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close this bookRelated Agroforestry Livelihood (IIRR, 1992, 30 p.)
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View the documentWorkshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK)
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View the documentCurrent program thrusts in upland development
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View the documentMini-pond for water-limited areas
Open this folder and view contentsSmall water-impounding technologies

Mini-pond for water-limited areas

Mini-pond for water-limited areas

· Supplies fish as a cheap source of protein for the family
· Provides supplementary income, if there is a surplus of fish
· Provides opportunities for the family to raise fish food right in their backyard or in the farm
· Saves space
· Utilizes kitchen leftovers and animal manure

Karpa Cyprinus carpio

Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

· Provides readily available food, free from red tide.
· Provides recreation for the family by watching while feeding and catching with hook and line

Pond construction

1. Mark the area. The ideal shape is rectangular (5 m x 12 m long).

Mark the area

2. Dig the area to a depth of 0.5 to 1. Use the dug soil to build the high dikes.

Dig the area

3. Compact the bottom of the pond by pounding the soil using wood. If a carabao is available, let it roam and wallow in the mud.

Compact the bottom of the pond

4. Install inlet/outlet/overflow pipes

Install inlet/outlet/overflow pipes

Pond fertilization for the production of plankton

· Basal application is done before stocking the pond with fingerlings.

1. Broadcast 1 kg/sq m of chicken hog manure or compost. Carabao or cow manure can also be used at the rate of 2 kg/sq m.

2. Allow the water to enter the pond and maintain depth at 2530 cm. Increase the water level at 1 m slowly.

Pond fertilization

· Top dressing is done whenever the water is no longer greenish, indicating lack of plankton.

1. Dump 1 kg cow or carabao manure and 1/2 kg chicken manure in one corner of the pond.

2. If inorganic fertilizer is to be applied, place it in a sack and submerge 1520 cm below the water below the water surface. (Urea 16-20-0; 14-14-14; at 5-10 g/sq m)

Stocking rate

· 1 m water depth = 10 fingerlings/sq m
· 0.5 m water depth = 3-5 fingerlings/sq m
· Tilapia/carp combination = 10-15% Carp: 8590% Tilapia

Stick fence and fertilizer


· 3 parts boiled cassava, gabi or sweet potato peelings: 1 part ipil-ipil leaf meal
· 3 parts rice bran or corn bran: ipil-ipil leaf meal

For a more efficient feeding, mash the feeds, place in a feeding tray made of fine fish nets and submerge about 15-20 cm below the water surface. Other supplementary feeds include green kangkong leaves, sweet potato, kitchen left-overs, crushed golden snails and white ants (termites).

Population control

· From the dikes, scoop out the fries early in the morning and late in the afternoon. Fries linger in the edgewaters at these times.

· Raise the collected fries in the nursery pond until they grow into fingerlings and stock for the next rainy season crop.


· After 3 or 4 months, harvest all the fish that weigh about 50 9 and over, using a sweep net.
· Harvest only the amount of fish that the family will eat for the day.