Cover Image
close this bookSustaining the Future: Economic, Social, and Environmental Change in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNU, 1996, 365 pages)
close this folderPart 3: Environment and resource management
close this folderAgricultural development in the age of sustainability: Crop production
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe ecological zones of Sub-Saharan Africa
View the documentGeneral crop production constraints and potentials for overcoming them
View the documentTechnologies with potential for sustainable resource management
View the documentWomen's underexploited potential
View the documentSuggested approaches to sustainable production
View the documentSummary
View the documentConclusions
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences


Aina, P. O., R. Lal, and G. S. Taylor. 1977. Soil crop management in relation to soil erosion in the rainforest of Western Nigeria. In: Soil Erosion Prediction and Control. Soil Conservation Society of America, Special Publication 21: 75-84.

Akobundu, 1. O. 1980. Live mulch: A new approach to weed control and crop production in the tropics. In: British Crop Protection Conference: Proceedings of the 1980 British Weed Control Conference, 17-20 November, Brighton, England. Oxford: ARC Weed Research Organization, pp. 377-382.

Babalola, S. O. and C. Dennis 1988. Returns to women's labour in cash crop production: Tobacco in the Igboho, Oyo State, Nigeria. In: J. Davidson (ed.), Agriculture, Women and Land: The African ExpeHence. Boulder and London: Westview Press, pp. 79 89.

Boserup, E. 1970. Woman's Role in Economic Development. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Bruijn, G. H. de and L. O. Fresco. 1989. The importance of cassava in world food production. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 37: 21 34.

Bukh, J. 1979. The Village Woman in Ghana. Uppsala, Sweden: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.

Burningh, P., H. D. J. Van Heemst, and G. J. Staring. 1975. Computation of the absolute maximum food production of the world. Department of Tropical Soil Science, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Carney, J. A. 1988. Struggles over land and crops in an irrigated rice scheme: The Gambia. In: J. Davison (ed.), Agriculture, Women and Land: The African Experience. Boulder and London: Westview Press, pp. 59-78.

Carr, J. S. 1989. Technology for Small-scale Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Experience with Food Crop Production in Five Major Ecological Zones. Technieal paper no. 109. Washington D.C.: World Bank.

Charreau, C. 1970. Traditional Afriean agricultural systems and their improvement. FAO/IITA Conference on Shifting Cultivation, Ibadan, Nigeria, mimeo.

Cloud, K. 1985. Women's productivity in agricultural systems: Considerations for project design. In: C. Overholt, M. B. Anderson, K. Cloud, and J. E. Austin (eds.), Gender Roles in Development Projects. A case book. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, pp. 17 56.

Collinson, M. 1987. Potential and practice in food production technology development: Eastern and southern Afriea. In: J. W. Mellor, C. L. Delgado, and M. J. Blackie (eds.), Accelerating Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Conway, G. R. 1985. Agroeeosystem analysis. Agricultural Administration 20: 1 25.

Dey, J. 1981. Gambian women: Unequal partners in riee development project? In: N. Nelson (ed.), African Women in the Development Process. London: Frank Cass, pp. 109-122.

Dover, M. and L. M. Talbot. 1987. To Feed the Earth: Agro-ecology for Sustainable Development. Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute.

D'Silva, C. and M. R. Raza. 1983. Equity considerations in planning and implementing rural development projects in Nigeria: An evaluation of the Funtua Project. In: B. L. Green Shield and M. A. Bellamy (eds.), Rural Development Growth and Inequity. IAAE Occasional Paper no. 3. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 101-106.

Eastin. J. O., F. A. Haskins, C. Y. Sullivan, and C. H. M. Van Bavel. 1969. Physiological significance of internal water relations to crop yield. In: Physiological Aspects of Crop Yield. Madison, Wis.: Ameriean Soeiety of Agronomy and Crop Seience Society of America, pp. 53-85.

Ezumah, H. C. 1990. Maize genotypes for intercropping with cassava in Southern Nigeria. Yield responses. Discovery and Innovation (African Academy of Sciences) 2(2): 63 72.

Ezumah, H. C. and 1. E. G. Ikeorgu. 1993. Population and planting pattern effects on intercropped maize and cowpea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 170: 187-194.

Ezumah, H. C. and T. L. Lawson. 1984. Maize plant "architecture". Important factor in intercropping with cassava. IITA Research Highlights. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, pp. 96-99.

---- 1990. Cassava and maize intercropping systems. 1. The effects of varieties and plant population. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 164: 334 342.

Ezumah, N. N. t990. Women in development: The role of lgbo rural women in agricultural production. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Ibadan, lbadan, Nigeria.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1978. Food Balance Sheets and Per Caprta Food Supplies. Rome: FAO.

---- 1982. Follow-up to WCARRD: The Role of Women in Agricultural Production. Rome: FAO.

Ferguson, N. H., P. E. Adams, and R. E. Franklin. 1992. A plant biotechnology course in distance delivery. Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education 21(2): 133-136.

Francis, C. A. 1989. Biological efficiencies in multiple cropping systems. In: Advances in Agronomy, vol. 42. New York: Academic Press.

Guyer, J. I. 1984. Naturalism in models of African production. Man 19: 371-388.

---- 1986. Women's role in development. In: R. J. Berg and J. S. Whitaker (eds.), Strategies for African Development. Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 393 421.

Hahn, S. K., E. R. Terry, K. Leuschnor, I. O. Akobundu, C. Okali, and R. Lal. 1979. Cassava improvement in Africa. Field Crop Research 2: 193-226.

Harrison, P. 1987. The Greening of Africa. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books.

Herren, H. R. 1989. IITA/Africa-wide biological control programme: History, achievements and prospects for sustainable pest control in Africa. In: Seminar Report: integrated Pest Management, 5 6 Sept 1988. Sem, Asker, Norway: NORAGRIC, pp. 15-32.

Hildebrand, P. E. 1990. Agronomy's role in sustainable agriculture: Integrated farming systems. Journal of Production Agriculture 3(3): 285 288.

Hoogh, J. de, M. A. Keyser, H. Linneman, and H. D. J. van Heemst. 1976. Food for a growing world population: Some of the main findings of a study on the long-term prospects of the world food situation. European Review of Agricultural Economics 3: 459-499.

Hullugale, N. R. 1989. Effect of tied ridges and undersown Stylosanthes hamata (L) on soil properties and growth of maize in Sudan Savanna of Burkina Faso. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 25(1): 39-51.

Hullugale, N. R. and H. C. Ezumah. 1991. Effects of cassava-based cropping systems on physico-chemical properties of soil and earthworm casts in a tropical Alfisol. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 35: 55-63.

IITA. 1978, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1989, 1990. Annual Report. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture.

Ikeorgu, J. E. G. and H. C. Ezumah. 1991. Some analytical aspects of cassava/maize/ eguei/okra melon complex mixture: Soil temperature in relation to leaf area variation. Field Crops Research 27: 51-60.

Iuo, A. S. R. and H. C. Ezumah. 1992. Mixed root crop ecosystems in the wetter regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. In: C. J. Pearson (ed.), Field Crop Ecosystems of the World. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishers, pp. 243-258.

Juo, A. S. R. and 1. A. Lowe (eds.) 1986. Wetland and Rice in Tropical Sub-Saharan Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA.

Kang, B. T. 1988. Nitrogen cycling in multiple cropping systems. In: J. R. Wilson (ed.), Advances in Nitrogen Cycling in Agricultural Ecosystems. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Kang, B. T. and A. S. R. Juo. 1981. Management of soil with low activity clays for food crop production in tropical Africa. In: Proc. International Soil Classification Workshop, Kigali, Rwanda. Technical Monograph, Soil Management Support Service, USDA, Washington D.C.

Kang, B. T. and G. F. Wilson. 1987. The development of alley cropping as a promising agroforestry technology. In: H. A. Stepler and P. K. R. Nair (eds.), Agroforestry: A Decade of Development. Nairobi: ICRAF, pp. 227--243.

Kowal, J. M. and A. H. Kassam. 1978. Agricultural Ecology of Savanna: A Study of West Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kumar, S. K. 1988. Women's role and agricultural technology. In: J. W. Mellor, C. L. Delgado, and M. J. Blackie (eds.), Accelerating Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 135 147.

Lal, R. 1976. Soil Erosion Problems and an Alfisol in Western Nigeria and Their Control. IITA Monograph no. 1, Ibadan, Nigeria.

---- 1989. Conservation tillage for sustainable agriculture: Tropics vs temperate environments. In: Advances in Agronomy, vol. 42. New York: Academic Press, pp. 85 119.

Lal, R. and D. J. Greenland. 1978. Effect of conditioners and moisture content on temperature profile and infiltration rate of a vertisol. In: W. W. Emerson, R. D. Bound, and A. R. Dexter (eds.), Modification of Soil Structure. London: John Wiley, pp. 191-198.

Lawson, T. L. 1979. Agroclimatology section. IITA Annual Report.

---- 1985. Agro-climatic consideration for cassava cropping. IITA Research Highlights, 1981-1984. Ibadan, Nigeria: Farming Systems Program, IITA.

Lawson, T. L. and B. T. Kang. 1990. Yield of maize and cowpea in alley cropping systems in relation to available light. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 528: 347 357.

Lawson, T. L. and R. Lal. 1980. Response of maize to surface and buried straw mulch on a tropical Alfisol. In: R. Lal (ed.), Soil Tillage and Crop Production. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, pp. 63 74.

Lawson, T. L. and E. R. Terry. 1984. Weather and plant disease in Africa. In: D. L. Hawksworth (ed.), Advancing Agricultural Production in Africa. Proceedings of CAB's First Scientific Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, 12 18 February 1984. Slough, UK: CABI, pp. 314 320.

Linnemann, H., J. de Hoogh, M. A. Keyser, and H. D. J. van Heemst. 1979. MOIRA: Model of International Relations in Agriculture. New York: North-Holland.

Loutfi, M. F. 1980. Rural Women Unequal Partners in Development. A Wep study. Geneva: ILO.

Lynam, J. K. and R. W. Herdt. 1988. Sense and sustainability: Sustainability as an objective in international agricultural research. Paper presented at a CIP Rockefeller Conference on Farmers and Food Systems, Lima, Peru, September.

Matlon, P. J. 1987. The West African Semi-arid Tropics. In: J. W. Mellor, C. L. Delgado, and M. J. Blackie (eds.), Accelerating Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Maxwell, G. F. 1990. Integrated pest management: Considerations for success in developing countries. In: S. K. Hahn and F. E. Caveness (eds.), Integrated Pest Management for Tropical Root and Tuber Crops. Proc. Workshop on the Global Starus of; and Prospects for, IPM for Root and Tuber Crops in the Tropics. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA.

Mellor, J. W., C. L. Delgado, and M. J. Blackie (eds.) 1987. Accelerating Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Merrill-Sands, D. 1992. Strategic initiatives in roles for FSR/E: Institutional linkages - linkages and impact: Station Research. 12th Annual AFSRE (Association of Farming Systems Research and Extension) meeting, 13-18 September, Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Mulongoy, K. and I. O. Akobundu. 1985. Nitrogen uptake in live mulch systems. In: B. T. Kang and J. van der Heide (eds.), Nitrogen Management in Farming Systems in Humid and Sub-humid Tropics. Harren: Institute of Soil Fertility, pp. 285 290.

Muntemba, S. 1982. Women as food producers and suppliers in the twentieth century: The case of Zambia. Development Dialogue 1-2: 29-50.

Neuenschwander, P. and W. N. O. Hammond. 1987. Biological control of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, in Africa: A review of field studies. In: S. K. Hahn and F. E. Caveness (eds.), Integrated Pest Management for Tropical Root and Tuber Crops. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA, pp. 42-57.

Ngambeki, D. S. 1985. Economic evaluation of alley cropping Leucacna with maizemaize and maize-cowpea in southern Nigeria. Agricultural Systems 17(4): 243258.

Norman, D. W. 1982. The Farming Systems Approach to Researck. Farming Systems Research Paper no. 3, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.

Nwanze, K. F., K. Leuchner, and H. C. Ezumah. 1979. The cassava mealybug: Phenacoccus sp. in the Republic of Zaire. PANS 25(2): 125 130.

Nye, P. H. and D. J. Greenland. 1960. The Soil under Shifting Cultivation. Technical Communication no. 51, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, England.

Okafor, J. C. 1980. Edible indigenous woody plants in rural economy of Nigeria forest zone. Forest Ecology and Management 3: 45 55.

Okigbo, B. N. 1977. Effects of mulching with a range of materials on crop yield. In: Mulching and soil management. IITA, Annual Report, Farming Systems Program.

---- 1980. Ahajioku Lecture. Government Printer, Ministry of Information and Culture, Imo State, Nigeria.

---- 1989. Development of Sustainable Agricultural Production Systems in Africa: Roles of the International Agricultural Research Centers and National Research Systems. First Distinguished African Scientist Lecturer Seties, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Okigbo, B. N. and D. J. Greenland. 1976. Intercropping systems in tropical Africa. In: R. 1. Papendick, P. A. Sanchez, and G. B. Triplett (eds.), Multiple Cropping. Special Publication 27. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, pp. 63-101.

Okuneye, B. 1984. Farmers' characteristics and the theory and strategy of agricultural under-development and development. Paper presented at the National Seminar on Innovative Approaches to Development Theory. 23-27 January, Nigerian Institute for Social and Economic Research (NISER), University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Olasantan, F. O. 1992. Nutrient requirement of cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz)/ maize (Zea Mays L) intercrop. Ph.D. thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Olayide, S. O. and F. S. Idachaba. 1987. Input and output marketing systems: A Nigerian case. In: J. W. Mellor, C. L. Delgado, and M. J. Blackie (eds.), Accelerating Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Osiname, O. A., C. Bartlett, N. Mbulu, L. Simba, and K. Land. 1987. Diagnostic survey of cassava-based cropping systems in two ecological zones of gas-Zaire. In: H. C. Ezumah and D. S. O. Osiru (eds.), Cassava Based Cropping Systems Research. Ibadan, Nigeria: IITA.

Osiru, D. S. O. and R. W. Willey. 1972. Studies on mixtures of dwarf sorghum and beans (Phaseous vulgaris) with particular emphasis on plant population. Journal of Agricultural Research, Cambridge 79(3): 531-540.

Pala, A. O. 1976. African Women in Rural Development: Research Priorities. OLC (Overseas Liaison Committee, American Council on Education) Working Paper no. 12, Washington D.C., December.

Pankhurst, D. and S. Jacobs. 1988. Land tenure, gender relations and agricultural production: The case of Zimbabwe's peasantry. In: J. Davison (ed.), Agriculture, Women and Land: The African Experience. Boulder and London: Westview Press.

Papadakis, J. 1966. Crop Ecologic Survey in West Africa, vols. I and II. Rome: FAO.

Paulino, L. A. 1987. The evolving food situation. In: J. W. Mellor, C. L. Delgado, and M. J. Blackie (eds.), Accelerating Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, chap. 23.

Rao, M. R. and R. W. Willey. 1983. Effect of genotype in cereal/cowpea intercropping on the alfisols of semiarid tropics of India. Experimental Agriculture 19: 67 78.

Roberts, P. A. 1988. Rural women's access to labour in West Africa. In: S. B. Stichter and J. L. Parpart (eds.), Patriarchy and Class: African Women in the Home and the Workforce. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, pp. 97-144.

Rogers, B. 1980. The Domestication of Women: Discrimination in Developing Societies. London: Kegan Paul.

Ruttan, V. W. 1988. Sustainability is not enough. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 3: 128 130.

Ter Kuile, C. H. H. 1987. The humid and sub-humid tropics. In: J. W. Mellor, C. L. Delgado, and M. J. Blackie (eds.), Accelerating Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Unamma, R. P. A., S. O. Odurukwe, H. E. Okereke, L. S. O. Ene, and O. O. Okoli. 1985. Farming Systems in Nigeria. Agricultural Extension & Research Liaison Services, National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Umuahia, Nigeria.

Vallaeys, G., M. T. Silvestre, M. J. Blackie, and C. L. Delgado. 1987. Development and extension of agricultural production technology. In: J. W. Mellor, C. L. Delgado, and M. J. Blackie (eds.), Accelerating Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wahua, T. A. T. 1983. Nutrient uptake by intercropped maize and cowpeas and a concept of nutrient supplementation index (NSI). Experimental Agriculture 19: 263 275.

Whitlow, R. 1987. A national soil survey for Zimbabwe. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, July/August.

Willey, R. W. 1979. Intercropping - Its importance and research needs. Part I. Competition and yield advantages. Field Crops Abstracts 32(1): 1 10.

Wit, C. T. de, H. H. Van Laar, and H. van Keulen. 1979. Physiological potential of

crop production. In: J. Sneep and A. J. T. Hendriksen (eds.), Plant Breeding Perspectives. Wageningen, The Netherlands: PUDOC, pp. 47-82.

World Bank. 1989. Sub-Saharan Africa. From Crisis to Sustainable Growth. A Long Term Perspective Study. Washington D.C.: World Bank.

Zok, S. and L. M. Nyochembeng. 1992. Micropropagation of a tropical tuber food crop, Xanthosoma Sagittifolium (L) Schott, in Cameroon. Jay P. Johnson Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Agronomic Research, PMB 25 Buea, Cameroon, mimeo.