Cover Image
close this bookCloud Forests in the Humid Tropics: A Bibliographic Review (UNU, 1987, 81 pages)
View the documentPreface
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. Cloud forest distribution in the humid tropics
View the document3. Cloud forest terminology
Open this folder and view contents4. Cloud forest ecology
View the document5. Structure, composition and silvicultural aspects
View the document6. Conversion and conservation of cloud forests
View the document7. Conclusions and recommendations
View the documentList of references

List of references

ACOSTA-SOLIS, M. 1968. Divisiones fitogeograficas y formaciones geobotanical del Ecuador. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Quito. 271 p.

ASHTON, P.S.; BRUNIG, E.F. 1975. The variation of tropical moist forests in relation Lo environmental factors and its relevance to land-use planning. In Tropical Moist Forest. Mitteilung der Bundesanstalt fur Forst- und Holzwirtschaft Nr.109:59-87.

HOPKINS, M.J.; WRBB, L J.; WILLIAMS, W.T.; PALMRR, J. 1978. The natural forest: plant biology, regeneration and tree growth. In Tropical Forest Ecosystems - A State of Knowledge Report. Prepared by UNESCO/ UNEP/FAO. 683 p. Part I, chapter 8. pp. 180-215.

AUBREVILLE, A. 1949. Climats, forets et desertification de 1' Afrique Tropicale. Paris.

BAUMGARTNER, A. 1957. Temperatur und Niederschlagsverteilung im Bergwald. La Meteorologie, Paris, IV, No.45/46:251-256.

. 1958a. Zur Hohenabhangigkeit von Regen- und Nebelniederschlag am Grossen Falkenstein. In Ass. Gen. UGGI, Ass. Sci. Hydr., Toronto, 1957, vol I. pp.529-534.

. 1958b. Nebel-und Nebelniederschlag als Standortsfaktoren am Grossen Falkenstein (Bay. Wald). Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt 77:257-272.

. 1959. Das Wasserangebot aus Regen und Nebel sowie die Schneeverteilung in den Waldern am Grossen Falkenstein. Mitteilungen des Arbeitskreis Wald und Wasser, Koblenz. Nr. 3:45-54.

; BRUNIG, E.F. 1978. Tropical forests and the biosphere. In Tropical Forest Rcosys Lems - A Slale of Knowledge Report. Prepared by UNESCO/UNEl/FAO. 683 p. Part. l, chapter 2. pp. 33-60.

BAYNTON, Il.W. 19G8. '1'he ecology ot an forest in Puerto Rico 2.1'he microclimate ot Pico del Oeste. Journal ot the Arnold Arboretum 49:419-430.

. 1969. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 3. Hilltop and forest influences on the microclimate of Pico del Oeste. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 50:80-92.

BEARD, J.S. 1944. Climax vegetation in tropical America. Ecology 25:127-158.

. 1949. The natural vegetation of the Windward and Leeward Islands. Oxford Forestry Memoirs, No. 21. 192 p.

. 1955. The classification of tropical American vegetation types. Ecology 36:89-100.

BEEBE, W.; CRANE, J. 1947. Ecology of Rancho Grande - A subtropical cloud forest in northern Venezuela. Zoologica 32(1):43-6() and 5 plates.

BEGLEY, S. 1984. Journey to a lost world: New life is found on the "Mountain of the Mist". Newsweek. April 16:53-54.

BERRIE, K.G.; EZE, J.M.D. 1975. The relationship between an epiphyllous liverwort and host leaves. Ann. Bot. London 39:955-963.

BLASER, J. 1987. Standortliche und waldkundlichen Analyse eines Eichen Wolkenwaldes (Quercus spp) der Montanstufe in Costa Rica. Dissertation Universitat Gottingen. 255 p.

BOCKOR, I. 1979. Analyse von Baumartenzusammensetzung und Bestandesstrukturen eines andinen Wolkenwaldes in Westvenezuela als Grundlage zur Waldtypengliederung. Dissertation Universitat Gottingen. 138 p.

BRASS, L.J. 1941. The 1938-39 expedition to the Snow Mountains, Netherlands New Guinea. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 22:271-295; 297-342.

. 1956. Results of lhe Archbold expeditions. No. 75. Summary of the fourth Archbold expedition to New Guinea (1953): Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Ilist. 111 :80-152.

. 1959. Results of the Archbold expeditions. No. 79. Summary of the fifth Archbold expedition to New Guinea (1956-57). Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 118:1-70.

1964. Results of the Archbold expeditions. No. 86. Summary of the sixth Archbold expedition to New Guinea (1959): Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 127:145-215.

BREWER-CARLAS, C. 1973. Plantas carnivores del Cerro de la Neblina. Defensa a la Naturaleza (Venezuela) 2(6): 17-21; 23-26.

BROWN, S.; LUGO, A.E.; SlLANDER, S.; LIEGEL, L. 1983. Research histories and opportunities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest. An Institute of Tropical Forestry Publication. Southern Forest Exp. Sation; General Technical Report S0-44. 128p.

BRUN, R. 1976. Methodik und Ergebnisse zur Biomassenbestimmung eines Nebelwaldokosystems in den Venezuelanischen Anden. In Proceedings Div. I, XVI, IUFRO World Congress, Oslo. pp.490-499.

BUDOWSKI, G. 1966. Some ecological characteristics of higher tropical mountains. Turrialba 16(2):159-163.

. 1976. Why save tropical rain forests? Some arguments for campaining conservationists. In Jordan C.F. (Ed.) Tropical Ecology. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company. pp.324-333.

. 1980. Aspectos ecologicos del bosque humedo. Primer seminario nacional sobre los recursos naturales y el ambiente "Ivan Montenegro Baez". Managua, Nicaragua. 16 p.

BURGESS, P.F. 1969. Ecological factors in hill and mountain forests of the States of Malaya. Malayan Nature Journal 22:119- 128.

BYER, M.D.; WEAVER, P.L. 1976. Early secondary succession in the dwarf forest in the Luquillo Mouptains of Puerto Rico. Biotr6pica 9(1):35-47.

BYERS, H.R. 1930. Summer sea fogs of the central Californian coast. University of California Publications in Geography, Berkeley 3. pp.291-338.

. 1953. Coast redwoods and fog drip. Ecology 34:192-193.

CACERES, C. 1981. Importancia hidrologica de la intercepcion horizontal en un bosque muy humedo premontano en Balalaica, 'I'urrialba, Costa Rica. Tesis M.Sc. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 98 p.

CAMPANELLA, P. _ al. 1982. Honduras - Perfil Ambiental del Pais. JRB Associates,Virginia. 201p.

CANNON, W.A. 1901. On relation of Redwoods and fog to the general precipitation in the Redwood belt of California. Torreya, New York 1:137-139.

CARR JUNIOR, A.F. 1949. La montana llorona. Science Monthly 68(4):225-234.

CEBALLOS, L.; ORTUNO, F. 1952. Los bosques y la humedad en Canarias. Montes, Madrid, 8:418-423.

CHRIST, H. 1910. Die Geographie der Fame. Jena.

COOPER, W.S. 1917. Redwood, rainfall and fog. Plant World 20:179-189.

CZAJKA, W. 1968. Los perfles vegetates de las cordilleras entre Alaska y Tierra del Fuego. In Troll C. (Ed.) Colloquium Geographicum, Band 9. Geoecology of the Mountainous Regions of the Tropical Americas. Proceedings of the UNESCO Mexico Symposium 1966. pp. 117-121.

DAUGHERTY, H.E. 1973. The Montecristo cloud-forest of El Salvador - A chance for protection. Biological Conservation 5(1):227-230.

DOHRENWEND, R.E. 1972. The energetic role of the trade wind inversion in a tropical subalpine ecosystem. PhD Dissertation, Suny College of Forestry, Syracuse. 298p.

. (s.f.) Hydrologic behavior on the top of a tropical mountain. Study supported by OTS Pilot Study Grant F 70-8 and by the Suny College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry. 14 p.

DREWES, W.U.; DREWES, A.T. 1957. Climate and related phenomena of the eastern andean slopes of central Peru. Syracuse University Research Institute. 85p.

DUFFY, P.D. 1965. Water becomes the most important forest crop. Western Conservation Journal 21(6):58-59

EIDT, R.C. 1968. The climatology of South America. In Fittkau _ al. (Eds.) Biogeography and Ecology in South America. Dr. W. Junk N.V. Publishers, The Hague, vol.I. pp.54-81.

EKERN, P.C. 1964. Direct interception of cloud water at Lanaihale, Hawaii. Proceedings Soil Science Soc. America 28(3):419-421.

ELLENBERG, H. 1959. Typen tropischer Urwalder in Peru. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen 3:169-187.

. 1964. Montane vegetation and productivity in the tropics with special reference to Peru. IUCN Technical Meeting Nairobi 1963, IUCN Publications New Series No.4. pp.172-177.

. 1975. Vegetationsstuten in perhumiden bis perariden Bereichen der tropischen Anden. Phytocoenologia 2:368-387.

EXEL, A.W. 1944. Catalogue of the vascular plants of S. Tome. London.

FALCONER, R.E.; FALCONER, P.D. 1980. Determination of cloud water acidity at a mountain observatory in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. Journal of Geophysical Research 85:7456-7470.

FLEMMING, G. 1971. Nebel in den Tropen. Wissenschaft und Fortschritt 21(11):491-493.

FLENLEY, J.R. (Ed.) 1974. Altitudinal zonation in Malesia. Transactions of the Third Aberdeen-Hull Symposium on Malesian Ecology, Hull, 1973. University of Hull, Dep. of Geography, Ser. No. l 6. l l 9 p.

FOLLMANN,G. 1963. Nordchilenisehe Nebulonsen. Umschau4:101-104.

FOLSTER, H.; FASSBENDER, H.W. 1978. Untersuchungen uber Bodenstandorte der humiden Bergwalder in der nordlichen,Andenkordillere. In Landnutzung in den Tropen. Wiss. Tagung, Univ. Gottingen. pp. 101-110.

FOSBERG, F.R.; GARNIER, B.J.; KUCULER, A.W. 1961. Delimitation of the humid tropics. The Geographical Review, Vol. Ll, No.3:333-347.

FRANGI, J.L. 1983. Las sierras pantanosas de la Mon taAa Puertorriquena. In Lu go A.E. (Ed.) Los Bosques de Puerto Rico. Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. pp. 233-248.

GARCIA-PRIETO, P.R.; LUDLAM, F.H.; SOUNDERS, P.M. 1960. The possibility of artificially increasing rainfall at Tenerife in the Canary Islands. Weather 15:39-51.

GATES, D.M. 1969. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 4. Transpiration rates and temperatures of leaves in cool humid environment. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 50:93-98.

GEIGER, R. 1961. Das Kima der bodennahen Luftschicht. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig. 464 p.

GISCHLER, C. 1981. Atrapanieblas pare fertilizer el desierto. Informe No. 766 de la Oficina Regional de la UNESCO pare America Latina y El Caribe. Montevideo. 5 p.

; FERNANI)EZ, C. 1984. Low-cost techniques for water conservation and management in Latin America. Nature and Resources (UNESCO) XX (3):11-18.

GRUBB, P.J. 1971. Interpretation of the "Massenerhebung" effect on tropical mountains. Nature 229:44-45.

. 1977. Control of forest growth and distribution on wet tropical mountains, with special reference to mineral nutrition. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8:38-107.

; LLOYD, J.R.; PENNINCTON, T.D.; WHITMORE, T.C. 1963. A comparison of montane and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. I. The forest structure, physiognomy and floristics. Journal of Ecology 51:567-601.

; WHITMORE, T.C. 1966. A comparison of montane and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. II. The climate and its effect on the distribution and physiognomy of forests. Journal of Ecology 54:303-333.

; WHITMORE, T.C. 1967. A comparison on montane and lowland rain forest in Ecuador. 111. The fight reaching the ground vegetation. Journal of Ecology 55:33-57.

; TANNER, E.V.J. 1976. The montane forests and soils of Jamaica: a reassessment. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 57:313-386.

GRUNOW, J. 1952. Nebelniederschlag: Bedeutung und Erfassung einer Zusatzkomponente des Niederschlags. Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienst in der US-Zone, No.42. pp.30-34.

1955a. Der Niederschlag im Bergwald; Niederschlagszuruckhaltung und Nebelzuschlag. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt 74:21-36.

. 1955b. Erfassung zusatzlicher Niederschlagsmessungen am Waldboden aus Nebelablagerungen. Wetter und Leben, Wien 7:262-263.

. 1958. Vergleichende Messungen des Nebeluiederschlags. In Ass.Int. Hydrol. Sci. IUGG. Publication No. 44, General Assembly Toronto II. pp. 485501.

. 1960a. The structure of minute precipitation. In Weickmann H. (Ed.) Physics of precipitation. Geophysical Monograph No.5. Am. Geoph. Union. pp. 105-109.

. 1960b. The production of fog precipitation in relation to the cloud droplet spectrum. In Weickmann H. (Ed.) Physics of precipitation. Geophysical Monograph No.5. Am. Geoph. Union. pp.110-117.

HAMILTON, L.S.; KING, P.N. 1983. Tropical forested watersheds - Hydrologic and soil response to major uses or conversions. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. 168 p.

HASTENRATH, S. 1968. Certain aspects of the three-dimensional distribution of climate and vegetation belts in the mountains of Central America and southern Mexico. In Troll C. (Ed.) Colloquim Goegraphicum, Band 9. Geoecology of the Mountainous Regions in the Tropical Americas. Proceedings of the UNESCO Mexico Symposium 1966. pp.122-130.

HEDBERG, O. 1951. Vegetation belts on the east African mountains. Svensk Botan. Tidskrift 45(1):140-202.

HETSCH, W. 1976. Die Beziehung von Niederschlag und Bodenbildung in der Andenkordillere Venezuelas. Dissertation Univ. Gottingen. 167 p.

HOHEISEL, El. 1976. Slrukturanalyse und Waldtypengliederung im primaren Wolkenwald "San Eusebio" in der Nordkordillere der venezolanischen Anden. Dissertation Univ. Cottingen. 101 p.

HOLDRIDGE, L. 1967. Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica. 206 p.

. 1971. Forest environments in tropical life zones: a pilot study. Oxford, Pergamon Press. 747 p.

. 1982. Ecologia basada en xonas de vida. Centro Cientifico Tropical. IICA, San Jose, Costa Rica. 216 p.

HORI, T. (Ed.) 1953. Studies of fog in relation to fog-preventing forest. Tanne Trading Co. Lld., Sapporo, Japan. 399 p.

HOWARD, R.A. 1968. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 1. Introduction and composition studies. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 49:381-418.

. l 970. The summit forest of Pico del Oesle, Puerto Rico. In Odum and Pidgeon (Eds.) A lropical rain forest. US Alomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge. 1678 p., chapter B-20.

HUBER, O. 1976. Pflanzenokologische Untersuchungen im Gebirgsnebelwald von Rancho Grande (Venezolanische Kustenkordillere). Dissertalion, Universitat Innsbruck, Austria. 127 p.

. 1978. 1,ighl compensation point of vascular plants of a tropical cloud forest and an ecological inlerpretalion. Pholosynthetica 12(4):382-390.

HUECK, K. I 978. Los bosques de Sudamerica. GTZ, Alemania. 476 p.

HUMBOLD'I', A. von; BONPLAN 1), A. 1807. ldeen zu einer Geographie der Pflanzen nebst einem Nalurgemalde derTropenlander. In Al. von Humboldt und Aime Bonpland's Reise.1. Abt., Bd. l. Tubingen.

IUCN. 1982. IUCN directory ot Neolropical protecled aeas IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (CNPPA). Tycooly Intern. Public. Lim., Dublin, Ireland. 436 p.

JAFFE, M.J. 1980. Morphogenetic response of plants to mechanical stimuli or stress. Bioscience 30:239-243.

JUVIK, J.O.; PERREIRA, D.J. 1974. Fog interception on Mauna Lona, Hawaii. In Proceedings of the Association of American Ceographers, vol.8. pp. 22-25.

; EKERN, P.C. 1978. A climatology of mountain fog on Mauna Lona, Hawaii island. Water Resources Research Center. University of Hawaii. Technical Report No.118. 63 p.

KAMMER, F. 1974. Klima und Yegetation auf Tenerife, besonders im Hinblick auf den Nebelniederschlag. Scripta Geobotanica, Band 7. Universitat Gottingen. 78 p.

KERFOOT, O. 1968. Mist precipitation on vegetation. Leading review article. Forestry Abstracts, vol.29. pp.8-20.

KITTREDGE, J. 1948. Forest inQuences. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc. 394 p.

KNAPP, R. 1965. Die Vegetation von Nord - und Mittelamerica und den Hawaiinseln. VEB G.Fisher Verlag, Jena. 373p.

KNUCHEL, H. 1947. Uber die Nebelvegetation an der peruanischen Kuste. Schweizerische Zeitschrift lur Forstwesen 98:81-84.

KOEPKE, H.W. 1961. Synokologische Studien an der Westseite der peruanischen Anden. Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen, Nr. 29. 320 p.

KROENER, H.E. 1968. Die Verbreitung der echten Baumfarne (Cyatheaceen) und ihre klimaokologischen Voraussetzungen. Disertation Universitat Bonn. 269 p.

KUCHLER,A.W. 1967. Vegetation mapping New York. Ronald PressCo. 472 p.

KUMMEROW, J. 1962. Mediciones cuanlitativas de neblina en el Parque Nacional "Fray Jorge". In Boletin Informativo de la Universidad de Chile. No.28:36-37.

. 1966. Aporte al conocimicnlo de las condiciones climaticas del bosque de Fray Jorge. Boletin Tecnico No. 24. Iacultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Chile.

KUNKEL, G. 1976. Biogeography and ecology in the Canary Islands. Monographiae Biologicae, ed. by J. lilies. Vol. 30. Dr. W. Junk N.V. Publishers, The Hague. 511 p.

LA BASTILLE, A.; POOL, D.J. 1978. On the need for a system of cloud-forest parks in Middle America and the Caribbean. Environmental Conservation 5(3):183190.

LAMB, D. 1965. Horizontal interception of precipitation. Australian Forestry 3(1):37-39.

LAMPRECHT, H. 1954. Estudios silviculturales en los bosques del Valle de la Mucuy cerca de Merida. Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Ingenieria Forestal, Merida, Venezuela. 127 p.

. 1958. Der Gebirgsnebelwald der venezolanischen Anden. Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen 2:1-26.

. 1976. Strukturuntersuchungen in einen andinen Wolkenwald Westvenezuelas. In Proceedings Div. I, VVI. IUFRO World Congress, Oslo. pp. 539550.

. 1977. Structure and function of South American forest. In Ecosystem Research in South America. Biogeographica, vol. 8, The Hague. pp.1-15.

. 1986. Waldbau in den Tropen. Verlag Paul Parey. Hamburg. 318 p.

LANE-POOLE, C.F. 1925. The forests of Papua and New Guinea, Emp. For. Journal 4:206-234.

LASSERRE, G. 1961. La Guadaloupe. Etude Geographique, Bordeaux.

LAUER, W. 1952. Humide und aride Jahreszeiten in Afrika und Sudamerika und ihre Beziehung zu den Vegetationsgurteln. In Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen, hefL9. pp. 15-98.

. 1968. Problemas de la division fitogeografica en America Central. In Troll C. (e.d.) Colloquium Geographicum Band 9. Geoecology of the Mountainous Regions of the Tropical Americas. Proceedings of the UNESCO Mexico Symposi um 1966. pp. 139- 156.

LAWTON, R.O. 1982. Wind stress and elfin stature in a montain rain forest tree: an adaptive explanation. American Journal of Botany 69(8):1224-1230.

; DRYER, V. 1980. The vegetation of the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve. Brenesia 18:101 - 116.

LEBRUN, J. 1935. Les essences forestieres de regions montagneuses du Congo Oriental. Publ. Inst. Agron. Congo Belge. Ser. Sci.1.

. 1960. Sur un methode de delimination des horizons et etages de vegetation de montagnes du Congo. Bull. Jard. Boll Bruxelles 30.

LEIGH JUNIOR, E.G. 1975. Structure and climate in tropical rain forests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 6:67-86.

LETOUZEY, R. 1978. Floristic composition and typology. In Tropical Forest Ecosystems - A State of Knowledge Report. Prepared by UNESCO/UNEP/FAO. 683 p. Part I, chapter 4. pp.91-111.

LEWIS, W.H. 1971. High floristic endemism in low cloud forest of Panama. Biotropica 3(1):78 80.

LONARD, R.J.; ROSS, R.G. 1979. A vegetation analysis; of a tropical cloud forest in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico. The Texas Journal of Science 31(2):143-150.

LOTSCHERT, W. 1959. l Vegetation und Standortsklima in E1 Salvador. Eine pflanzengeographisch-okologische Studie. BotanischeStudien. Heft 10. 88 p.

LOVETT, G.M. 1984. RaLes and mechanisms of cloud water deposition to a subalpine balsam fir forest. Atmospheric Environment 18(2):361-371.

; REINERS, W.A.; OLSON, R.K. 1982. Cloud droplet deposition in subalpine balsam fir forests: hydrological and chemical inputs. Science 2l8:1303-1304.

LUGO, A.E. 1983. Definici6n, clasificacidn, funcionamiento y valor ecologico de sierras pantanosas. In Lugo A.k:. (Ed.) Los Bosques de Puerto Rico. Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. pp.226-232.

LUMER, C. 1980. Rodent pollination of Blakea (melostomaceae) in Costa Rican cloud forest. Brittonia 32(4):512-517.

MANN, G. 1968. Die OkosysLeme Sudamerikas. In Fittkau e al. (Eds.) Biogeography and Ecology in South America. Dr. W. Junk. N.V. Publishers, The Hague, vol I. pp. l 71 - 239.

MARLOTH, R. 1903. Results of experiments on Table Mountain for ascertaining the amount of moisture deposited from the S.E. clouds. Transactions of the South African Philosophical SocieLy, CapeTown 14:403-408.

. 1906. Uber die Wassermengen, we]che Baume und Straucher aus treibenden Nebeln und Wolken auffangen. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Braunschweig 23:547-553.

MARTIN, P.S. 1955. Zonal distribution of vertebrates in a Mexican cloud forest. The American Naturalist, Vol LXXXIX, No.849:347-361.

McCULLOCH, J.S.G.; DAGG, M. 1965. Hydrological aspects of protection forestry in East Africa. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 30(1):390-397.

MEDINA, E.; ZELWER, M. 1972. Soil respiration in tropical plant communities. In Papers from a symposium on tropical ecology with an emphasis on organic productivity. Compiled by O.M. & F.B. Golley, Athens, University of Georgia. pp.245-269.

MERRIAM, R.A. 1973. Fog drip from artificial leaves in a fog wind tunnel. Water Resources Research 9(6):1591-1598.

MORDY, W.A.; HURDIS, J. 1955. The possible importance of fog drip in Hawaiian watersheds. Abstract in Bulletin of the American Meteorology Society, Easton. 36:495.

MYERS, C.W. 1969. The ecological geography of cloud forests in Panama. American Museum Novitates No.2396. 52 p.

NADKARNI, N.M. 1984. Epiphyte biomass and nutrient capital of a neotropical elfin forest. Biotropica 16(4):249-256.

NAGEL, J.F. 1956. Fog precipitation on Table Mountain. Quaterly Journal of the Royal Meteorologic Society No.82:425-460.

. 1962. Fog precipitation measurements on Africas southwest coast. Notos, Pretoria 11:51-60.

ODUM, H.T.; PIDGEON, R.F. (Eds.) 1970. A tropical rain forest. A study of irradiation and ecology at El Verde, Puerto Rico. US Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge. 1678 p.

PAIJCHMANS, K. 1975. Explanatory notes to the vegetation map of New Guinea. Land Research Series No. 35. Commonwealth' Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Australia. 25 p.,20 plates and 4 maps.

PEREIRA, C. 1981. Future trends in watershed management and land development research. In Lal R. and Russel E. W. (Eds.) Tropical Agricultural Hydrology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. pp.465-467.

PERSSON, R. 1974. World forest resources. Stockholm. Royal College of Forestry.

PITTIER, H. 1937. Classification de bosques. Boletin Soc. Venez. de Ciencias Naturales 4(30):93-110.

PUIG, H.; BRACHO, R.; SOSA, V. 1983. Composicion floristica y estructura del bosque mesofilo en G6mez Farias, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Biotica 8 (4):339-359.

PRAT, 1953. Fog as a dominant factor for plant life on some parts of the pacific coast of North America. In Proceedings of the 7th Pacific Science Congress, New Zealand 1949 vol.5. pp. 152-156.

REYNDERS, J.J. 1964. A soil sequence in the tropics from sea level to eternal snow. International Congr. Soil Science 8(5):733-739.

RICHARDS, P.W. 1952. The tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press. Reprinted 1981. 450 p.

RIEHL, H. 1954. Tropical meteorology. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. 392 p.

. 1979. Climate and weather in the tropics. Academic Press. New York. 611 p.

ROTH, I.; MERIDA DE BlFANO'T. 1971. Morphological and anatomical studies of leaves of the plants of a venezuelian cloud forest. I. Shape and size of the leaves. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 7(2):127-155.

; MERIDA DE BIFANO, T. 1979. Morphological and anatomical studies of leaves of the plants Or a venezuelian cloud forest. II. Stomata density and stomata patterns. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 10(1):69-107

SCHLESINGER, W.H.; REINERS, W.A. 1974. Deposition of water and cations on artificial foliar collectors in fir krummholz of New England mountains. Ecology 55:378-386.

SCHRIMPFF, E.; KLEMM, O.; EIDEN, R.; FEVERS', T.; HERRMANN, R. 1984. Anwendung eines Grunow-Nebelfangers zur Bestimmung von Schadstoffgehalten in Niederschlagen. Staub - Reinhaltung Luft 44(2):72-75.

SCHUYLENBORG, J. VAN. 1958. On the genesis and classification of soils derived from andesic turfs under humid tropical conditions. Netherland Journal of Agricultural Science 6:99-123.

SCHWEINFURTH, U. 1957. Die horizontals und vertikale Verbreitung der Vegetation im Himalaya. Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen. Heft 20. 372 p.

SERRANO, F. 1977. Supervivencia o extincion - El dilema de nuestra fauna. Impresos Litograficos de Centro America. San Salvador, El Salvador. 57 p.

SHREVE, F. 1914. A mountain rain forest. A contribution to the physiological plant geography of Jamaica. Carnegy Institute Publication 199. Washington. 110p

SHUTTLEWORTH, W.J. 1977. The exchange of wind-driven fog and mist between vegetation and the atmosphere. Boundary Layer Meteorology 12:463-489.

SOBREVILA, C.; RAMIREZ, N.; DE ENRECH, N. 1983. Reproductive biology of Palicourea fendleri and Palicourea petiolaris (Rubiaceae), heterostylous shrubs of a tropical cloud forest in Venezuela. Biotropica 15(3):161-169.

STEENIS, C.G.G.J. VAN. 1935. On the origin of the Malaysian mountain flora. Part 2. Altitudinal zones, general considerations and renewed statement of the problem. Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. (ser.3) 13:289-417.

STEINHARDT, U. 1978. Untersuchungen uber Wasser- und Nahrstoffhaushalt eines andinen Wolkenwaldes in Venezuela. Dissertation Universitat Gottingen. 182p.

STEYERMARK, J. 1974. Relacion floristica entre la Cordillera de la Costa y la zone de Guayana y Amazonas. Acta Botanica Venezuelica 9(1-4):245-252.

. 1975. Flora de la sierra San Luis (Estudo Falc6n, Venezuela) y sus afinidades fitogeograficas. AcLa Botanica Venezuelica 1 0(1-4):131-218.

SUGDEN, A.M. 1982a. The vegetation of the Serrania de Macuira, Guajira, Colombia: A contrast of arid lowlands and an isolated cloud forest. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 63(1):1-30.

. 1982b. The ecological, geographic and taxonomic relationship of the flora of an isolated Colombian cloud forest, with some implications for island biogeography. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 63(1):31-61.

. 1982c. dispersal, isolation and thc cloud forest flora of the Serrania de Macuira, Gunjira, Colombia. Biotropica l 4(3):208-219.

. 1983. Dcterminunts of species composition in some isolated neotropical cloud forest. ln Sutton S.L., Whitmore A.C. and Chadwick A.C. (Eds.) Tropical Rain Forest: Ecology and ManagemenL. 498 p. Blackwell Scientific Publ. pp.43-56.

; ROBINS, R.J. 1979. Aspects of the ecology of vascular epiphytes in Colombian cloud forests. 1. The distribution of the epiphytic flora. Biotropica 11(3):173-188.

TANNER, E.V.J. 1977. Four montane rain forests of Jamaica: A quantitative characterization of the floristics, the soils and the foliar mineral levels, and a discussion of Lhe interrelation. Journul of Ecology 65:883-918.

. 1980a. Studies on the biomass and productivity in a series of montane rain t'orests in Jamaica. Journal of Ecology 68:573-588.

. 1980b. Litterfall in montane rain forests of Jamaica and its relation to climate. Journal of Ecology 68:833-848.

. 1981. The decomposition of leaf litter in Jamaican montane rain forests. Journal of Ecology 69:263-275.

; KAPOS, V. 1982. Leaf structure of Jamaican upper montane forest trees. Biotropica 14:16-24.

TOSI, J.A. 1974. Algunas relaciones del clime con el desarrollo en los tropicos. In El uso de normas ecologicas pare el desarrollo en el tropic humedo americano. Caracas. pp.55-82.

TROLL, C. 1956. Der Klima- und Vegetationsaufbau der Erde im Lichte neuer Forschungen. In J. Akad. Wissensch. Lit. Mainz. pp.216-229.

. 1959. Die tropischen Gebirge - ihre dreidimensionale klimatische und pflanzengeographische Zonierung. Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen' Nr. 25. 93 p.

. 1968. The cordilleras of the tropical Americas. Aspects of climatic, phytogeographical and agrarian ecology. In Troll C. (Ed.) Colloquium Geographicum. Band 9. Geoecology of the Mountainous Regions of the Tropical Americas. Proceedings of the UNESCO Mexico Symposium 1966. pp. 15-56.

. 1970. Das Baumfarnklima und die Verbreitung der Baumfarne auf der Erde. Tubinger Geographische Studien, Heft 34 (Sonderband 3). pp. 179-189.

TUCKF.Y JUNIOR, H.B. 1970. Leaching ot metabolites from foliage and its implication in the tropical rain forest. In Odum and Pidgeon (Eds.) A tropical rain forest. US Atomic Energy Commission. Oak Ridge. 1678 p., chapter H-l l.

VARESCHI, V. 1980. Vegetationsokologie der Tropen. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart. 293 p.

VEILLON, J.P. 1955. Bosques andinos de Venezuela. Universidad de Los Andes. Merida.

. 1974. Relaciones entre bosques naturales y el clima en diferentes zones ecological del noroccidente de Venezuela. Universidad de Los Andes, Merida. Facultad de Ciencias Forestales.

VOGEL, El. 1966. An inventory of the geographic research of the humid tropic environment. Vol. II, Compendium and appendices. US Army Natick Laboratories, Massachusetts. 501 p.

VOGELMANN, H.W. 1973. Fog precipitalion in the cloud forests of eastern Mexico. Bioscience 23(2):96-100.

WALTER, H. 1973. Die Vegetation der Erde. Band 1: Die tropischen und subtropischen %onen.3. Auflage, CusLav lischer Verlag, Jena/Stuttgart. 743 p.

. 1979. Vegetation und Klimazonen. Ulmer Verlang, Stuttgart. 4. Aufl. 342 p.

WEAVER, Y.I,. 1972a. The dwarf cloud forest of Pico del Oeste in the Luquillo Mountains. RevisLa Intcramericana 2(2): 174-186.

. 1972b. Cloud moisture interception in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science 12(3-4):129-144.

. 1975. TranspiraLion rales in Lhe dwarf foresL of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Cariljbean Journal of Science 15(1 -2):21 -30.

; BYER M.D.; BRUCK, 1).1,. 1973. Transpirations rates in the Iuquillo Mountains in PuerLo Rico. Biotropica 5(2): t 2'3 133.

WEBERBAUER, A. 1911. Die Pflitnzenwel der peruanischen Anden. Veget. Erde 12.

WEN'I', F.W. 1955. Iog, mist, dew, and other sources of' wafer. In Yearbook of Agriculturel955. USDA Dept.of Agriculture. pp.103-109.

WEtl'I'MORE, T.C. 1975. Tropical rain forest of the Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 282 p.

; BURNHAM, C.E'. 19G9. The altiudinal sequence of forests and soils of granite near Kuala Lumpur. Malttya Nature Journal 22:99 118.

WICEIT, C.1,. 1961. Volumetric determination of rainfall in hydrological research. In Interaction Conference on Etydroloy. Nairobi. Commission for Techn. Coop. in Africa, south of the Sahara. pp.94-99.

WIEE3ECKE, C. 1971. Weltforstatlas (World Forestry Alas). 13udesansLalt fur Forst und Holzwirtschaft, Reinbek, Hamburg. l'aul Parey Verlag, Hamburg. 191 p.

ZADROGA' F. 1981. The hydtological importance of a montane cloud forest area of Costa RiC.t. In 1,al R. and Russel K.W. (Eds.)Tropical Agricultural Etydrology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. pp.59-73.

Word processing
Cover design
Cover photo

Elizabeth Mora
Rita Aguilar and Lissette Vega
Hjalmar Morales
Roy Garcia
Thomas Stadtmuller