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close this bookParticipatory Methods in Community-based Coastal Resource Management - Volume 1 - Introductory Papers (IIRR, 1998)
close this folderParticipation and participatory methods
View the documentWhat is participation?
View the documentWhy participation?
View the documentDegrees of participation
View the documentObstacles to participation
View the documentParticipatory methods and other research methods
View the documentReferences


Biggs, S.D. 1989. Resource-poor farmer participation in research: A synthesis of experiences form nine NAR systems, OFCOR Comparative Study Paper 3, ISNAR, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Cohen, J.M. and N. Uphoff. 1997. Rural development participation: Concepts and measures for project design implementation and evaluation. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University.

Oakley, P. 1991. Projects with people: The practice of participation in rural development. International Labor Office, Geneva, Switzerland.

Pretty, J.N., I. Guyt, J. Thompson and I. Scoones. 1995. Participatory learning and action: A trainer's guide, IIED Participatory Methodology Series, IIED, London, UK.

Veldhuizen, L. van, A. Waters-Bayer, and H. de Zeeuw. 1997. Developing technology with farmers: A trainer's guide for participatory learning. ETC Netherlands and the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation. St. Martin's Press, New York.

Prepared by Gregory C. Ira