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close this bookCentral Eurasian Water Crisis: Caspian, Aral, and Dead Seas (UNU, 1998, 203 pages)
close this folderPart IV: The Dead Sea
close this folder11. Alternative strategies in the inter-state regional development of the Jordan Rift Valley
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentCanal schemes for co-generation
View the documentThe Peace Drainage Canal scheme and eco-political decision-making
View the documentThe Aqaba hybrid scheme
View the documentTechno-political assessment of the Peace Drainage Canal and the Med/Red-Dead Sea canal
View the documentConclusion
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences

Conclusion

Inter-state regional economic development is considered to be a key element in sustaining the peace process in the region. The Peace Drainage Canal scheme should have the highest priority in the next phase of an international cooperation programme. This environmentally sound, non-conventional water development and management scheme not only takes into account the incentives for ecopolitical decision-making but also introduces the opportunity for inter-state regional economic development by adding fresh potable water of 75 MMC at a cost of US$0.48/m3.

In a broader context, Aqaba regional development using hybrid sea-water pumped storage for co-generation is possibly of even greater importance for economic development in the whole region because it includes initiatives, incentives, and favours for Jordan. Hydro-powered sea-water desalination in the hybrid pumped-storage system would simultaneously conserve fossil groundwater in Disi.

Table 11.5 Techno-political assessment for the Dead Sea and Aqaba schemes before and after the "Treaty of Peace" between Jordan and Israel of 26 October 1994


Technical feasibility


Economic feasibility








Environ-

Finan-

Bene-


Political

Overall

Techno-political alternatives

Quan-

Qual-

Relia-

Sub-

mental

cial

fit/

Sub-

feasi-

feasi


tity

ity

bility

total

feasibility

viability

cost

total

bility

bility

Weight (%)

12.5

5.0

7.5

25.0

25.0

12.5

12.5

25.0

25.0

100.0

After the "Treaty of Peace"

Lower Jordan River Peace Drainage Canal with RO desalination

31.0

66.0

62.0

47.3

55.8

61.0

61.0

61.0

69.0

58.3

Aqaba pumped-storage scheme with hydro- powered sea-water RO desalination

32.5

68.8

57.5

47.3

45.0

52.9

53.6

53.3

53.0

49.6

MDS hydro-solar development with hydro- powered sea-water RO desalination

40.0

72.5

60.

52.5

45.0

33.8

48.3

41.1

35.3

43.5

Dead Sea pumped-storage

15.0

30.0

60.0

31.5

40.0

53.3

40.0

46.7

46.7

41.2

Mediterranean-Dead Sea Canal, without RO desalination

23.8

31.3

61.3

36.6

22.5

36.3

30.0

33.2

38.5

32.7

Red-Dead Sea Canal, without RO desalination

21.3

30.0

28.8

25.3

22.5

33.8

30.0

31.9

44.2

31.0

Before the "Treaty of Peace"

Lower Jordan River Peace Drainage Canal with RO desalination

31.0

66.0

62.0

47.3

55.8

61.0

61.0

61.0

69.0

58.3

Aqaba pumped-storage scheme with hydro- powered sea-water RO desalination

32.5

68.8

57.5

47.3

26.3

370

375

37.3

24.0

33.7

MDS hydro-solar development with hydro-powered sea-water RO desalination

40.0

72.5

60.0

52.5

45.0

33.8

33.8

33.8

35.3

41.7

Dead Sea pumped-storage

15.0

30.0

60.0

31.5

40.0

53.3

40.0

46.7

46.7

41.2

Mediterranean-Dead Sea Canal, without RO desalination

23.8

31.3

61.3

36.6

22.5

36.3

30.0

33.2

38.5

32.7

Red-Dead Sea Canal, without RO desalination

21.3

30.0

28.8

25.3

22.5

33.8

30.0

31.9

31.0

27.7

Sources: before the "Treaty of Peace" - Wolf and Murakami (1994, Ref. 13); after the "Treaty of Peace" - some details on cost estimates and environment impact analysis were added by Murakami.

The unit water cost of hydro-powered reverse osmosis desalination is preliminarily estimated to be US$0.69/m3. Such a scheme would be even more competitive when compared with a single-purpose hydropower scheme such as Dead Sea pumped storage or Med/Red-Dead Sea Canal for power generation only. The new idea of a hybrid seawater pumped-storage scheme for co-generation at Aqaba will be carefully examined to compare its feasibility and benefits in relation to the other strategic options, including the Med/Red-Dead Canal.

The proposed co-generation schemes would have a flexible capacity to reallocate outputs and benefits in response to a long-term change in demand for water and peak electricity, thus introducing some incentives for peaceful cooperation and inter-state regional economic development. Once a canal system and reverse osmosis desalination plant were in place, even under different sovereignties, the incentive to connect two or three more states, later, in order to develop consequent ancillary projects could be powerful enough to induce ever-increasing cooperation. The riparians of the Dead Sea and Aqaba bay, including Israel, Palestine (West Bank), and Jordan (East Bank), would see the possibility of achieving comprehensive economic development and a lasting peace to share the region's resources and benefits.