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close this bookTechnology and Innovation in the International Economy (UNU, 1994, 239 pages)
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View the documentContributors
View the documentForeword
close this folder1. Relevance of innovation studies to developing countries
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View the document1.1 Introduction
View the document1.2 Innovation and technological change
close this folder1.3 Implications for developing countries
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View the document1.3.1 Innovation studies and the accumulation of technological capabilities
View the document1.3.2 Trade and technology
close this folder1.4 Concluding remarks
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View the document1.4.1 The relevance of innovation studies
View the document1.4.2 Some general issues
View the documentAcknowledgements
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close this folder2. Biotechnology: Generation, diffusion, and policy
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View the document2.1 Introduction
close this folder2.2 The generation of biotechnology: Invention and innovation
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View the document2.2.1 The scientific base
View the document2.2.2 The technologies
View the document2.2.3 The evolution of biotechnological knowledge
View the document2.2.4 Appropriating the rent from biotechnological knowledge
View the document2.2.5 The role of government
close this folder2.3 Economic effects of biotechnology
View the document2.3.1 Introduction
View the document2.3.2 A survey of some literature
View the document2.3.3 The need for a more general approach
close this folder2.4 Implications for the third world7
View the document2.4.1 Introduction
View the document2.4.2 A survey of some literature
View the document2.4.3 Preconditions and constraints on third world entry and desirable patterns of specialization
View the document2.4.4 An illustrative case study: cuba's entry into new biotechnology
View the document2.4.5 Biotechnology and information/communication technology
View the document2.5 Recent additions to the literature
close this folder2.6 Towards a general research agenda
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View the document2.6.1 Evolution of biotechnology in industrialized countries
View the document2.6.2 Biotechnology policies in third world countries
View the document2.6.3 Socioeconomic effects of biotechnology
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View the documentAnnotated bibliography
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close this folder3. Microelectronics and the third world
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View the document3.1 Introduction
close this folder3.2 Patterns of adoption and diffusion in the third world
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View the document3.2.1 Supply-side factors
View the document3.2.2 Demand-side factors
close this folder3.3 Impacts of microelectronics
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View the document3.3.1 Sectoral versus economy-wide impacts on output and employment
View the document3.3.2 Impact of adoption on non-adopters of new technologies
View the document3.3.3 Acquisition of technological capabilities
View the document3.3.4 Applications of technological capabilities
close this folder3.4 Policy implications and future research directions
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View the document3.4.1 Normative aspects of policy formulation: 'What governments ought to do'
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Contributors

Charles Cooper is Director of the United Nations University Institute for New Technologies, The Netherlands.

Martin Fransman is Director of the Institute for Japanese-European Technology Studies at the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Jeffrey James is Professor of Development Economics at Tilburg University, The Netherlands.