|Bibliography of Studies of the Energy Cost of Physical Activity in Humans (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 1997, 162 pages)|
|4.1 Activities common to everyday life|
1. Banerjee B. Khew KS & Saha N (1971): A comparative study of energy expenditure in some common daily activities of non-pregnant and pregnant Chinese, Malay and Indian women. J.Obstet.Gynaecol.Br.Commonw. 78, 113-116.
Twenty-five pregnant Chinese women (11 during both second and third trimester and 14 in third trimester only) and 17 non-pregnant Chinese women, 14 third-trimester pregnant and 10 non-pregnant Malay women, and 14 third-trimester pregnant and 10 non-pregnant Indian women were tested for energy cost during rest and under various common daily activities. It was found that the third trimester pregnant women of all three races expended significantly more energy per minute than the respective control groups during rest and in the majority of common daily activities such as sitting and reading, sitting and writing, ironing and washing small clothes. But it was also observed that the percentage increase of expenditure over resting metabolism in every activity was more in non-pregnant controls than in pregnant women indicating that the pregnant women performed tasks in a more relaxed and economical way than the non-pregnant controls. Eleven pregnant Chinese women expended in varying degrees more energy per minute in the third trimester pregnancy than in the second. (The body weights of the present pregnant groups were lower than the European standard.).
2. Banerjee B & Saha N (1981): Energy balance study in pregnant Asian women. Trop.Geogr. Med. 33, 215-218.
Twenty-four pregnant Asian women resident in Singapore were tested for the determination of energy cost of rest and various common daily activities. The average daily energy expenditure was estimated from a diary of activities of seven days. The average daily energy intake was computed from Food Tables on the basis of consumption of measured dressed raw materials of food over seven days in the same period of measurement of energy expenditure. The average daily energy intake and expenditure in this group of pregnant women were found to be 2020 and 1810 kcal (8.5 and 7.6 MJ) giving a balance of +210 kcal (0.9 MJ) per day.
3. Beidleman BA, Puhl JL & De Souza MJ (1995): Energy balance in female distance runners. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 61, 303-311.
Department of Physical Education, Springfield College, MA. Metabolic efficiency was assessed in ovulatory eumenorrheic female distance runners and untrained control subjects of similar age, body weight, and fat-free mass (FFM). Energy intake (El) was estimated from 3-d dietary records. Energy expenditure (EE) was determined during the same 3-d period from individual heart rate oxygen uptake (HR/VO2) curves during rest and exercise, 24-h HR records, and the thermic effect of meals. The runners and control subjects did not differ in resting metabolic rate statistically adjusted for FFM (kJ/min), the thermic effect of a test meal (kJ/3 h), the energy cost of submaximal physical activity, or El. EE was higher (P = 0.01) in the runners. Reported El was lower than EE in both the runners (P = 0.007) and control subjects (P = 0.006), resulting in energy deficits of -4131 +/- 1185 kJ/d and -1652 +/- 456 kJ/d, respectively. These female runners did not exhibit an enhanced metabolic efficiency compared with the control subjects. It is possible that the energy deficit for both the runners and control subjects was due to both restricted eating and underreporting during the measurement period. Additional studies using longer measurement periods, more sophisticated technology (de, doubly labeled water, more subjects, and subjects of varying menstrual and energy intake status) are needed to truly answer this question.
4. Bleiberg FM, Brun TA, Goihman S & Gouba E (1980): Duration of activities and energy expenditure of female farmers in dry and rainy seasons in Upper-Volta. Br.J.Nutr. 43, 71-82.
1. Fifteen female farmers (aged 18-47 years) from two villages of the Mossi Plateau in Upper-Volta participated in a survey in which their daily activity pattern and their energy expenditure were assessed. Eight of the subjects were investigated twice, in March (dry season) when there is no agricultural activity, and in July-August (rainy season) when heavy physical work is performed: mostly hoeing, weeding and replanting sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and millet (Pennisetum typhoides). 2. The mean height was 1.57 m and the mean weight 50.6 kg. The average percentage of body fat, calculated from skinfold thickness, was comparable to that of European females but the triceps skinfold was more than 60% below the standard value (Jelliffe, 1969). The type of activities and the period of time spent on each activity changed significantly with the season. The mean energy output rose from 9.7 MJ (2320 kcal) in March to 12.1 MJ (2890 kcal) in July-August for a 55 kg standard weight. 3. In this paper, the extent of both the daily activity pattern of women living in a subsistence agriculture and their energy output is estimated. The results suggest that during the rainy season, the energy requirements of female farmers are much higher than usually estimated.
5. Brun T (1992): The assessment of total energy expenditure of female farmers under field conditions. J.Biosoc.Sci. 24, 325-333.
Institut Agronomique Mediterranéen de Montpellier, France. The paper reviews methods, and their difficulties, in the measurement of the daily energy expenditure of rural women under field conditions in developing countries. Since all methods need to be validated against a reference method which is usually based on indirect calorimetry, examples of the use of this technique are given. The energy costs of most agricultural and daily tasks of rural women in developing countries have been measured. Large intra- and inter-individual variations in the cost of a single activity occur, so repeated measurements are needed to obtain a valid mean energy cost for a specific activity for a homogeneous group of individuals. Much work remains to be done on the assessment of the duration and the intensity of the physical activity of the rural adolescent and adult female population. Studies indicate that the workload of most rural women in developing countries is excessive and frequently associated with acute poverty.
6. Cole AH & Ogungbe RF (1987): Food intake and energy expenditure of Nigerian female students. Br.J.Nutr. 57, 309-318.
Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian female students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and energy expenditure during sedentary and physical activities. The mean age (years) of the group was 20.05 (SD 3.44, range 16-29), mean height (m) 1.62 (SD 0.07, range 1.47-1.74) and bodyweight (kg) 51.28 (SD 3.21, range 46-58). The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing, and the energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Daily activities were recorded and the energy cost of representative activities was determined by indirect calorimetry. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean (min/d) 354 (SD 84, range 253-475). Personal domestic activities took a mean of 162 (SD 73) min/d. Sleeping took a mean of 451 (SD 62) min/d. The mean energy intake of the group was 8480 (SD 1316) kJ/d or 167 (SD 30.6) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than that recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for adult women engaged in light activities (9205 kJ/d), but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 8326 kJ (1990 kcal)/d for a housewife in an affluent society. It is lower than the recommended intake of 9350 kJ/d for rural women in developing countries (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). The mean energy expenditure (kJ/d) of the female subjects was 6865 (SD 214, range 6519-7222). Mean energy expenditure was lower than mean energy intake. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the subjects participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is suggested, for health reasons, that they might undertake more physical activity.
7. Dufour DL (1984): The time and energy expenditure of indigenous women horticulturalists in the northwest Amazon. Am.J.Phys.Anthropol. 65, 37-46.
The energy cost of subsistence activities and the daily time and energy budgets of Tatuyo women were assessed as part of a village energy flow study. The Tatuyo are swidden horticulturalists relying on bitter manioc (Manihot esculenta) as a staple crop. Except for the actual felling of new gardens, women are responsible for most of the horticultural work and food preparation. Time budgets were assessed using 24-hour activity diaries. Rates of energy expenditure in typical activities were measured by indirect calorimetry using a Max-Planck respirometer. Daily energy expenditure was calculated using these rates in conjunction with the activity diaries. Rates of energy expenditure in standard activities were moderate and broadly comparable to published values for other populations living in tropical environments. The mean daily energy expenditure was 2, 133 kcal (8.9 MJ). This value is similar to that reported for other subsistence horticulturalists and close to the FAO recommendation for energy intake for moderately active individuals.
8. Htay H. Po L & Mya-Tu M (1978): Habitual physical activity of rural Burmese women. Ergonomics, 21, 239-252.
Habitual physical activity of 16 Burmese women aged 19-24 yrs residing in a rural Burmese village was assessed by the questionnaire method together with the diary method and heart rate measurements. The pattern of their habitual physical activity had a seasonal variation. Their heart rate during transplanting paddy, pounding glutinous paddy and carrying water ranged from 108132, 119-144 and 120-168 beats.min-1 respectively. Their work intensity expressed as a percentage of their maximal aerobic power varied from 13.04 to 79.47. It was found that the habitual physical activity of these rural women could contribute a positive effect towards their physical performance capacity.
9. Lawrence M, Singh J. Lawrence F & Whitehead RG (1985): The energy cost of common daily activities in African women: increased expenditure in pregnancy? Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 42, 753-763.
A total of 1546 measurements of energy expenditure on 142 nonpregnant, pregnant, or lactating Gambian village women were performed by open-circuit indirect calorimetry. Of the 47 common daily activities measured, only 7 would be classified as moderate according to internationally accepted standards, the remainder being light (ie requiring less than 3.5 kcal/min). This was unexpected since many of the tasks, judged subjectively, appeared quite demanding. Furthermore there was no increase towards the end of pregnancy in the energy cost of a range of activities requiring 1-5 kcal/min and involving a variety of body movements, despite the substantial weight gains observed. Only for walking was there the expected increase in energy expenditure. Although in the past it has been assumed that the heavier pregnant women would require additional energy for activity, no special allowance for this is included in current dietary recommendations. The present results indicate that, for women from the developing world, no allowance is necessary. The finding that most activities were light is also of relevance to total energy requirements in this community.
10. Nagy LE & King JO (1983): Energy expenditure of pregnant women at rest or walking self-paced. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 38, 369-376.
Energy expenditure during rest and self-paced walking was determined from early to late pregnancy either longitudinally or in a cross-section of women. The cross-sectional study was done with 16 women confined to a metabolic unit: six nonpregnant (NP), six early pregnant (EP 10 to 20 wk gestation), and four late pregnant (LP 30 to 40 wk gestation). In the longitudinal study, five of the six EP subjects from the cross-sectional study were studied at 5-wk intervals until parturition. Basal metabolic rate, measured by open circuit, indirect calorimetry, and expressed as kcal/min, was 13% greater (p c 0.05) in EP compared to NP and was 28% greater (p < 0.05) in LP compared to EP. Resting metabolism increased during gestation in the EP group from a value of 1.01 kcal/min fat 15 to 25 wk to 1.15 kcal/min at 35 to 40 wk. When energy expenditure during rest is expressed as kcal/kg body weight/h, there were no significant differences due to stage of pregnancy. The time required for the women to walk 400 m at their own pace was measured. The pace of the LP women was 20% slower (p < 0.05) than the EP women. But when the EP women were studied at 35 and 40 wk gestation their pace was only 4.5% slower than that at 15 to 25 wk. These data suggest that individual behavioral differences have a greater effect on pace than stage of gestation. A decrease in pace reduced the rate of energy expenditure per kilogram body weight for walking 400 m. But, body weight, rather than pace, was the major determinant of total energy expenditure for the walk (p < 0.05). It is apparent from these data that body weight is the major determinant of energy expenditure during rest and self-paced weight bearing activity in pregnancy.
11. Okeke EC, Etta EN & Nnanyelugo DO (1995): Energy expenditure on traditional activities by Nigerian women, monitored by Oxylog. Food.Nutr.Bull. 16, 67-71.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the energy expended by Nigerian women in preparing two traditional foods from cowpeas, akara (fried paste) and moimoi (steamed paste), both by traditional methods and using processed pea flour. Data were collected using a questionnaire, and energy expenditure was monitored with an oxylog apparatus. In making akara by the traditional method, a mean of 44.4 +/- 1.5 kcal (185.5 +/-7.4 kJ) of energy was spent per kilogram of peas processed, as against 25.7 +/- 0.6 kcal (107.4 +/- 2.8 kJ) using pea flour. For moimoi, 27.6 +/0 0.8 kcal (11.5 +/0 3.3 kJ)/kg was spent by the traditional method, against 14.6 +/- 1.5 kcal (61.2 +/- 6.3 kJ)/kg using flour. While the overall energy cost of the methods using pea flour was significantly lower than the traditional methods, the energy cost of aerating the paste for making akara was almost 2.5 times as high as the traditional method. This higher energy intensity is due to slower solubilization of proteins in flour required to form and sustain foam. Longer soaking of the flour paste could reduce the energy required for aeration.
12. Panter-Brick C (1993): Seasonality of energy expenditure during pregnancy and lactation for rural Nepali women. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 57, 620-628.
Department of Anthropology, Durham University, UK. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated for 19 nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) and 24 pregnant (P) or lactating (L) women from 3601 h of minute-by-minute observation and 168 measurements of the energy cost of activities. NPNL women significantly increased subsistence activity and TEE from 9.9 MJ [1.89 x basal metabolic rate (BMR)] in the winter to 10.5 MJ (2.01 x BMR) in the monsoon season. There were differences between NPNL,P, and L women in the winter, but not in the spring or monsoon season when all individuals sustained very heavy physical activity. High TEE values resulted from spending very long hours in tasks that, although appearing physically demanding to the casual observer, were characterized by light or moderate energy cost. The study highlights the importance of seasonal constraints on women's work, which prevent P and L women from significantly curtailing physical activity during the monsoon season, and which effectively limit the scope of behavioral mechanisms for saving energy and reducing TEE.
13. Schutz Y. Lechtig A & Bradfield RB (1980): Energy expenditures and food intakes of lactating women in Guatemala. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 33, 892-902.
Total energy expenditures and intakes were simultaneously assessed in 18 free-ranging lactating women (10 months postpartum) and compared to six similarly-sized, nonlactating, nonpregnant but multiparous women living in the same rural villages in the Guatemalan highlands. Energy intakes were estimated by the 24-hr recall method for each of 4 consecutive days. Energy expenditures were determined for 2 days by monitoring heart rate throughout the day and relating heart rate to oxygen consumption by individually-determined regression lines. The mean energy intake for the 4 consecutive days was estimated to be 1929 +/- 360 kcal/day (39.2 kcal/kg per day) for the lactating group; and 1876 +/- 404 kcal/day (38.3 kcal/kg per day) for the nonlactating group. The 2-day mean energy expenditures were estimated to be 2007 +/292 kcal/day for the lactating women (41.8 kcal/kg per day) and 1966 +/- 382 kcal/day for the lactating women (40.1 kcal/kg per day). The way of life of both groups was judged "moderately active" by 1973 FAO/WHO classifications. Most of the lactating women had been losing weight progressively during the past 6 months. Over the 10-week period prior to our measurements, the mean weight loss was more than 10 times greater in the lactating group (-369 g/month) (P < 0.01) than in the nonlactating group (-35 g/month) (ns). The high correlation (r = 0.87) between weight loss and the reduction in the sum of the three skinfolds suggested adipose tissue loss. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of daily energy intake, daily energy expenditure, the energy cost of specific activities throughout the day. The slope of the heart, ate/oxygen consumption regressions suggest adequate cardiorespiratory fitness. This study suggests that the energy cost of lactation was met to a greater extent by fat loss than by either increased energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both.
14. Tin-May-Than (1988): Energy expenditure, duration of activities, and physical work capacities of Burmese women weavers. Food.Nutr.Bull. 10, 48-50.
This study asseses the daily energy expenditure of Burmese women weavers and concludes that, although the total energy cost of their work is considerable because of the many hours involved, it is not sufficiently intense either for substantial muscular development or for cardiovascular fitness. The weavers would not be able to tolerate work demanding high energy expenditure.
15. Torun B. McGuire J & Mendoza RD (1982): Energy cost of activities and tasks of women from a rural region of Guatemala. Nutr.Res. 2, 127-136.
The energy cost of various domestic and agricultural activities were measured by indirect calorimetry in 56 women, 16-49 years old, from a small rural village. Mean energy expenditures (kcal/kg/min) were 0.021-0.035 for fourteen activities ("light occupations"), 0.038 - 0.064 for thirteen ("moderately active" occupations) and 0.072 - 0.089 for four ("very active" occupations). There were no differences per kg of weight between pregnant, lactating and non-pregnant, nonlactating women. The results were compared with other studies and weighted averages were calculated. The values reported can be used in combination with measurements of time to estimate energy expenditure in time-motion studies.
16. van Raaij JMA, Schonk CM, Vermaat-Miedema SH, Peek MEM & Hautvast JGAJ (1990): Energy cost of physical activity throughout pregnancy and the first year postpartum in Dutch women with sedentary lifestyles. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 52, 234-239.
Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Basal metabolic rate (BMR), activity pattern, and energy costs of some daily activities were measured in 25 Dutch women throughout pregnancy and the first year postpartum. Physical activity index (PAI), which refers to daily energy expenditure expressed as a multiple of BMR, was calculated from activity-pattern data and activity costs. Mean PAls (+/-SD) throughout pregnancy, during the first 6 mo postpartum, and at 1 y postpartum were 1.48 +/- 0.08, 1.49 +/- 0.07, and 1.53 +/0.10 x BMR, respectively. Because measured BMR at 1 y postpartum was 1440 +/- 168 kcal/d, costs for physical activity in pregnancy and the first 6 mo postpartum were, respectively, approximately 70 and approximately 50 kcal/d lower than at 1 y postpartum. For women with sedentary lifestyles the energy saved during pregnancy and lactation because of decreased physical activity and decreased costs of activities will be limited.