|The NGLS Handbook of UN Agencies, Programmes and Funds Working for Economic and Social Development (NGLS)|
The Charter of the United Nations established six principal organs of the United Nations: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and the UN Secretariat. The United Nations has its seal and all but one of these principal organs in New York, the International Court of Justice being located in The Hague, Netherlands. The UN also has major offices in Geneva (UNOG) and Vienna (UNOV). There are five Regional Commissions and Secretariats: the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) in Addis Ababa; the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) in Baghdad; the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in Bangkok; the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) in Geneva; and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) in Santiago.
The United Nations also consists of a variety of funds, programmes and other units that are financed either through the UN's assessed regular budget, from voluntary contributions from Member States or a combination of both. These include: the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF), the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS-Habitat), the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the United Nations Volunteers (UNV) and the World Food Programme (WFP), with authority shared between the UN and FAO. While these institutions have their own governing bodies and may rely entirely upon voluntary financial contributions, they were all created by decisions of the UN General Assembly.
The UN system also comprises a number of specialized agencies which include the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and what are sometimes referred to as the "technical agencies" which include: the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the Universal Postal Union (UPU), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Each of these was separately established by governments with their own constitution, their own membership of states, governing bodies, secretariats with executive heads, and policies and programmes agreed by their governing bodies. Their regular budgets are separate from the regular budget of the UN although voting in the main governing bodies of these agencies is on the same, one-nation one-vote principle as the UN. Each is recognized under the UN Charter as a specialized agency "brought into agreement with" the UN.
The other large specialized agencies of the systemat least under the terms of the UN Charterare the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, which comprises the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). However the budgets of the IMF: and the World Bank are raised by different procedures of underwriting and capital market issues and, unlike the UN system, these institutions are governed according to voting weighted by shares held by Member States. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is not officially a part of the UN system but a global arrangement exists between the two, based on the relationship that had existed between the UN and the WTO's predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). This includes the provision and exchange of information, representation at each other's meetings subject to the decision of the meeting organizers, participation of the WTO at the Administrative Committee on Coordination (AC(C) and its subsidiary bodies, and cooperation between the secretariats. Particular cooperation arrangements have been concluded between the WTO and UNCTAD.
The United Nations system