (SHARP)
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Summary and recommendations

» Data on the composition and intake of dietary fat are scarce in developing countries. Collection of reliable data should be encouraged.

» Updated knowledge on dietary fat should be available. Analysts and local analytical capacity are needed to examine these constituents of the diet.

» In determining the intake of dietary fat, the sometimes large differences between population groups have to be taken into account.

» Energy deficiency is normally associated with a low-fat diet. To reach FAO/WHO recommendations, an increased fat intake may be necessary. In most cases, for the general population the fatty acid composition is less critical than the amount of total fat.

» In general, dietary guidelines should not be automatically adopted from industrial countries but should take into account local health issues and positive features of the local dietary situation.

» For groups in developing countries who have a high-fat intake, dietary guidelines similar to those of industrialized countries are applicable.

» Where n-3 fatty acids are in short supply, consideration should be given to the n-6/n-3 balance of fatty acids. Special attention should be given to women of reproductive age, infants, and children.

» High concentrations of trans fatty acids in food products should be avoided.

» Infants should be breastfed. Complementary foods, produced locally whenever possible, should contain more energy from fat and provide essential fatty acids with a balanced n-6/n-3 ratio.

» Fortification with vitamin A through concerted efforts of governments, international organizations, and industry is recommended to overcome critical vitamin A deficiency. Where unrefined palm oil is used, its continued use should be encouraged. Alternatively, red palm oil rich in carotenoids should be included in the total dietary fat to enhance vitamin A activity.

TABLE 9. Vitamin A in margarines in developing and emerging markets

Country

Brand

Vitamin A type

Quantity (g/kg)

Quantity (IU/kg)

Central and East Europe

Czech Republic

Flora

Aa

7,650

26,250


Rama

A

6,120

20,200

Hungary

Liga light

A

6,010

16,630

Poland

Bono

Palmitate + D3

9,000

29,700


Kasla

Palmitate + D3

9,000

29,700

Turkey

Almost all

Palmitate (1 mIU/g)

63,000

207,900

Latin America

Brazil

Becel CV

Palmitate 1.7 mIU/g

4,950

16,330


Clayborn Sabor & Saude

Palmitate 1.7 mIU/g

9,690

31,980


Doriana Light

Palmitate 1.7 mIU/g

4,950

16,330

Chile

Doriana (Sabor) (kitchen)

Palmitate + D3

9,000

29,700


Doriana (Sabor) soft

Palmitate + D3

9,000

29,700

Venezuela

Blue Band6

A

9,640

31,800

Netherlands Antilles

Blue Band Packets

A

9,090

30,000


Blue Band Tins

A

9,090

30,000

Peru

Astra

Palmitate 1.7 mIU/g

102,000

36,660



Vitamin A + D3

11,700

38,610


Dorina Potae 454 g

Vitamin A + D3

7,500

24,760

Chile

All

Vitamin A + D3

900

2,970

Panama

All

Vitamin A + D mix

6,430-6,930


Africa

Cote d'lvoire

Blue Band

A

6,300

30,790

South-East Asia

Malaysia

Dorinab

A

7,570

25,000


Plartab

A

7,570

25,000

Sri Lanka

Astrab

A

1,000

33,000

Indonesia

Astrab

A

1,000

33,000

a. The type of vitamin A used was not specified in the database.
b. Information from Golden Yellow Fats database. Food Applications Unit, URL, and from margarine labels.