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close this bookEarly Supplementary Feeding and Cognition (Society for Research in Child Development, 1993, 123 pages)
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View the documentAbstract
View the documentI. Introduction
close this folderII. Methodology and findings of the longitudinal study
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View the documentThe villages
View the documentExperimental intervention
View the documentEffects of experimental intervention on infant and preschool development
View the documentMethods of the current analyses
View the documentResults of the current analyses
View the documentConclusions
close this folderIII. Conceptual rationale for the follow-up
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View the documentDevelopmental effects of early nutrition interventions
View the documentLong-term effects of early educational interventions
View the documentSupplementary feeding and current views on development
close this folderIV. Methodological and substantive considerations
View the documentInherent limitations of the longitudinal and follow-up studies
View the documentSummary
close this folderV. Methods of the cross-sectional follow-up
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View the documentSubjects
View the documentSocioeconomic indicators
View the documentSchooling variables
View the documentThe psychological test battery
close this folderVI. Results from the cross-sectional follow-up
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View the documentEffects of experimental treatment on test scores
View the documentEffects of treatment on nonschooled subjects
close this folderVII. Discussion
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View the documentThe power of a nutritional explanation
View the documentReflections on particular findings
View the documentA theoretical interpretation
View the documentPolicy implications
View the documentAppendix A: Average nutrient intakes of Atole and Fresco subjects
View the documentAppendix B: Descriptions of tests used in the analysis of the preschool battery
View the documentReferences
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentCommentary - Going beyond nutrition: Nutrition, context, and development
View the documentCommentary - Early supplementary feeding and cognition: A retrospective comment
View the documentReply - Nutrition and development: Considerations for intervention
View the documentContributors
View the documentStatement of editorial policy


Ernesto Pollitt (Ph.D. 1968, Cornell University) is a psychologist and professor of human development at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, and member of the Program of International Nutrition, University of California, Davis. He is coprincipal investigator of the follow-up study reported in this Monograph. The main research focus of his professional career has been on the interactions between malnutrition and behavioral development in low-income countries.

Kathleen S. Gorman (Ph.D. 1987, University of Maryland) is a psychologist and research associate at the Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis. She was the field director of the behavioral sciences component of the follow-up study. Her research work has been primarily concerned with the determinants of educational progress among rural children in Guatemala.

Patrice L. Engle (Ph.D. 1971, Stanford University) is a psychologist and chair of the Department of Psychology of the California Polytechnic Institute. She participated in both the longitudinal and the follow-up phases of the study. She has published extensively on the effects of women's work on child rearing and development in rural populations in Central American countries.

Reynaldo Martorell (Ph.D. 1973, University of Washington) is a physical anthropologist, the principal investigator of the follow-up study, and a member of the research team that conducted the longitudinal study. At the time the follow-up study began, he was a professor of nutrition at Stanford University and later became leading professor at the Division of Nutrition at Cornell University. One of the main areas of his research has been the synergistic relation of infection and physical growth and the effects of early supplementary feeding on growth and development in low-income countries.

Juan Rivera (Ph.D. 1988, Cornell University) is a nutrition epidemiologist and currently head of the Division of Nutrition and Health at the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, Guatemala City. He served as the scientific and technical coordinator of the follow-up study. One of his research interests has been the effects of nutrition supplementation in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children.

Theodore D. Wachs (Ph.D. 1968, George Peabody College) is professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. He is a member of the editorial boards of Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and the International Journal of Behavioral Development. He is the author of The Nature of Nurture (1992) and coeditor (with Robert Plomin) of Conceptualization and Measurement of Organism Environment Interaction (1991). His research interests include the study of the role of early environmental influences on development and investigating the processes whereby individual difference factors mediate relations between environment and development.

Nevin S. Scrimshaw (Ph.D. 1941, Harvard University; M.D. 1945, University of Rochester; M.P.H. 1959, Harvard University) is a clinical and public health nutritionist who founded the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) and served for many years as head of the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is now Institute Professor Emeritus. In 1975, he organized the World Hunger Programme for the United Nations University, Tokyo, and continues to direct its food and nutrition activities. He is the founder and president of the International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries (INFDC). In 1991, he was named the World Food Prize laureate. His current interests relate to the functional consequences of iron deficiency, the effects of chronic energy deficiency on developing country populations, rapid assessment procedures for the evaluation and improvement of programs of nutrition and primary health care, and nutrition, health, and demographic transition in developing countries. He is the author of over 600 publications and the author or editor of 15 books.