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close this bookBibliography of Studies of the Energy Cost of Physical Activity in Humans (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 1997, 162 pages)
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close this folder4.2 Occupational activities
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close this folder4.3 Sports and recreation
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4.3.3 Men & women

1. Adams WC (1967): Influence of age, sex, and body weight on the energy expenditure of bicycle riding. .J.Appl.Physiol 22, 539 545

Energy expenditure observations were made on 60 normal adult men and women, ranging in age from 20 to 52.2 years, while riding a narrow-tire bicycle at a previously determined average speed. Analysis of variance indicated that age had no effect on gross energy expenditure and that, when the latter was divided total body weight, there was no significant difference between men and women. The results of multiple regression analysis confirmed the dominant effect of total body weight, in that neither the addition of age, height, body surface area, lean body weight, fat body weight, or tricep skinfold contributed significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure for the ride.

2. Bergh U (1987): The influence of body mass in cross-country skiing. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 19, 324-331.

National Defense Research Institute, Environmental Stress and Human Performance, Stockholm, Sweden. The influence of body weight on the performance in cross-country skiing has been studied by: dimensional analysis of the ratio (R) between the factors of importance to power production VO2max acceleration of gravity) and the braking powers, e.g., friction and air resistance; measuring the energy cost of level skiing (N = 6); comparing male world class skiers (N = 5) with less successful ones (N = 34) and female winners of the National Championships (N = 9) with non-winners (N = 9) in regard to the relationship between body weight and VO2max The dimensional analysis revealed that R was less than unity for rather steep uphills. For level, downhill, and less steep uphill skiing, R was greater than unity. Thus, skiers who are light will be favored in steep uphill slopes, whereas heavier skiers have advantages in the other parts of the track. Energy cost per kilogram for level skiing was inversely related to the transported mass. Per unit of distance, this cost was positively related to velocity. The world class skiers displayed significantly greater VO2max than the less successful ones, regardless of the unit used. The lowest standard deviation among the world class skiers was attained when expressing VO2max as ml X min-1 X kg-2/3. The present results indicate that R will be quite close to unity and therefore the performance capability would theoretically be independent of body mass. Furthermore, VO2max is preferably expressed as ml X min-1 X kg-2/3 for cross-country skiers.

3. Blanksby BA & Reidy PW (1988): Heart rate and estimated energy expenditure during ballroom dancing. Br.J.Sports Med. 22, 57-60.

Department of Human Movement and Recreation Studies, University of Western Australia, Nedlands. Ten competitive ballroom dance couples performed simulated competitive sequences of Modern and Latin American dance. Heart rate was telemetered during the dance sequences and related to direct measures of oxygen uptake and heart rate obtained while walking on a treadmill. Linear regression was employed to estimate gross and net energy expenditures of the dance sequences. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures on the dance factor was applied to the data to test for interaction and main effects on the sex and dance factors. Overall mean heart rate values for the Modern dance sequence were 170 beats.min-1 and 173 beats.min1 for males and females respectively. During the Latin American sequence mean overall heart rate for males was 168 beats.min-1 and 177 beats.min1 for females. Predicted mean gross values of oxygen consumption for the males were 42.8 +/-5.7 min-1 and 42.8 +/- 6.9 min-1 for the Modern and Latin American sequences respectively. Corresponding gross estimates of oxygen consumption for the females were 34.7 +/- 3.8 min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 min-1. Males were estimated to expend 54.1 +/-8.1 kJ.min-1 of energy during the Modern sequence and 54.0 +/-9.6 kJ.min-1 during the Latin American sequence, while predicted energy expenditure for females was 34.7 +/- 3.8 kJ.min-1 and 36.1 +/- 4.1 kJ.min-1 for Modern and Latin American dance respectively. The results suggested that both males and females were dancing at greater than 80% of their maximum oxygen consumption. A significant difference between males and females was observed for predicted gross and net values of oxygen consumption (in L.min-1 and min-1).

4. Bransford DR & Howley ET (1977): Oxygen cost of running in trained and untrained men and women. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 9, 41-44.

The purpose of this study was to compare the oxygen cost of running as it relates to speed of running among the following four groups: trained male distance runners, trained female distance runners, untrained but active men and women. Each subject was given a series of treadmill tests during which Vo2 was measured at submaximal work loads. The linear regression equation was utilized to compute the relationship between Vo2 and running speed for each groups. The results indicated that the rate of increase in Vo2 for a given increase in running speed could be represented as a straight line and was the same for all groups (P greater than .05). The trained male runners had a significantly lower Vo2 (P less than .05) than those of the other three groups at any measured speed. The trained females and untrained males had significantly lower Vo2s than the untrained females (P less than .05) at any of the given range of speeds. No significant differences were observed between the untrained mean and trained women (P greater than .05). It was concluded that there were differences in the oxygen cost of running not only between the trained and untrained groups but also between males and females.

5. Brehm BA & Gutin B (1986): Recovery energy expenditure for steady state exercise in runners and nonexercisers. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 18, 205-210.

This study examined the effects of intensity, mode of exercise, and aerobic fitness on the energy expended during recovery (recovery oxygen consumption, or rec VO2 following steady state exercise. Eight runners (4 mares, 4 females; 22-32 yr) walked at 3.2 and 6.4 km X h-1 and ran at 8.1 and 11.3 km X h-1 (18, 33, 50, and 68% peak VO2 All subjects completed 3.2 km of walking or running each session. Eight sedentary adults (4 male, 4 female; 21-33 yr) completed the 6.4 km X h-1 test. For the runners, net rec VO2 for 3.2, 6.4, 8.1 and 11.3 km X h-1 exercise was (X +/-SE) 12.52 +/- 3.00, 29.53 +/- 5.41, 28.64 +/- 2.91, and 44.27 +/-5.32 ml X kg-1, respectively, for the recovery period (18-48 min). Differences among group means were significant (P less than 0.05), except between 6.4 and 8.1 km X h-1 walking (29.53 +/-5.41 and 35.09 +/- 9.39 ml X kg-1). Statements attributing substantial energy expenditure to the recovery period may be misleading to people exercising at levels similar to those described in this study, since the recovery energy expenditure only amounted to approximately 13-71 kJ (3-17 kcal).

6. Bunc V & Heller J (1989): Energy cost of running in similarly trained men and women. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 59, 178-183.

Physical Culture Research Institute, Charles University, Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. The energy demand of running on a treadmill was studied in different groups of trained athletes of both sexes. We have not found any significant differences in the net energy cost (C) during running (expressed in between similarly trained groups of men and women. For men and women respectively in adult middle distance runners C = 3.57 +/- 0.15 and 3.65 +/-0.20, in adult long-distance runners C = 3.63 +/- 0.18 and 3.70 +/- 0.21, in adult canoeists C = 3.82 +/- 0.34 and 3.80 +/- 0.24, in young middle-distance runners C = 3.84 +/- 0.18 and 3.78 +/-0.26 and in young long-distance runners C = 3.85 +/- 0.12 and 3.80 +/- 0.24. This similarity may be explained by the similar training states of both sexes, resulting from the intense training which did not differ in its relative intensity and frequency between the groups of men and women. A negative relationship was found between the energy cost of running and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) expressed relative to body weight (for men r = -0.471, p less than 0.001; for women r = -0.589, p less than 0.001). In contrast, no significant relationship was found in either sex between the energy cost of running and VO2max. We conclude therefore that differences in sports performance between similarly trained men and women are related to differences in The evaluation of C as an additional characteristic during laboratory tests may help us to ascertain, along with other parameters, not only the effectiveness of the training procedure, but also to evaluate the technique performed.

7. Burke EJ & Keenan TJ (1984): Energy cost, heart rate, and perceived exertion during the elementary backstroke. Physician Sportsmed. 12, 75-80.

The purpose of this study was to determine the energy cost of the elementary backstroke and to see if heart rate and perceived exertion are useful for monitoring exercise intensity. Five healthy men and five healthy women swam the elementary backstroke at four different intensities, and velocity, VO2 heart rate, and perceived exertion were monitored. Each dependent variable significantly increased with increasing intensity. The only sex difference was a higher VO2 in men for each work intensity. Average energy cost ranged from 0.097 at 1.1 to 1.4 to 0.17 at 1.8 to 2.0 (SEM + - 0.01). It was concluded that the elementary backstroke is suitable for a fitness program.

8. Capelli C, Zamparo P. Cigalotto A, Francescato MP, Soule RG, Termin B. Pendergast DR & di Prampero PE (1995): Bioenergetics and biomechanics of front crawl swimming. .J.Appl.Physiol 78, 674-679.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche, Universita di Udine, Italy. "Underwater torque" (T') is one of the main factors determining the energy cost of front crawl swimming per unit distance (Cs). In turn, T' is defined as the product of the force with which the swimmer's feet tend to sink times the distance between the feet and the center of volume of the lungs. The dependency of Cs on T' was further investigated by determining Cs in a group of 10 recreational swimmers (G1: 4 women and 6 men) and in a group of 8 male elite swimmers (G2) after T' was experimentally modified. This was achieved by securing around the swimmers' waist a plastic tube filled, on different occasions, with air, water, or 1 or 2 kg of lead. Thus, T' was either decreased, unchanged, or increased compared with the natural condition (tube filled with water). Cs was determined, for each T' configuration, at 0.7 m/s for G1 and at 1.0 and 1.2 m/s for G2. For T' equal to the natural value, Cs (in kJ.m-1.m body surface area-2) was 0.36 +/-0.09 and 0.53 +/0.13 for G1 in women and men, respectively, and 0.45 +/- 0.05 and 0.53 +/- 0.06 for G2 at 1.0 and 1.2 m/s, respectively. In a given subject at a given speed, Cs and T' were linearly correlated. To compare different subjects and different speeds, the single values of Cs and T' were normalized by dividing them by the corresponding individual averages. These were calculated from all single values (of Cs or T') obtained from that subject at that speed. The normalized Cs was found to be a linear function of the normalized T' (r=0.84, P<0.001; n-86) regardless of sex, speed, or swimming skill. We concluded that, in the speed range of 0.7-1.23 m/s, T' is indeed the main determinant of Cs regardless of sex or swimming skill.

9. Cohen JL, Segal KR, Witriol I & McArdle WD (1982): Cardiorespiratory responses to ballet exercise and the VO2max of elite ballet dancers. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 14, 212-217.

Physiologic responses to ballet exercise and VO2max during treadmill running were studied in elite professional ballet dancers (7 men, 8 women; age 20-30 yr) from the American Ballet Theatre. Ten dancers were studied during standard 1-h ballet classes consisting of 28 min of barre and 32 min of center floor exercise. Eight dancers performed maximal treadmill running tests yielding VO2max values (ml . min-1 . kg-1) of 48.2 (range 43.8-51.9) for men and 43.7 (range 40.9-50.1) for women. Mean VO2 (ml . min-1 . kg-1) during barre exercise was 18.5 (38% VO2max) for men and 16.5 (38% VO2max) for women; during center floor exercise 26.3 (55% VO2max) for men and 20.1 (46% VO2max) for women, with a peak of 77% VO2max for a male dancer. Mean caloric output values (kcal . kg-1 . min-1) during barre exercise were 0.09 and 0.08 for men and women, respectively, and during center floor exercise 0.13 for men and 0.10 for women, with a peak of 0.18 for one male dancer. Estimated net caloric outputs for the entire ballet class averaged 200 kcal . h-1 for women and 300 kcal . h-1 for men. During barre exercise, HR was below the training sensitive zone (70% HR max) for significant periods of time. Peak HR (beats . min-1) was relatively high during allegro center floor exercise, averaging 178 (92% HR max) and 158 (85% HR max) for men and women, respectively. However, these were maintained for only brief durations similar to sprint or burst activities. We conclude that these physiologic data obtained during ballet class represent only a relatively modest stimulus for augmenting aerobic (VO2max). In conjunction with the strong isometric component in ballet exercise, along with the sprint or burst component of ballet exercise, these factors would produce in elite ballet dancers VO2max values in the range of non-endurance athletes.

10. Holmer I (1972): Oxygen uptake during swimming in man. .J.Appl.Physiol 33, 502-509.

It is possible to set the water flow rate with great accuracy in a recently constructed swimming flume, i.e., a kind of swimming "treadmill". Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentrations were measured in three female and six male adult subject, with varying proficiency in swimming, while subjects swam three styles at different speeds. The same determinations were made during exercise on a Krogh bicycle ergometer and on a treadmill. The same determinations were made in 12 girl swimmers, 13-18 years old, but only during maximal running and maximal swimming. Minimal oxygen uptake during floating in a vertical position in nine subjects varied from 0.9 to 2.0 I.min-1. At a given swimming speed the trained swimmers were able to swim with a much lower oxygen uptake than subjects who were not trained swimmers. At a given oxygen uptake trained swimmers also swam much faster than the untrained swimmers. The front crawl proved to be the most economical style, as is the case in competition swimming. The back crawl was somewhat less economical and the breaststroke was the least economical style. Maximal oxygen uptake, maximal pulmonary ventilation, and maximal heart rate were significantly lower in swimming than in running or cycling, respectively.

11. Howley ET & Glover ME (1974): The caloric costs of running and walking one mile for men and women. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 6, 235-237.

Our purpose was to resolve the disagreement as to the number of calories expended per unit distance for walking and running. The caloric costs of walking and running one mile on a treadmill were calculated for eight men and eight women. The subjects walked at a speed of 82 +3 m/min (X+- SD) and ran at a speed that was regarded subjectively as comfortable. The average speed at which the mile was run was 195 +- 25 m/min for men and 137 +- 4 m/min for women. The average R measured during the walk was 0.86 and during the run 0.96. The gross caloric cost of walking was 1.08 +- 0.06 kcal/kg per mile for men and 1.15 +-0.08 kcal/kg per mile for women, and the cost of running was 1.57 +- 0.09 kcal/kg per mile for men and 1.73 +0.09 kcal/kg per mile for women. The running required significantly more kcal/kg per mile than walking (P<0.001) and the women used significantly more calories for both running and walking compared to the men (P<0.01). The net caloric cost of walking was 0.76 +- 0.07 kcal/kg per mile for men and 0.83 +- 0.08 kcal/kg per mile for women, and the cost of running was 1.43 +-0.08 kcal/kg per mile for men and 1.53 +- 0.09 kcal/kg per mile for women. The difference between the run and walk was highly significant (P<0.001) and the women used significantly more calories than men for both activities (P<0.05). Possible reasons for the small but statistically significant difference between men and women are discussed. It was concluded that running a given distance required more calories than walking the same distance.

12. Igbanugo V & Gutin B (1978): The energy cost of aerobic dancing. Res.Q. 49, 308-316.

The energy cost of three intensities of aerobic dance (low, medium, and high) was determined on four graduate students at Teachers College, Columbia University. All subjects danced seven 2-to 3-minute routines alternated with six 15- to 90-second recovery intervals of continuous walking. The dances were metabolically monitored with a Max Planck respirometer which measured ventilation and collected .06% sample of expired air, which was then analyzed for 02 and CO2 concentration. Values were expressed as VO2 I/minute, VO2 ml/kg/minute, and energy consumption as kcal/minute, and kcal/kg/minute. Heart rates were monitored by telemetry every minute throughout the dance. The women utilized 3.96 kcal/minute, 6.28 kcal/minute, and 7.75 kcal/minute, for the low, medium, and high intensity routines, respectively, while the men utilized 4.17 kcal/minute, 6.86 kcal/minute, and 9.44 kcal/minute, respectively. The energy expenditure for the low intensity routine was metabolically similar to walking on the level, that of the medium intensity routine to playing tennis, and that of the high intensity to playing hockey. Mean heart rates were 114, 145, and 156 beats per minute (bpm) for women; 106, 129, and 141 bpm for men. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that aerobic dance can be useful as a modality for cardiorespiratory training and rehabilitation, as well as weight reduction and maintenance.

13. Jette M & Inglis H (1975): Energy cost of square dancing. .J.Appl.Physiol 38, 44-45.

This experiment was concerned with determining the energy cost of two popular Western square dancing routines: the "Mish-Mash," which is a relatively fast-moving dance with quick movements, and the "Singing" dance, which is a slower and more deliberate type of dance. The subjects were four middle-aged couples, veteran members of a local square dancing club. Sitting and standing pulmonary ventilations were determined through the use of the Tissot gasometer. Kofranyi-Michaelis respirometers were employed for the dance routine ventilations.

These apparatus were fitted with a Monoghan neoprene cushion plastic mask. Gas samples were collected in polyethylene metallized bags and analyzed for O2 and CO2 content. The net energy cost for the two dances was appropriately summarized. The results indicated that for the males the net average energy cost of the Mish-Mash dance was 0.085 and 0.077 kcal/min per kg for the Singing dance. For the females, the cost was 0.088 and 0.084 kcal/min per kg, respectively. A net average cost of these two dances yielded a caloric expenditure of 5.7 kcal/min for a 70-kg male and 5.2 kcal/min for a 60-kg female. It was indicated that during the course of a typical square dance evening, a 70-kg man would expend some 425 kcal. while a 60-kg female would burn some 390 kcal. The energy cost of the dances studied were determined to be within the permissible work load of a functional class 1 patient with diseases of the heart as determined by the American Heart Association.

14. Jing L & Wenyu Y (1991): The energy expenditure and nutritional status of college students. I The energy cost and the total energy expenditure per day. Biomed.Environ.Sci. 4, 295-303.

The energy cost of major activities was determined in healthy students. Among the 606 medical students, 319 were males and 287 were females. Their ages ranged from 18 to 24 years. Douglas method was used to measure energy cost of each of a total of 42 activities, as well as that of the basal metabolic rates (BMR), resting metabolic rates (RMR) and the total energy expenditure per day under normal situations. The average RMR of male and female subjects were 0.669 +- 0.033 and 0.656 +- 0.030 kcal/sq.m/min respectively. The total energy expenditure per day of male students was 2706 kcal, and 2373 kcal for female students. The energy cost of single activities can be used as the basal data in studies of energy metabolism.

15. Lampley JH, Lampley PM & Howley ET (1977): Caloric cost of playing golf. Res.Q. 48, 637639.

The caloric cost of playing golf was measured in 11 men and 11 women. All subjects played the same nine holes and pulled a golf cart weighing approximately Expired air was collected for 15 seconds each minute during play, but no gas collections were made during a full swing due to limitations of the equipment. The measured energy costs were 4.2 + 0.6 kcal/kg/hr for men and 4.8 ± kcal/kg/hr for women, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05). These values are consistent with energy costs of playing golf reported by other investigators when expressed as net energy costs for 18 holes of golf.

16. Leger LA (1982): Energy cost of disco dancing. Res.Q.Exerc.Sport, 53, 46-49.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the energy cost of dancing in the conditions that prevail in disco clubs. To avoid any hindrance in the movements of the dancers, oxygen uptake was assessed by retroextrapolating the O2 recovery curve to time zero of recovery. Males and females required a similar energy cost for disco dancing, that is 30.1 +- 10.3 ml for a fundamental music rhythm of 135.0 +- 7.7 bpm (X +- SD = for 15 university students). Males, being heavier than females, have a higher absolute energy expenditure (X +- SD = 48.5 +- 15.2 and 31.7 +- 13.7 kJ.min-1). Heart rate was 134.5 +- 13.4 bpm. Total energy expenditure for a dancing evening (90 min of active time) was estimated to be 4350 and 2850 kJ for the males and the females respectively. At approximately 60 and 70% VO2 max for males and females respectively, disco dancing could be efficient for improving aerobic fitness and for controlling excess body fat. In this respect, and from the literature, disco dancing (rock and roll, hustle, twist, disco) appears almost twice as strenuous as square dancing and most other traditional dances (rumba, fox trot, waltz). The above figures are averages, and intra-individual variations of 3.0 (average difference between two trials) and inter-individual variations of 10.3 ml.kg1.min-1 (standard deviation) suggest caution before applying the average scores to any individual. Results reported above did not appear to be affected by the music rhythm, at least not for the range observed in this study (120-150 bpm). Indeed the energy cost of dancing on two music rhythms (128.0 +-8.9 and 140.0 +- 9.8 bpm) was not significantly different; furthermore, the correlation between the rhythm and the oxygen uptake was only r= 0.1.

17. Leger L & Mercier D (1984): Gross energy cost of horizontal treadmill and track running. Sports Med. 1, 270-277.

The gross energy cost of treadmill and track running is re-investigated from data published in the literature. An average equation, weighted for the number of subjects in each study, was found: VO2 (ml/kg/min) = 2.209 + 3.163 speed (km/h) for 130 subjects (trained and untrained males and females) and 10 treadmill studies. On the track, wind resistance as predicted by Pugh (1970) was added to the treadmill cost of running and yielded the following equation for adults of average weight and height: VO2 = 2.209 + 3.163 speed + 0.000525542 speed. Between 8 and 25 km/in, the following linear equation: VO2 = 3.5 speed (or met = km/in) was very close to the cubic equation. This linear equation for track running is, however, different from the treadmill linear equation, particularly for speeds over 15 km/in. This equation is also slightly different from the one published by Pugh (1970) for track running from 7 trained subjects only.

18. Maughan RJ & Leiper JB (1983): Aerobic capacity and fractional utilisation of aerobic capacity in elite and non-elite male and female marathon runners. Eur. J.Appl.Physiol 52, 80-87. The physiology of marathon running has been extensively studied both in the laboratory and in the field, but these investigations have been confined to elite competitors. In the present study 28 competitors who took part in a marathon race (42.2 km) have been studied; 18 male subjects recorded times from 2 h 19 min 58 s to 4 h 53 min 23 s; 10 female subjects recorded times between 2 h 53 min 4 s and 5 h 16 min 1 s. Subjects visited the laboratory 2-3 weeks after the race and ran on a motor driven treadmill at a series of speeds and inclines; oxygen uptake VO2 was measured during running at average marathon racing pace. Maximum oxygen uptake VO2 max) was measured during uphill running. For both males (r = 0.88) and females (r = 0.63), linear relationships were found to exist between marathon performance and aerobic capacity. Similarly, the fraction of VO2 max which was sustained throughout the race was significantly correlated with performance for both male (r = 0.74) and female (r = 0.73) runners. The fastest runners were running at a speed requiring approximately 75% of VO2 maxi for the slowest runners, the work load corresponded to approximately 60% of VO2 max. Correction of these estimates for the additional effort involved in overcoming air resistance, and in running on uneven terrain will substantially increase the oxygen requirement for the faster runners, while having a much smaller effect on the work rate of the slowest competitors. Five minutes of treadmill running at average racing pace at zero gradient did not result in marked elevation of the blood lactate concentration in any of the subjects.

19. Mayhew JL, Piper FC & Etheridge GL (1979): Oxygen cost and energy requirement of running in trained and untrained males and females. J.Sports Med. 19, 39-44.

The oxygen cost and energy requirement of submaximal treadmill running was assessed on trained (n=1) males and trained (n=5) and untrained (n=6) females. Open circuit spirometry was used to determine each subject's oxygen consumption during the final 2 minutes of 5-minute runs at 135, 150, 165, and 180 m/mint Two-way ANOVA was used to determine differences across speeds and subjects. Submaximal VO2 (ml/kg/min) was not significantly different among the four groups. Trained subjects, however, showed slightly greater efficiency than their untrained counterparts (5%). The VO2-running speed relationships were linear for all groups. Regression slopes and intercepts were not significantly different. Untrained females expended significantly more relative energy (kcal/kg/km) than untrained males, but no more than the two trained groups. The reason for this was perhaps a combination of greater relative fat content and inefficient running mechanics of the untrained females.

20. Padilla S. Bourdin M, Barthelemy JC & Lacour JR (1992): Physiological correlates of middle-distance running performance. A comparative study between men and women. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 65, 561-566.

Centro Medicina Deportiva, Neudigonoza Amadeo Garcia Salazar S/U, Victoria-Gasteiz, Spain. To compare the relative contributions of their functional capacities to performance in relation to sex, two groups of middle-distance runners (24 men and 14 women) were selected on the basis of performances over 1500-m and 3000-m running races. To be selected for the study, the average running velocity (v) in relation to performances had to be superior to a percentage (90% for men and 88% for women) of the best French v achieved during the season by an athlete of the same sex. Maximal 02 consumption VO2max and energy cost of running (CR) were measured in the 2 months preceding the track season. This allowed us to calculate the maximal v that could be sustained under aerobic conditions, va,max. A v:va,max ratio derived from 1500-m to 3000-m races was used to calculate the maximal duration of a competitive race for which v = va,max (tva,max). In both groups va,max was correlated to v. The relationships calculated for each distance were similar in both sexes. The CR [0.179 (SD 0.010) x m-1 in the women versus 0.177 (SD 0.010) in the men] and tva,max [7.0 (SD 2.0) min versus 8.4 (SD 2.1)] also showed no difference. The relationships between VO2max and body mass (mb) calculated in the men and the women were different. At the same mb the women had a 10% lower CR than the men; their lower mb thus resulted in an identical CR. In both groups CR and VO2max were strongly correlated (r=0.74 and 0.75 respectively, P < 0.01), suggesting that a high level of VO2max could hardly be associated with a low CR. These relationships were different in the two groups (P < 0.05). At the same VO2max the men had a higher va,max than the women. Thus, the disparity in track performances between the two sexes could be attributed to VO2max and to VO2max/Cr relationships.

21. Pendergast DR, Bushnell D, Wilson DW & Cerretelli P (1989): Energetics of kayaking. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 59, 342-350.

Department of Physiology, State University of New York at Buffalo 14214. The metabolic cost of paddling at low speeds (v) was measured from oxygen uptake VO2 and anaerobic glycolysis in an annular pool or calculated from submaximal VO2 measured at higher speeds when the kayaker was assisted in overcoming water resistance. Also calculated were the total drag (D) and the net mechanical efficiency (e). Each of the above variables was determined in male (n = 17) and female (n = 7) kayakers ranging in experience from beginners to elite. The VO2 increased with v to a peak of approximately 3.4 I.min-1 (80%-100% of peak VO2 during running) in men and of approximately 2.8 I.min-1 in women, while at higher speeds the additional energy was accounted for by anaerobic glycolysis. In all subjects the energy cost to paddle a given distance (C) increased according to a power function with increasing v. The C was lower for the elite male paddlers than for the unskilled group, while that for elite women was slightly less than that for the elite men. Also the rates of increase of C appeared to be inversely proportional to the subjects' skill. Total D for elite men increased from approximately 15 to 60 N over a range of speeds from 1 to 2.2 m.s-1 while those of unskilled men and skilled women for the same speed range were 10-20 N greater and slightly less, respectively. The e increased linearly, but at a different rate, with increases in v for the unskilled and the elite kayakers (males and females) being 4.2% and 6%, respectively, at v = 1.2 m.s-1.

22. Pendergast DR, di Prampero PE, Craig ABJ, Jr., Wilson DR & Rennie DW (1977): Quantitative analysis of the front crawl in men and women. .J.Appl.Physiol 43, 475-479.

Body drag, D, and the overall mechanical efficiency of swimming, e, were measured from the relationship between extra oxygen consumption and extra drag loads in 42 male and 22 female competitive swimmers using the front crawl at speeds ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 m/s. D increased from 3.4 (1.9) kg at 0.5 m/s to 8.2 (7.0) kg at 1.2 m/s, with D of women (in brackets) being significantly less (P < 0.05) than that of men. Mechanical efficiency increased from 2.9% at 0.5 m/s to 7.4% at 1.2 m/s for men, the values for women being somewhat greater than those for men. The ratio D/e was shown to be identical to the directly measured energy cost of swimming one unit distance, V02/d, and was independent of the velocity up to 1.2 m/s. It averaged 52 and 37 I/km for men and women respectively (P < 0.05). When corrected for body surface area the values were 27 and 22 I/km-m2 for men and women, respectively (P < 0.05). The underwater torque, T. a measure of the tendency of the feet to sink, was 1.44 kg-m for men and 0.70 kg-m for women (P less than 0.05). VO2/d increased linearly with T for both men and women of similar competitive experience. However, the proportionality constant delta VO2/d-delta T was significantly less for competitive than noncompetitive swimmers. The analysis of the relationship VO2/d vs. T provides a valuable approach to the understanding of the energetics of swimming.

23. Schantz PG & Astrand P (1984): Physiological characteristics of classical ballet. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 16,472-476.

The aerobic and anaerobic energy yield during professional training sessions ("classes") of classical ballet as well as during rehearsed and performed ballets has been studied by means of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration determinations on professional ballet dancers from the Royal Swedish Ballet in Stockholm. The measured oxygen uptake during six different normal classes at the theatre averaged about 35-45% of the maximal oxygen uptake, and the blood lactate concentration averaged 3 mM (N = 6). During 10 different solo parts of choreographed dance (median length = 1.8 min) representative for moderately to very strenuous dance, an average oxygen uptake (measured during the last minute) of 80% of maximum and blood lactate concentration of 10 mM was measured (N = 10). In addition, heart rate registrations from soloists in different ballets during performance and final rehearsals frequently indicated a high oxygen uptake relative to maximum and an average blood lactate concentration of 11 mM (N = 5). Maximal oxygen uptake, determined in 1971 (N = 11) and 1983 (N = 13) in two different groups of dancers, amounted to on the average 51 and 56 for the females and males, respectively. In conclusion, classical ballet is a predominantly intermittent type of exercise. In choreographed dance each exercise period usually lasts only a few minutes, but can be very demanding energetically, while during the dancers' basic training sessions, the energy yield is low.

24. Seliger V (1969): Energy expenditures during paddling. Physiologia Bohermoslovaka, 18, 4955.

Energy metabolism was assessed in 16 students of the Faculty of Physical Education during paddling in canoe-doubles on a tourist laminate canoe on a 1000m course. A similar examination was performed on 13 men and 13 women of the first grade during paddling in kayak-singles on a 500m course. In spite of the fact that the activity does not concern the whole body musculature, energy expenditure in canoeists was 9.7, and for paddling in kayaks was 33.8 in men and 16.6 kcal/min in women. The oxygen debt was 8.2 litres in men for kayak racing, which indicates the important role of anaerobic metabolism. This value was somewhat lower in women (4.5 litres). In canoeists the oxygen debt was 3.8 litres and this shows the greater anaerobic component of this performance. The pulse rate and especially the minute ventilation increases in kayak paddling almost to maximum values. It appears from these results that during training for high speed canoe paddling more attention should be paid to the development of the anaerobic capacity of the organism.

25. Snyder AC, O'Hagan KP, Clifford PS, Hoffman MD & Foster C (1993): Exercise responses to in-line skating: comparisons to running and cycling. Int.J.Sports Med. 14, 38-42.

Department of Human Kinetics, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53201. A comparison of the physiological responses to in-line skating with the more traditional modes of exercise training has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological responses to inline skating compared with running and cycling. Nine trained volunteers (2 male, 7 female) performed 3-6 submaximal (30-90% VO2max workloads with each exercise mode. Oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were measured during each trial. Across the spectrum of oxygen uptakes studied, heart rate was higher with in-line skating than with cycling or running. At a lactate concentration of 4 mM, oxygen uptake was less for in-line skating and cycling than for running. Therefore, while in-line skating may be an effective mode of aerobic exercise, the training adaptations for in-line skating at 4 mM lactate may not be as great as for running, and at a given HR may be less than for running and cycling.

26. Toussaint HM, Knops W. de Groot G & Hollander AP (1990): The mechanical efficiency of front crawl swimming. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 22, 402-408.

Department of Exercise Physiology and Health, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In this study the gross efficiency of swimming was determined in a group of male (N = 6) and female (N = 4) competitive swimmers. The gross efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power output (W) to the power input (W). In a range of swimming velocities (0.95-1.6 m.s-1), the power input (rate of energy expenditure, 445-1137 W) was calculated from the oxygen uptake values (1.33-3.25 1 O2.min-1). The total power output (26-108 W) was directly measured during front crawl swimming using a system of underwater push-off pads instrumented with a force transducer (MAD-system). Using the MAD-system, the effect on total body drag due to the addition of the respiratory apparatus was evaluated to be negligible. The gross efficiency ranged from 5 to 9.5%. At equal swimming speed, the male competitive swimmers demonstrated a higher gross efficiency. However, this was due to the higher power output required by the male swimmers at a given speed. Gross efficiency was dependent on the absolute power output such that as power output increased so did the calculated gross efficiency. At the same power output, the values for the gross efficiency do not differ between the male and female competitive swimmers.

27. van Baak MA & Binkhorst RA (1981): Oxygen consumption during outdoor recreational cycling. Ergonomics, 24, 725-733.

The relation between oxygen consumption and cycling speed during outdoor recreational cycling was studied in 20 healthy subjects, men and women aged 20-30 and 50-60 years. They rode a touring bicycle at speeds between 2.8 and 8.3 m/s (10 and 30 km/hr). No significant differences in oxygen consumption were found between the sexes and two age groups. The scatter of the oxygen consumption data was least when oxygen consumption was expressed in terms of body surface. Different types of equations were developed for the prediction of oxygen consumption from the cycling speed which all gave approximately equally accurate predictions (VO2=0.137+0.0248V²; VO2=0.379-0.102V+0.0346V²; VO2=0.103V+0.00103V³; VO2 is oxygen consumption in l/min/m², V is cycling speed in m/s). The equation may also be applied for cycling in traffic situations if the mean speed is corrected for stop times.

28. Wigaeus E & Kilbom A (1980): Physical demands during folk dancing. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 45, 177-183.

This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the aerobic demands during one of the most popular and demanding Swedish folk dances, the "hambo". Six men and six women, ranging in age from 22 to 32, participated. Their physical work capacity was investigated on a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill, using two to three submaximal and one maximal loads. All subjects were moderately well-trained and their average maximal oxygen uptakes on the treadmill were 2.5 and 3.7 I/min (42.8 and 53.2 ml/kg.min-1) for women and men, respectively. When dancing the "hambo" the heart rate was telemetered, and the Douglas bag technique was used for measurements of pulmonary ventilation and oxygen uptake. The physical demand during "hambo" dancing was high in all subjects. Oxygen uptake was 38.5 and 37.3 ml/kg.min-1 and heart rate 179 and 172 in women and men, respectively. Women used 90% and men 70% of their maximal aerobic power obtained on the treadmill. The pulmonary ventilation and respiratory quotient of the female subjects were lower when dancing as compared to running, possibly because of voluntary restriction of the movements of the thoracic cage. Some popular Scandinavian folk dances are performed at a speed and with an activity pattern resembling the "hambo", while others are performed at a slower pace. The exercise intensity used in "hambo" is more than sufficient to induce training effects in the average individual provided that the dancing is performed at the frequency and for length of time usually recommended for physical training. For older or less fit people dances with a slow pace can be used for training purposes.

29. Wilmore JH, Parr RB, Ward P. Vodak PA, Barstow TJ, Pipes TV, Grimditch G & Leslie P (1978): Energy cost of circuit weigh: training. Med.Sci.Sport Exerc. 10, 75-78.

The metabolic cost of circuit weight training was determined in a group of 20 men and 20 women, 17 to 36 years of age, who volunteered to participate in this study. Performing 3 circuits (10 stations/circuit), using a work (30-see) to rest (15-see) ratio of 2:1, and a total exercise time of 22.5 min. the energy expenditure was found to be highly related to body weight (r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 for men and women respectively). The average gross energy expenditure was 539.7 and 367.5 kcal/hr. (9.0 and 6.1 kcal/min) for the men and women respectively, but was 7.0 and 6.0 kcal/kg-hr when expressed relative to body weight, and 8.1 and 8.2 kcal/kg(LBW)-min when expressed relative to lean body weight. Thus, when body composition was considered, there were essentially no differences in the energy expenditure for males and females.

30. Zamparo P. Perini R. Orizio C, Sacher M & Ferretti G (1992): The energy cost of walking or running on sand. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 65, 183-187.

Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche, Cattedra di Fisiologia, Udine, Italy. Oxygen uptake VO2 at steady state, heart rate and perceived exertion were determined on nine subjects (six men and three women) while walking (3-7 km.h-1) or running (7-14 km.h-1) on sand or on a firm surface. The women performed the walking tests only. The energy cost of locomotion per unit of distance (C) was then calculated from the ratio of VO2 to speed and expressed in J.kg1.m-1 assuming an energy equivalent of 20.9 02-1. At the highest speeds C was adjusted for the measured lactate contribution (which ranged from approximately 2% to approximately 11% of the total). It was found that, when walking on sand, C increased linearly with speed from 3.1 at 3 km.h-1 to 5.5 at 7 km.h-1, whereas on a firm surface C attained a minimum of 2.3 at 4.5 km.h-1 being greater at lower or higher speeds. On average, when walking at speeds greater than 3 km.h-1, C was about 1.8 times greater on sand than on compact terrain. When running on sand C was approximately independent of the speed, amounting to 5.3, i.e. about 1.2 times greater than on compact terrain. These findings could be attributed to a reduced recovery of potential and kinetic energy at each stride when walking on sand (approximately 45% to be compared to approximately 65% on a firm surface) and to a reduced recovery of elastic energy when running on sand.