3.1. Daily pattern of EE and TDEE
The minute-by-minute heart-rate method was utilized to follow the
EE while children were awake (SPURR and REINA, 1988a) from about 6 a.m. to 8-9
p.m. Since the schoolday in Cali operates on two 5-hour shifts (7 a.m. to 12
p.m. and 1 to 6 p.m.), the data were analyzed by 'school-time' and
'free-time' without regard to whether they were obtained in the
morning or afternoon. In Figure 7 they are presented in 30-minute
averages, during 5 hours in each category, together with the two and three-way
analysis of variance (ANOVA; with repeated measures where appropriate).
of energy expenditure in 6-8, 1012 and 14-16-year-old normal and marginally
undernourished Colombian boys and girls during 5 hours of
'school-time' and 'free-time'. Where appropriate, two-way
ANOVA is with repeated measures. From SPURR and REINA, 1988a.
There are statistically significant differences in nutritional
group (NG) in the youngest children and during the time course of the 5-hour
period in school only in the girls. In the repeated measures ANOVA over time
(hours), the only significant change occurred during the fall in EE in
14-16-year-old girls during school, and all age groups of girls had
significantly lower values than boys.
These data are presented primarily to show the results of a study
using minute-by-minute heart-rate measurement. Another kind of application
showing the failure of malnourished boys to keep up with their well-nourished
counterparts is presented in the article by Torun in this volume (his Figure 6