|Causes and Mechanisms of Linear Growth Retardation (International Dietary Energy Consultative Group - IDECG, 1993, 216 pages)|
|Adequacy of dietary mineral supply for human bone growth and mineralisation|
Adams P & Berridge FR (1969): Effects of kwashiorkor on cortical and trabecular bone. Arch. Dis. Child 44, 705-709.
Aggett PJ (1988): Severe zinc deficiency. In Zinc in human biology, ed. CF Mills, pp. 259-279. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Allen LH (1982): Calcium bioavailability and absorption: a review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 35, 783-808.
Anderson BM, Gibson RS & Sabry JH (1981): The iron and zinc status of long-term vegetarian women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34, 1042-1048.
Anderson MP, Hunt RD, Griffiths HJ, McIntyre KW & Zimmerman RE (1977): Long-term effect of low dietary calcium:phosphate ratio on the skeleton of Cebus albi-frons monkeys. J. Nutr. 107, 834-839.
Aykroyd WR & Krishnan BG (1937): The effect of skimmed milk, soya bean, and other foods in supplementing typical Indian diets. Indian J. Med. Res. 24, 1093-1115.
Aykroyd WR & Krishnan BG (1938): Effect of calcium lactate on children in a nursery school. Lancet ii, 153-155.
Aykroyd WR & Krishnan BG (1939): A further experiment on the value of calcium lactate for Indian children. Indian J. Med. Res. 27, 409-412.
Bansal P, Rau P, Venkatachalam PS & Gopalan C (1964): Effect of calcium supplementation on children in a rural community. Indian J. Med. Res. 52, 219-223.
Bates CJ & Tsuchiya H (1990): Zinc in breast milk during prolonged lactation: comparison between the UK and The Gambia. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 44, 61-69.
Bates CJ, Evans PH, Dardenne M, Prentice A, Lunn PG, Northrop-Clewes CA, Hoare S, Cole TJ, Stirling D & Aggett PJ (1993): A trial of zinc supplementation in young rural Gambian children. Br. J. Nutr. 69, 243-255.
Begum A & Pereira S (1969): Calcium balance studies on children accustomed to low calcium intakes. Br. J. Nutr. 23, 905-911.
Behrens RH, Tomkins AM & Roy SK (1990): Zinc supplementation during diarrhoea, a fortification against malnutrition. Lancet ii, 442-443.
Bindra GS, Gibson RS & Thompson LU (1986): [Phytate] [Calcium]/[Zinc] ratios in Asian immigrant lactovovegetarian diets and their relationship to zinc nutriture. Nutr. Res. 6, 475-483.
Bishop N (1989): Bone disease in preterm infants. Arch. Dis. Child. 64, 1403-1409.
British Nutrition Foundation (1989): Calcium. London: The British Nutrition Foundation.
Bronner F, Harris RS, Maletskos CJ & Benda CE (1954): Studies in calcium metabolism. Effect of food phytates on calcium45 uptake in children on low-calcium breakfasts. J. Nutr. 54, 523-542.
Bronner F, Harris RS, Maletskos CJ & Benda CE (1956): Studies in calcium metabolism. Effect of food phytates on calcium45 uptake in boys on a moderate calcium breakfast. J. Nutr., 56, 393-406.
Carter JP, Grivetti LE, Davis JT, Nasiff S, Mansour A, Mousa WA, Alaa-El-Din Atta, Patwardhan VN, Abdel Moneim M, Abdou IA & Darby WJ (1969): Growth and sexual development of adolescent Egyptian village boys. Effects of zinc, iron and placebo supplementation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 22, 59-78.
Castillo-Duran C, Heresi G, Fisberg M & Uauy R (1987): Controlled trial of zinc supplementation during recovery from malnutrition: effects on growth and immune function. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45, 602-608.
Cerqueira MT, McMurry Fry M & Connor WE (1979): The food and nutrient intakes of the Tarahumara Indians of Mexico. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32, 905-915.
Chase HP, Hambidge KM, Barnett SE, Houts-Jacob MJ, Lenz K & Gillespie J (1980): Low vitamin A and zinc concentrations in Mexican-American migrant children with growth retardation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33, 2346-2349.
Chen X-C, Yin T-A, He J-S, Ma Q-Y, Han Z-M & Li L-X (1985): Low levels of zinc in hair and blood, pica, anorexia and poor growth in Chinese pre-school children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42, 694-700.
Chusilp K, Somnasang P, Kirdpon W, Wongkham S, Sribonlue P, Mahaverawat U, Yongvanit P, Sawakontha S & Waterlow J (1992): Observations on the development of stunting in children of the Khon Kaen region of Thailand, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 46, 475-487.
Clements MR, Johnson L & Fraser DR (1987): A new mechanism for induced vitamin D deficiency: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D enhanced hepatic inactivation of vitamin D. Nature 325, 62-65.
Cohn SH, Abesamis C, Zanzi I, Aloia JF, Yasumura S & Ellis KJ (1977): Body elemental composition: comparison between black and white adults. Am. J. Physiol. 232, E419-E422.
Creed de Kanashiro H, Brown KH, Lopez de Romana G, Lopez T & Black RE (1990): Consumption of food and nutrients by infants in Huascar (Lima), Peru. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52, 995-1004.
Dagnelie PC, Vergote FJVRA, van Staveren WA, van den Berg H, Dingjan PG & Hautvast JGAJ (1990): High prevalence of rickets in infants on macrobiotic diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51, 202-208.
Department of Health (1989): The diets of British schoolchildren. Report on Health and Social Subjects No. 36. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Department of Health (1991): Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects No. 41. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Dirren H, Barclay D, Gil Ramos J, Montalvo M-M & Lozano R (1993, in press): Zinc supplementation and infant growth in Ecuador. In Nutrient regulation during pregnancy, lactation and infant growth. New York: Academic Press.
Eyberg CJ, Pettifor JM & Moodley G (1986): Dietary calcium intake in rural black South African children. The relationship between calcium intake and calcium nutritional status. Hum. Nutr.: Clin. Nutr. 40C, 69-74.
Ferguson EL, Gibson RS, Thompson LU & Ounpuu S (1989): Dietary calcium, phytate, and zinc intakes and the calcium, phytate, and zinc molar ratios of the diets of a selected group of East African children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 50, 1450-1456.
Fomon SJ (1974): Infant nutrition. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders.
Fraser DR (1988a): Bone mineral and fat-soluble vitamins. In Comparative nutrition, eds K Blaxter & I MacDonald, pp. 105-116. London: John Libbey.
Fraser DR (1988b): Nutritional growth retardation: experimental studies with special reference to calcium. In Linear growth retardation in less developed countries, ed. JC Waterlow, pp. 127-141. Vevey: Nestec/New York: Raven Press.
Fraser DR (1991): Physiology of vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. In Rickets, ed. FH Glorieux, pp. 23-34. Vevey: Nestec/New York: Raven Press.
Garn SM, Rohmann CG, Behar M, Viteri F & Guzman MA (1964): Compact bone deficiency in protein-calorie malnutrition. Science 145, 1444-1445.
Gatheru Z, Kinoti S, Alwar J & Mwita M: (1988): Serum zinc levels in children with kwashiorkor aged one to three years at Kenyatta National Hospital and the effect of zinc supplementation during recovery. East Afr. Med. J. 65, 670-679.
Gibson RS, Vanderkooy PDS, MacDonald AC, Goldman A, Ryan BA & Berry M (1989): A growth-limiting, mild zinc-deficiency syndrome in some Southern Ontario boys with low height percentiles. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49, 1266-1273.
Gibson RS, Heywood A, Yaman C, Sohlstrom A, Thompson LV & Heywood P (1991): Growth in children from the Wosera subdistrict, Papua New Guinea, in relation to energy and protein intakes and zinc status. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 782-789.
Golden BE & Golden MHN (1979): Plasma zinc and the clinical features of malnutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32, 2490-2494.
Golden BE & Golden MHN (1992): Effect of zinc on lean tissue synthesis during recovery from malnutrition. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 46, 697-706.
Golden MHN (1988): The role of individual nutrient deficiencies in growth retardation of children as exemplified by zinc and protein. In Linear growth retardation in less developed countries, ed. JC Waterlow, pp. 143-163. Vevey: Nestec/New York: Raven Press.
Golden MHN & Golden BE (1981): Effect of zinc supplementation on the dietary intake, rate of weight gain, and energy cost of tissue deposition in children recovering from severe malnutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34, 900-908.
Golden MHN, Golden BE, Harland PSEG & Jackson AA (1978): Zinc and immunocompetence in protein-energy malnutrition. Lancet i, 1226-1227.
Golub MS, Gershwin ME, Hurley LS, Saito WY & Hendrickx AG (1984): Studies of marginal zinc deprivation in Rhesus monkeys. IV. Growth of infants in the first year. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40, 1192-1202.
Hambidge KM, Chavez MN, Brown RM & Walravens PA (1979): Zinc nutritional status of young middle-income children and effects of consuming zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32, 2532-2539.
Hambidge KM, Casey CE & Krebs NF (1986): Zinc. In Trace elements in human and animal nutrition, vol. 2, ed. W Mertz, pp. 1-137. New York: Academic Press.
Hegsted DM, Moscoso I & Collazos C (1952): A study of the minimum calcium requirements of adult men. J. Nutr. 46, 181-201.
Irving JT (1964): Dynamics and function of phosphorus. In Mineral metabolism, vol. 2A, eds CL Comar & F Bronner, pp. 249-313. New York: Academic Press.
Kanis JA & Passmore R (1989): Calcium supplementation of the diet. I. Br. Med. J. 298, 137-140.
King JC & Turnlund JR (1988): Human zinc requirements. In Zinc in human biology, ed. CF Mills, pp. 335-350. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Kooh SW, Fraser D, Reilly BJ, Hamilton JR, Gall DG & Bell L (1977): Rickets due to calcium deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 297,1264-1266.
Krebs NF & Hambidge KM (1986): Zinc requirements and zinc intakes of breast-fed infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45, 288-292.
Krebs NF, Hambidge KM & Walravens PA (1984): Increased food intake of young children receiving a zinc supplement. Am. J. Dis. Child 138, 270-273.
Krebs NF, Hambidge KM, Jacobs MA & Rasbach KO (1985): The effects of a dietary zinc supplement during lactation on longitudinal changes in maternal zinc status and milk zinc concentrations. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41, 560-570.
Laskey MA, Dibba B & Prentice A (1991): Low ratios of calcium to phosphorus in the breast-milk of rural Gambian mothers. Acta Paediatr. Scand 80, 250-251.
Laskey MA, Prentice A, Shaw J, Zachou T & Ceesay SM (1990): Breast-milk calcium concentrations during prolonged lactation in British and rural Gambian mothers. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 79, 507-512.
Lawson DEM, Cole TJ, Salem SI, Galal OM, El-Meligy R, Abdel-Azim S, Paul AA & El-Husseini S (1987): Aetiology of rickets in Egyptian children. Hum. Nutr.: Clin. Nutr. 41C, 199-208.
Leek JC, Vogler JB, Gershwin ME, Golub MS, Hurley LS & Hendrickx AG (1984): Studies of marginal zinc deprivation in rhesus monkeys. V. Fetal and infant skeletal effects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 40, 1203-1212.
Leek JC, Keen CL, Vogler JB, Golub MS, Hurley LS, Hendrickx AG & Gershwin ME (1988): Long-term marginal zinc deprivation in rhesus monkeys. VI. Effects on skeletal growth and mineralization. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 47, 889-895.
Leitch I & Aitken FC (1959): The estimation of calcium requirement: a re-examination. Nutr. Abs. Rev. 29, 14-411.
Linhares EDR, Round JM & Jones DA (1986): Growth, bone maturation, and biochemical changes in Brazilian children from two different socioeconomic groups. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 44, 552-558.
Linhares EDR, Round JM & Jones DA (1986): Growth-, bone meaturation, and biochemical changesin Brazilian children from two different socioeconomic groups. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 44, 552-558.
Lo C, Jarjou L, Poppitt S, Cole TJ & Prentice A (1990): Delayed development of peak bone mass in West African adolescents. In Osteoporosis 1990, vol. 1, eds C Christiansen & K Overgaard, pp. 73-77. Aalborg, Denmark: Handelstrykkeriet Aalborg Aps.
Luyken R & Luyken-Koning FWM (1961): Studies on the physiology of nutrition in Surinam. VIII. Metabolism of calcium. Trop. Geogr. Med. 13, 46-54.
Luyken R & Luyken-Koning FWM (1969): Studies on physiology of nutrition in Surinam. XII. Nutrition and development of muscular, skeletal and adipose tissues in Surinam children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 22, 519-526.
Luyken R, Luyken-Koning FWM, Cambridge TH, Dohle T & Bosch R (1967): Studies on physiology of nutrition in Surinam. X. Protein metabolism and influence of extra calcium on the growth of and calcium metabolism in boarding school children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 20, 34-42.
Malan AI & Ockerse T (1941): The effect of the calcium and phosphorus intake of school children upon dental caries, body weights and heights. South Afr. Dental J. 15, 153-158.
Maltz HE, Fish MB & Holliday MA (1970): Calcium deficiency rickets and the renal response to calcium infusion. Pediatrics 46, 865-870.
Marie PJ, Pettifor JM, Ross FP & Glorieux FH (1982): Histological osteomalacia due to dietary calcium deficiency in children. N. Engl. J. Med. 307, 584-588.
Mitchell HH, Hamilton, TS, Steggarda FR & Bean HW (1945): The chemical composition of the adult human body and its bearing on the biochemistry of growth. J. Biol. Chem. 158, 625-637.
Moore T, Impey SG, Martin PEN & Symonds KR (1963): Meat diets. II. Effect of the age of rats on their ability to withstand the low calcium intake induced by a diet of minced beef J. Nutr. 80, 162-170.
Murphy SP, Beaton GH & Calloway DH (1992): Estimated mineral intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequacy in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 56, 565-572.
Nicholls L & Nimalasuriya A (1939): Adaptation to a low calcium intake in reference to the calcium requirements of a tropical population. J. Nutr. 18, 563-577.
O'Dell BL & Reeves PO (1988): Zinc status and food intake. In Zinc in human biology, ed. CF Mills, pp. 173-181. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Oppe TE & Redstone D (1968): Calcium and phosphorus levels in healthy newborn infants given various types of milk. Lancet i, 1045-1048.
Ornoy A, Wolinsky I & Guggenheim K (1974): Structure of long bones of rats and mice fed a low calcium diet. Calcif Tissue Res. 15, 71-76.
Pettifor JM (1991): Dietary calcium deficiency. In Rickets, ed. FH Glorieux, pp. 123-143. Vevey: Nestec/New York: Raven Press.
Pettifor JM, Ross P, Wang J, Moodley G & Couper-Smith J (1978): Rickets in children of rural origin in South Africa: is low dietary calcium a factor? J. Pediatr. 92, 320-324.
Pettifor JM, Ross P, Moodley G & Shuenyane E (1979): Calcium deficiency in rural black children in South Africa - a comparison between rural and urban communities. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32, 2477-2483.
Pettifor JM, Ross P, Moodley G & Shuenyane E (1981a): The effect of dietary calcium supplementation on serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations in a rural black population. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34, 2187-2191.
Pettifor JM, Ross P, Travers R, Glorieux FH, Deluca HF (1981b): Dietary calcium deficiency: a syndrome associated with bone deformities and elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Metab. Bone Dis. Rel. Res. 2, 301-305.
Pettifor JM, Marie RJ, Sly MR, du Bruyn DB, Ross F, Isdale JM, de Klerk WA & van der Walt WH (1984): The effect of differing dietary calcium and phosphorus contents on mineral metabolism and bone histomorphometry in young vitamin D-replete baboons. Calcif Tissue Int. 36, 668-676.
Prasad AS (1991): Discovery of human zinc deficiency and studies in an experimental human model. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 403-412.
Prentice A (1991): Functional significance of marginal calcium deficiency. In Modern lifestyles, lower energy intake and micronutrient status, ed. K Peitrzik, pp. 139-154. London: Springer-Verlag.
Prentice AM, Paul AA, Prentice A, Black AK, Cole TJ & Whitehead RG (1986): Cross-cultural differences in lactational performance. In Human lactation 2: maternal and environmental factors, eds M Hamosh & AS Goldman, pp. 13-44. New York: Plenum Press.
Prentice A & Paul A (1990): Contribution of breast-milk to nutrition during prolonged breast-feeding. In Human lactation 4: breast-feeding, nutrition, infections and infant growth, eds S Atkinson, L Hanson & R Chandra, pp. 87-102. St John's: ARTS Biomedical Publishers.
Prentice A, Laskey MA, Shaw J, Cole TJ & Fraser DR (1990): Bone mineral content of Gambian and British children aged 0-36 months. Bone Miner. 10, 211-224.
Prentice A, Laskey MA, Shaw J, Hudson G, Day K, Jarjou LMA, Dibba B & Paul AA (1993): The calcium and phosphorus intakes of rural Gambian women during pregnancy and lactation. Br. J. Nutr. 69, 885-896.
Rajalakshmi R, Sail SS, Shah DG & Ambady SK (1973): The effects of supplements varying in carotene and calcium content on the physical, biochemical and skeletal status of preschool children. Br. J. Nutr. 30, 77-86.
Ronaghy H, Spivey Fox MR, Garn SM, Israel H, Harp A, Moe PG & Halsted JA (1969): Controlled zinc supplementation for malnourished school boys: a pilot study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 22, 1279-1289.
Ronaghy H, Reinhold JG, Mahloudji M, Ghavami P, Spivey Fox MR & Halsted JA (1974): Zinc supplementation of malnourished schoolboys in Iran: increased growth and other effects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27, 112-121.
Russell RGG, Caswell AM, Hearn PR & Sharrard RM (1986): Calcium in mineralized tissues and pathological calcification. Br. Med. Bull. 42, 435-446.
Sandstead HH (1985): Requirement of zinc in human subjects. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 4, 73-82.
Sandstead HH (1991): Zinc deficiency. A public health problem? Am. J. Dis. Child 145, 853-859.
Schlesinger L, Arevalo M, Arredondo S, Diaz M, Lonnerdal B & Stekel A (1992): Effect of a zinc-fortified formula on immunocompetence and growth of malnourished infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 56, 491-492.
Schwartz R (1990): Magnesium metabolism. In Nutrition and bone development, ed. DJ Simmons, pp. 148-163. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Simmer K, Khanum S, Carlsson L & Thompson RPH (1988): Nutritional rehabilitation in Bangladesh - the importance of zinc. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 47, 1036-1040.
Smith RM, King RA, Spargo RM, Cheek DB, Field JB & Veitch LG (1985): Growth-retarded aboriginal children with low plasma zinc levels do not show a growth response to supplementary zinc. Lancet i, 923-924.
Solomons NW & Jacob RA (1981): Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in humans: effects of heme and non-heme iron on the absorption of zinc. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34, 475-482.
Specker BL & Tsang RC (1987): Bone mineralization. Ann. Nestlé 45, 18-25.
Sundaraj R, Begum A, Jesudian G & Pereira SM (1969): Seasonal variation in the diets of pre-school children in a village (North Arcot District). II. Intake of vitamins and minerals. Indian J. Med. Res. 57, 375-383.
Taylor CM, Bacon JR, Aggett PJ & Bremner I (1991): Homeostatic regulation of zinc absorption and endogenous losses in zinc-deprived men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 755-763.
Udomkesmalee E, Dhanamitta S, Yhoung-Aree J, Rojroongwasinkul N &Rojroongwasinkul Smith JC (1990): Biochemical evidence suggestive of suboptimal zinc and vitamin A status in school children in Northeast Thailand. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52, 564-567.
Valyasevi A & Dhanamitta S (1967): Studies of bladder stone disease in Thailand. VII. Urinary studies in newborn and infants of hypo- and hyper-endemic areas. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 20,1369-1379.
Valyasevi A, Dhanamitta S & Van Reen R (1969): Studies of bladder stone disease in Thailand. X. Effect of orthophosphate and nonfat dry milk supplementations on urine composition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 22, 218-227.
Valyasevi A, Halstead SB, Pantuwatana S & Tankayul C (1967): Studies of bladder stone disease in Thailand. IV. Dietary habits, nutritional intake, and infant feeding practices among residents of hypo- and hyper-endemic areas. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 20, 1340-1351.
Vaughan JP, Zumrawi F, Waterlow JC & Kirkwood BR (1981): An evaluation of dried skimmed milk on children's growth in Khartoum Province, Sudan. Nutr. Res. 1, 243-252.
Wacker WEC & Vallee BL (1964): Magnesium. In Mineral Metabolism, vol. 2A, eds CL Comar & F Bronner, pp. 483-521. New York: Academic Press.
Walker ARP (1954): Does a low intake of calcium retard growth or conduce to stuntedness? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2, 265-271.
Walker ARP (1972): The human requirement of calcium: should low intakes be supplemented? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25, 518-530.
Walker ARP, Fox FW & Irving JT (1948): Studies in human mineral metabolism. I. The effect of bread rich in phytate phosphorus on the metabolism of certain mineral salts with special reference to calcium. Biochem. J. 42, 452-462.
Walravens P & Hambidge KM (1976): Growth of infants fed a zinc supplemented formula. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29, 1114-1121.
Walravens PA, Krebs NF & Hambidge KM (1983): Linear growth of low income preschool children receiving a zinc supplement. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38, 195-201.
Walravens PA, Hambidge KM & Koepfer DM (1989): Zinc supplementation in infants with a nutritional pattern of failure to thrive: a double-blind, controlled study. Pediatrics 83, 532-538.
Walravens PA, Chakar A, Mokni R, Denise J & Lemonnier D (1992): Zinc supplements in breast-fed infants. Lancet ii, 683-685.
Widdowson EM, McCance RA, Harrison GE & Sutton A (1963): Effect of giving phosphate supplements to breast-fed babies on absorption and excretion of calcium, strontium, magnesium and phosphorus. Lancet ii, 1250-1251.
Widdowson EM & Dickerson JWT (1964): Chemical composition of the body. In Mineral metabolism, vol. 2A, eds. CL Comar & F Bronner, pp. 1-247. New York: Academic Press.
Xu P, Price J, Wise A & Aggett PJ (1992): Interaction of inositol phosphates with calcium, zinc, and histidine. J. Inorg. Biochem. 47, 119-130.
Ziegler EE, Serfass RE, Nelson SE, Figueros-Colon R, Edwards BB, Houk RS & Thompson JJ (1989): Effect of low zinc intake on absorption and excretion of zinc by infants studied with 70 Zn extrinsic tag. J. Nutr. 119, 1647-1653.