|The Uncertain Quest: Science, Technology, and Development (UNU, 1994, 531 pages)|
|Part 3: The policy dimension|
JAN ANNERSTEDT is Associate Professor of Political Science at Roskilde University (Denmark) and Director of its international doctoral programme in Technology Policy, Innovation' and Socio-economic Development. He is also the founding Director of the Nordic Centre of Innovation in Lund (Sweden). He has been a consultant on science, technology, and innovation for international organizations such as the OECD, Unesco, UNCTAD, and UNIDO. While finishing his contribution to this volume, he was attached to the Research School of Social Sciences of the Australian National University in Canberra.
AJIT BHALLA is Chief of the Technology and Employment Division at the International Labour Office (ILO) in Geneva. He was previously Hallsworth Professorial Fellow in Economics, University of Manchester (UK); Visiting Research Associate at the Economic Growth Center, Yale University; Research Officer at the Institute of Economics and Statistics, Oxford University (UK); and Tutorial Fellow at the University of Delhi. Recent publications include Technology and Employment in Industry (Geneva: ILO, 1975, 1981, 1985); New Technologies and Development (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1988); Uneven Development in the Third World (London: Macmillan, 1992).
HARVEY BROOKS is Professor of Applied Physics and Professor of Technology and Public Policy (Emeritus) at Harvard University. He is former Director of the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He served as a member of the US National Science Board and the President's Science Advisory Committee. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the National Academy of Engineering and former President of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has published in the fields of nuclear engineering, underwater acoustics, and solid state physics, as well as in science and public policy.
JACQUES GAILLARD is Visiting Fellow at the Center for international Science and Technology Policy, George Washington University. He graduated from the Ecole Supérieure d'Agriculture d'Angers and received his doctorate in science, technology, and society from the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, in 1989. He worked as Scientific Secretary of the International Foundation for Science (IFS) in Stockholm from 1975 to 1985. During 1986-1991, he was Head of the Science, Technology, and Development Programme at the French Institute of Scientific Research for Development through Cooperation (ORSTOM). Recent publications include Scientists in the Third World (Lexington, Ky.: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1991) and Science Indicators for Developing Countries. edited with Rigas Arvanitis (Paris: ORSTOM).
ANDREW JAMISON is Director of the graduate programme in Science and Technology Policy at the Research Policy Institute, University of Lund (Sweden). He studied the history of science at Harvard University before moving to Sweden in 1970. He has taught science and society courses at Lund, Copenhagen, and Gothenburg; he received a doctorate from the University of Gothenburg in the theory of science in 1983. His current research focuses on the cultural dimension of science and technology policy in developing countries. Among his recent publications are Keeping Science Straight (Gothenburg, 1988); The Making of the New Environmental Consciousness. co-author with Ron Eyerman and Jacqueline Cramer (Edinburgh, 1990); Social Movements: A Cognitive Approach, co-author with Ron Eyerman (Oxford, 1991).
JORGE KATZ is Professor of Industrial Economics, University of Buenos Aires. He graduated in economics from the University of Buenos Aires and received his Ph.D. from the University of Oxford. He has done extensive consulting on issues of industrial organization and technical change for ECLA, IDB, and other international agencies. His publications include Technology Generation in Latin American Manufacturing Industries (London: Macmillan, 1987); Organización del Sector Salud: Puja Distributiva y Equidad, edited with Alberto Muñoz (Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de América Latina, 1988); El Proceso de Industrialización en la Argentina: Evolutión Retroceso y Prospectiva, edited with B. Kosacoff (Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de América Latina, 1989).
SANJAYA LALL is Lecturer in Development Economics at the Institute of Economics and Statistics and a Fellow of Green College at Oxford University. He studied economics in India and at Oxford University before joining the World Bank. He has taught at Oxford since 1968 and has also acted as a consultant for many international institutions, including the World Bank and a wide range of United Nations agencies. Among his many publications are Foreign Investment, Transnationals and Developing Countries, with Paul Streeten (1977), The Multinational Corporation (1980), The New Multinationals (1983), Learning to Industrialize (1987), and Building International Competitiveness (OECD, 1990). He recently co-edited Current Issues in Development Economics (Macmillan, 1991) and Alternative Development Strategies for Sub Saharan Africa (Macmillan, 1992).
NASSER PAKDAMAN teaches development economics at the Université de Paris VII. He studied in Teheran and Paris, and taught economics at the University of Teheran from 1967 to 1981, as well as at Princeton and Oxford universities. In addition to books and articles in Farsi, his main publications in French are: Economie iranienne: analyse d'une économie sous-développée (Paris, 1968); Bibliographie française de la civilisation iranienne, 3 vole., in collaboration with A. Abolhamd (Teheran, 19701974); Pour une histoire du développement. états, sociétés, développement, with others (Paris, 1991). He is co-editor of Çesmandaz, a Farsi-language journal published in Paris, and is currently working on a study of the interaction between religious and economic factors in Iran.
AMITAV RATH is a Director of Policy Research International, a consultancy, and Visiting Professor at Carleton University, Ottawa. He studied at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, and completed his gradute training at the University of California, Berkeley. He worked in the Science, Technology and Energy Policy Programme of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) from 1982 to 1990 and was its Head for a number of years. He has taught at several universities in Canada, India, Jamaica, and the United States. His most recent publications include the special volume of World Development that he edited under the title "Science and Technology: Issues from the Periphery" (1990); Technology and the International Agenda: Lessons for UNCED and Beyond, co-author with B. Herbert Copley (Ottawa: IDRC, 1992).
PAULO RODRIGUES PEREIRA is Adviser to the Brazilian Federal Secretariat of Science and Technology in Brasilia. He previously worked for the Brazilian Ministry of National Education and was Assistant Director for Scientific and Technological Cooperation at Digibras (the Brazilian state enterprise for computer science development). Prior to that he taught physics at the Universities of Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia, and Paraíba. He graduated in physics from the Swiss Federal Polytechnic (ETH) in Zurich and received his doctorate in science, technology, and society from the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris. in 1991.
IGNACY SACHS is Directeur d'études (Professor) at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris, where he founded the International Research Centre on Environment and Development in 1973. He was Director of the Centre until 1985, since which time he has been Director of the Research Centre on Contemporary Brazil. He acted as a Special Adviser to the Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972 and of the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio in 1992. He is a founding member of the International Foundation for Development Alternatives. He studied at the Universities of Rio de Janeiro, Delhi (Ph.D., 1961), and the Central School of Planning and Statistics, Warsaw. His principal publications include Development and Planning (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Studies in the Political Economy of Development (Oxford: Pergamon, 1979); and The Discovery of the Third World (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1976).
CÉLINE SACHS-JEANTET is responsible for coordinating the interministerial programme on the "University and the City" and is a researcher at the Fondation de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, in Paris. She has acted as a consultant to the World Bank, Unesco, and the French government. She studied at the University of Paris and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and received a doctorate in urban studies from the University of Paris XII in 1987. Her publications include São Paulo. Politiques publiques et habitat populaire (Paris: Editions Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1990); and Exploring the Human Dimensions of Development: A Review of the Literature (Paris: Unesco).
FRANCISCO R. SAGASTI served from 1987 to 1991 as Chief of Strategic Planning for the World Bank. Earlier Dr. Sagasti served as an adviser to the Peruvian ministries of Foreign Affairs and Planning and Industry and as a board member of an engineering design firm and professor at the Universidad del Pacífico in Lima. In 1979 he worked closely with the Secretary-General in the planning of the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development and later chaired the UN Advisory Committee on Science and Technology for Development. From 1973 to 1978, Dr. Sagasti led an international study of S&T policies in 10 developing countries, in which more than 150 researchers in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East participated. Dr. Sagasti has a Ph.D. in Social Systems Sciences from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, an M.Sc. in Industrial Engineering from Pennsylvania State University, and he earned two Industrial Engineering degrees from the Universidad Nacional de ingeniería in Lima, Peru.
JEAN-JACQUES SALOMON IS Director of the Centre Science, Technologies Société at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, and President of the Collège de la Prévention des Risques Technologiques. Between 1963 and 1983 he set up and headed the Science and Technology Policy Division of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris. He has been visiting professor at several universities (MIT, Harvard, etc.) and visiting fellow at Clare Hall, Cambridge. He founded the International Council for Science Policy Studies, of which he was President after Derek de Solla Price, and was President of the Standing Committee for Social Sciences of the European Science Foundation. His principal recent publications include Le destin technologique (Paris: Balland, 1992); L'écrivain public et l'ordinateur. Mirages du développement, co-author with André Lebeau (Paris: Economica, 1988; English edition under the title Mirages of Development [Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1993]); and Science, War and Peace, editor (Paris: Economical 1989).
HEBE VESSURI is Head of the Department of Science Studies at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) in Caracas. She writes on topics in the sociology and social history of twentieth-century Latin American science and on the interface between science and higher education. She has edited La ciencia periférica. Ciencia y sociedad en Venezuela (Caracas, 1984); Ciencia académica en la Venezuela moderna (Caracas, 1984); and Las instituciones científicas en la historia de la ciencia en Venezuela (Caracas, 1987). She is finishing a study of the origins of agricultural science in Venezuela and a book on scientific publishing in the periphery.
ATUL WAD is Director of Research, Technology, and Industrial Development Programs at International Business Development (IBD), Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. He is responsible for corporate and country projects involving technology sourcing, strategy, intelligence, and transfer, as well as industrial development. He has a Ph.D. in management and an undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering. He has been a visiting professor at the India Institute of Management in Bangalore and a fellow at the Science Policy Research Unit at the University of Sussex. He has extensive consulting experience, and has also served for years as scientific officer with the UN Centre for Science and Technology for Development, where he was instrumental in developing the UN's Advanced Technology Alert System (ATAS), He is the author of numerous articles on science and technology for developing countries and of Science, Technology, and Development (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1988).