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close this bookLeadership and Influence - Student Manual (FEMA-EMI, 1991, 208 p.)
close this folderLESSON PLANS
View the documentUnit I Introduction
View the documentUnit II Personal Values
View the documentUnit III Personal Styles
View the documentUnit IV Conflict Management Styles
View the documentUnit V The Impact of Different Influence Styles
View the documentUnit VI Exercising Leadership
View the documentUnit VII Exercising Power
View the documentUnit VIII Motivation
View the documentUnit IX Group Dynamics
View the documentUnit X Tying the Concepts Together: Course Integration & Application
View the documentUnit XI Presentation of Influence Plans
View the documentUnit XII Conclusion

Unit IV Conflict Management Styles

NOTE-TAKING GUIDE & ACTIVITY WORKSHEETS

OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this unit, you will be able to:

1. Define conflict;
2. Explain the importance of managing conflict;
3. Compare and contrast interpersonal and conflict management styles of a co-worker; and
4. Describe the process of role clarification and negotiation.

INTRODUCTION

What is conflict?

Conflict occurs when the goals or preferences of one person or organization are blocked by the actions of another person or organization.

Conflict occurs over:


Conflict is inevitable:


Key is to manage conflict!

Ignoring conflict can lead to:


Anger and resentment


Continuation of old philosophy


Stifling new and productive ideas


Managing conflict can:


Allow for useful differences of opinion


Encourage teamwork


FIGURE 1 FIVE CONFLICT ORIENTATIONS

Figure 1 graphically depicts the relationship among the five orientations and (1) a person's concern with satisfying his or her own ends and (2) a person's concern with satisfying the ends of the other party to the conflict situation:*

Adapted from Kenneth Thomas, "Conflict and Conflict Management," Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, ed. Marvin D. Dunnette, (Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1976).

5 Conflict Management Modes

Competition:

high concern for own objectives/low concern for maintaining relationship. Often called win-lose mode.


Accommodation:

high concern for relationship/low concern for own objectives


Compromise:

moderate concern for both own goals and maintaining relationship. Often called give-take or sharing mode.


Avoidance:

low concern with achieving own goals and maintaining relationship. Lose-lose mode.


Collaboration:

high concern with own goals and maintaining relationship with other party. Believe conflict can yield productive results for both parties by working together on solution. Often called win-win mode.

THREE SCENARIOS

Guess the type of conflict style being used in each of the following situations and then we will discuss its usefulness in the circumstances.

1. Burt Clemens, the assistant to the emergency management director (John Johnson) has asked if he can leave work 15 minutes early every Wednesday for 8 weeks in order to attend a class in Spanish literature. John has said no since the course has no relationship to Burt's job. Burt has claimed that as long as his work is done, it does not matter what time he leaves work. John continues to refuse his permission for Burt to change his schedule.

John's conflict management style is: __________________________________________

Knowing only what you do, is it appropriate for this situation?

2. The chair of the county's Board of Supervisors has asked John Johnson to turn in an after-action report on the area's recent flood damage two weeks earlier than had been originally requested by the Board. John has said yes.

John's conflict management style is: __________________________________________

Knowing only what you do, is it appropriate for the situation?

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3. Although the county's Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) calls for the Emergency Program Manager to head the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) during all fires that require assistance from mutual aid jurisdictions, the fire chief (Tan Thompson) feels that she should handle the EOC under that circumstance. Thompson tells Johnson this during a telephone conversation and Johnson agrees.

John's conflict management style is: ___________________________________________

Knowing only what you do, is that style appropriate?


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Before scoring the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Instrument, guess your conflict style:


Conflict style I prefer most:

________________________________

Conflict style I prefer least:

________________________________

Other 3 conflict styles in order of my preference:

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How does this compare with your actual score?

INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY

Think of the people with whom you work. Pick one person you know well and guess:

That person's dominant personal style: _____________________________________
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That person's dominant style of handling conflict: ______________________________
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Do you see any similarities/differences between the styles?
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ROLE THEORY

Roles are a relatively stable set of:

Actual roles:


Formal Roles:


Role Ambiguity often leads to Role Conflict!


ROLE CLARIFICATION/NEGOTIATION

Role Clarification: To be precise about your needs & objectives in relation to task responsibilities in a work group.


Role Negotiation: To obtain the best role and responsibilities for yourself on a job that you can.

INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY: ROLE CLARIFICATION/NEGOTIATION PLANNING SHEET

Think about one of your emergency management tasks that requires collaboration with the person you are trying to influence for your Influence Plan. In order to achieve maximum teamwork, you must have the roles clearly defined. That means knowing exactly how each of your respective activities fits with and supports the activities of the other person.

The following steps will help you prepare for an effective role clarification/negotiation session with the person you are trying to influence.

Mutual tasks or objective for which roles should be clarified:

The other person's role from my perspective:


- What he or she wants or needs from me:

- What he or she thinks I can provide for him or her:


My role from my perspective:

- What I need from the other person:

- What can I provide for him or her:


This activity can be used by you alone, simply to clarify for yourself what you expect to be doing and what you expect your associate to be doing. But it is far more useful to have you and the other person fill out a copy of the Role Clarification/Negotiation Planning Sheet, then exchange forms, and finally discuss each of the issues.

Influence Plan Update: Return to page II-12 and take notes about the conflict management style of the person you are trying to influence and what style of yours might work best with that person.

Summary: