Cover Image
close this bookNatural Energy and Vernacular Architecture: Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot Arid Climates (UNU, 1986, 172 pages)
View the documentForeword
View the documentPreface
close this folderPart 1. Man, natural environment, and architecture
close this folder1. Environment and architecture
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentEffect of climate on architectural form
View the documentEnvironment
View the documentConscious modification of the microclimate
View the documentTrends in international architecture
close this folder2. Architectural thermodynamics and human comfort in hot climates
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentTemperature
View the documentThermal conduction and resistance
View the documentRadiation
View the documentThermal convection
View the documentAtmospheric pressure
View the documentWater vapor
View the documentCooling by evaporation
View the documentThermal gain
View the documentThermal loss
View the documentDynamic thermal equilibrium
View the documentHeat-regulating mechanisms of the human body
View the documentMeasurement of conditions of human comfort
close this folderPart 2. Natural energy and vernacular architecture
close this folder3. Architecture and comfort
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentArchitectural design for a comfortable microclimate
View the documentBuilding materials
close this folder4. The sun factor
View the documentOrientation
View the documentShading
View the documentFacades
View the documentOpenings
View the documentThe roof
close this folder5. The wind factor in air movement
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentAir movement by pressure differential
View the documentThe Claustrum
View the documentThe wind-escape
View the documentThe malgaf
View the documentThe bãdgir
close this folder6. The sun factor in air movement
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentAir movement by convection
View the documentThe courtyard house
View the documentThe takhtabüsh
View the documentTraditional city layout and climate
close this folder7. The humidity factor
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentThe fountain
View the documentThe salsabil
View the documentPostscript
View the documentIllustrations
close this folderAppendices
View the documentAppendix One: Data on saturated water vapor
View the documentAppendix Two: Thermal comfort sensation scales
View the documentAppendix Three: Data on thermal transmittance
View the documentAppendix Four: Angles of declination and altitude for Cairo, Egypt
View the documentGlossary: Architectural terminology of the region
View the documentSelected bibliography

Glossary: Architectural terminology of the region

Bãdgir: A type of wind-catch into which wind can flow from several directions, generally four, but also two. A septum that is the height of the vertical channel prevents wind from flowing in one entrance and out another. Highly developed in Iran and the Arab countries surrounding the Gulf. The word in Persian is (bãdgir), which appears to be the source of the word in Arabic.

Brise-soleil: A projection, louvers or a screen, used to block out unwanted sun rays.

Claustrum (pi. Claustra): Decorative moldings or tracery used for air passage.

Dur-qã'a: The central space of the qã'a.

Iwãn (pl. Iwãnat): A recessed covered space open to the center of a qã'a, the dur-qã'a, or, often through a loggia, to a courtyard.

Jãli: A lattice screen, used in South Asia for air passage. Also written jolly or jalee. From the Hindi word jãli.

Kunja: The space between buttresses in a qã'a used as a raised sitting alcove or built-in cupboards. Probably from the Persian word for corner or nook kunj.

Loggia: An open-roofed gallery or arcade on the side of a building with a height of one or more stories and not projecting from the surface of the building.

Madyafa: A guest house or guest room.

Malgaf: A device for capturing wind at a high point of a building. The word literally means catcher.

Mashrabiya: Wooden lattice screens which can be placed in the window of a qã a, in a dur-qã'a, in an oriel window, or elsewhere.

Qã'a: A main hall of a house or building, usually the reception area for receiving male guests.

Sahn: An internal courtyard.

Sahrigi: A mashrabiya pattern with large lattice spacing, usually placed above another pattern to permit air circulation.

Salsabil: A type of fountain, consisting of a decorated sloping marble slab over which water flows.

Squinch: A support, usually an arch or a lintel, carried across the corner of a room below a superimposed mass.

Tablinum: A room or alcove between the atrium and the peristyle of an ancient Roman house.

Takhtabush: A covered outdoor sitting area at groundlevel located between the main courtyard and another courtyard, possibly the back garden.