Cover Image
close this bookNon-formal Education Training Module (Peace Corps, 1991, 182 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPreface
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentWhat is Nonformal Education?
View the documentAdult Learning
View the documentSession: 3 Helping People Identify Their Needs
View the documentFacilitation Skills - Part 1
View the documentFacilitation Skills - Part 2
View the documentNFE Materials Development
View the documentGames in NFE
View the documentPlanning
View the documentEvaluation
View the documentLooking Back/Looking Ahead
View the documentAppendix I: Warm- Ups
View the documentEvaluations
View the documentReferences

NFE Materials Development


Volunteers are often placed in areas where basic materials and supplies are lacking. These participants and their counterparts will welcome the opportunity to make boards and demonstration figures for presenting NFE activities that can be taken to their sites and a simple, non-mechanical copier that can be carried in a back-pack. Participants also need to practice using the materials, both to solve the technical problems in making and manipulating them, and to better understand how to involve and entertain the audience.

Objectives of Session

· To make NFE presentation materials from local resources.
· To practice giving presentations using the materials.

Activity Sequence

1. Warm-up

20 minutes

2. Making NFE Materials for a Presentation

90 minutes

(includes informal break)

3. Presentations

60 minutes

4. Evaluation of Session

10 minutes

Total Time Required

180 minutes

Materials Needed

· Flannel Board:

Cardboard sheets - One meter square
Flannel or rough cloth - A little larger than the cardboard
Stapler, tacks and hammer or glue

· Flannel Board figures:

Old magazines and/or photos
Old file folders or other light cardboard
Colored markers
Wood sandpaper

· Flexiflans:

Old file folders or other light cardboard
Paper fasteners (dressmaker's snaps, or grommets, or 1/2 inch brass paper fasteners or thumbtacks)
Wood sandpaper (roughest grade)
Old magazines and/or photos of people
Colored markers

· Maxiflans

Large pieces of light cardboard (sides of cartons)
Heavy scissors or Exacto knife
Wood sandpaper
Colored markers

· Hectograph (Gelatin Duplicator):

For each duplicator:
1 box gelatin
1 pint glycerine
A pinch of sugar
(Or see other recipes in Directions)
Carbon paper or ditto masters
Hard-surfaced white typing paper
Flat pan 9.x2.x2. or larger
Pot for heating gelatin
Spoon for stirring
Heating element

· Roll-up Blackboard (for demonstration purposes and trainer's use)

Black vinyl, about 1 meter square
Small nails or carpet tacks
Wooden stick, 1 meter length
Heavy twine

Other Materials Needed for the Session

· Chalk
· Wet rag for cleaning roll-up blackboard
· Local "junk" for warm-up (See Trainer Preparation 9)
· Handouts:

Situations for Presentations Using Locally Made Materials - One per participant

· Flip chart paper
· Markers
· Tape

Trainer Preparation

1. Look through Peace Corps NFE Manual Chapter 8.

2. Read through the session with your co-trainers and decide together on the options you want to use.

3. Browse through the Related References, if available, especially Helping Health Workers

Learn. Have these references on hand for participants to look at during the session.

4. Assemble materials

5. Find a way to heat a large pot of gelatin mixture (for the copier) at the workshop site

(see Directions for Making and Using the NFE Materials in this Session).

6. Work with your co-trainer to make one demonstration model of each of the materials your participants will make (see Directions). This will help you make sure that the local resources you are using work well, and will help you identify and solve any problems with the materials before the session begins, e NOTE: This step is especially important for the copier, which requires special ink and glue. You will also need a working copier for one of the groups to use to do their presentation, as the gelatin copier they make may take several hours to set.

7. Arrange three tables so that groups can gather around them to make materials. Arrange materials for Activity 2 on tables: Group 1 will make flannelboards and flannelboard figures, Group 2 will make flexiflans and maxiflans, and Group 3 will make one or more hectographs and materials for a community display (for a bulletin board, handouts, etc.).

8. Gather a boxful of local "junk." to use in the warm-up. ("Junk" in your local context could be anything from empty soda cans, cellophane wrappers, plastic bottles, bottle tops, old magazines, etc. to "natural junk" such as palm fronds, coconut shells, brightly colored flowers and berries, sticks, vines and grasses, nuts, seeds, sea shells, stones, etc.)

9. Be sure the participants who signed up to do the warm-up and evaluation have the materials they need and are ready.

Directions for Making and Using the NFE Materials in this Session

NOTE: Some of the following materials and/or directions are slightly different from those in the NFE manual. Use whichever version suits your context and uses materials that are locally available.

Roll-up Blackboard

NOTE: We suggest that you make one (or several) of these to use as your blackboard in this and upcoming sessions to demonstrate to participants how effective and workable locally made materials can be. Although participants will not make these blackboards during this session, you may want to consider doing an extra evening session to give them a chance to make these and other materials they have indicated on the Interests/Skills Inventory.

Description and Use

The roll-up blackboard is simply a large piece of black vinyl cloth attached to a stick and hung up with a piece of twine. It is portable and light-weight, and can be used anywhere you would use a chalkboard: in meetings, in adult education classes, in school rooms or in workshops. In working with small groups, you can use several roll-ups instead of flip chart paper.

You can write on the vinyl with ordinary chalk and erase it with a damp cloth. You can prepare the written material before you need it, roll up the blackboard inside out and carry it to your meeting or class. Or, you can write on it at the time you need it by hanging it against a flat surface such as a wall or the outside of a building, e NOTE: To construct a permanent, outdoor flat surface from locally available materials, see Helping Health Workers Learn.

Materials Needed (for one board)

· 1 square meter black vinyl (the cloth-backed kind you would use at home to cover a chair or a car seat. This is often found in local markets or hardware stores abroad)

· Wooden stick or pole - 1 meter length
· Small nails or carpet tacks
· Hammer
· Heavy twine


1. Tack a square meter (more or less) of black vinyl to the wooden stick.

2. To hang up the blackboard, tie a piece of heavy twine to both ends of the stick.


Try using large sheets of heavy, light-colored plastic as another type of lightweight "board." Experiment with water-based markers to be sure the writing can be completely erased with a damp cloth. The sheets can be folded up and transported to the presentation site (where they can be used like flip chart paper, one per small group), or they can be attached to light sticks, top and bottom, and rolled up like the blackboard, above.

Flannel Boards

Description and Use

The flannel board is a piece of rough-surfaced material attached to a piece of cardboard to hold it flat. It serves as a background for drawings, pictures, symbols, captions and flexiflans. The display materials are backed with sandpaper or other rough surfaced material. They adhere to the background with slight pressure and can easily be removed or rearranged on the flannel board.

One problem with flannel boards is that the display materials easily fall off or are disturbed by the wind. To avoid this, make the display materials from light cardboard (rather than paper) and attach the roughest grade of wood sandpaper to their backs. When presenting the material, rest the flannel board on a chair or against a tree and tilt it back slightly so that the pictures stay in place.

Materials Needed (for one board)

· 1 large sheet of cardboard

· 1 larger piece of flannel or rough cloth

· Tape, staples, tacks or glue to attach cloth to cardboard backing

NOTE Volunteers have also successfully used copra sacks or burlap stretched between thin bamboo poles, and rough, locally made blankets as flannel boards. Health workers in Mexico have found that masonite (fiberboard) works well without being covered with cloth.

1. Tack, staple, tape or glue the rough cloth to the cardboard.

2. To use the flannel board, set it up on a chair, tilted slightly backwards.


If your area is very windy, try making a magnet board out of an old metal sign or cutup lard tin. Attach pictures to the board by gluing small magnets to their backs. These can be made by magnetizing metal nuts with an old induction coil from an automobile. Ask a local mechanic to help you.

Reference: Helping Health Workers Learn.

Hectograph (Gelatin Duplicator)

Description and Use

The hectograph is one of the cheapest and easiest non-mechanical devices for making 30 to 50 copies of drawings or written materials. It is basically a firm but flexible gelatin pad that can be stored and reused many times, and carried in a backpack on field trips to make training materials as you need them.

Carbon paper or a special ink is used to make a master copy of the item to be reproduced. When this master copy is placed face-down on the gelatin surface, the ink transfers to it. Copies can be made by placing single sheets of a fairly hard-surfaced paper on the gelatin one at a time for a few minutes.

The ink will sink down into the gelatin after 24 hours, leaving the surface ready for a new master copy. Store your duplicator in a plastic bag, away from dust. You may need to dampen the surface with warm water each time you use it to smooth out any wrinkles in the gelatin.

Materials Needed (for one duplicator)

Formula 1: 1 box gelatin
1 pint of glycerine a pinch of sugar (or see alternate formulas below)
1 flat pan slightly larger than the paper to be used
1 pot
1 spoon
1 heating element
1 ditto master (pre-inked) or old-fashioned carbon paper (the messy kind that gets ink all over your fingers) hard-surfaced or glazed paper sponge


If ditto masters or carbon paper are not available, try making your own ink by mixing 22 cc alcohol, 14 cc water and 2 grams Indigo blue. Other colors can be made by using dyes such as saffron (yellow-orange) and green of methyl instead of Indigo blue.

Formula 2: 1 part fish or animal glue (broken and soaked for 2 hours) 2 parts water 4 parts glycerin

Formula 3: glue (12 grams) gelatin (2 grams) water (7 1/2 grams) sugar (2 grams)

Formula 4: gelatin (10 grams) sugar (40 grams) glycerin (120 grams) barium sulfate (8 grams)


1. Choose a formula from above. If a glue-based formula is used, let the glue sit broken in the water for 2 hours and then heat the mixture (in a can or pot) over or in a pot of boiling water until the glue is dissolved.

2. Add other ingredients and heat for 15 minutes (7 minutes for Formula 1), and skim any scum off the surface, stirring occasionally.

3. Pour this mixture into a flat shallow pan (straining it through a loosely woven cloth will eliminate any dirt particles) and allow it to sit for a few hours.
(24 hours for Formula 1)

4. Once the transfer pad is ready, write your message, newsheet or drawing with ink (see formula above) onto a sheet of good quality paper (if the paper and pad are working right, you can sometimes use a ball point pen for this part).

5. Use a slightly damp sponge or rag to dampen the entire surface of the transfer pad.

6. Place the paper, ink side down, on the transfer pad. Smooth it down and leave for 4 to 6 minutes.

7. Carefully remove the paper master and the ink will have transferred to the pad. Smooth a clean sheet of paper over the image and allow 5 to 10 seconds for the transfer (allow more time for transfer as additional copies are made).

8. When finished, wipe the surface with a damp cloth/sponge and cover with paper. The remaining ink will transfer or be absorbed by the gelatin and the pad can be reused the next day.

NOTE: The gelatin compound can be recooked and recast to destroy old images or blemishes on the pad.

Flexiflans and Maxiflans

Description and Use

Flexiflans are figures for the flannelboard with moveable joints. They are made from light cardboard with metal clasps at their neck, elbows, hips and knees to make them more lifelike and to encourage the audience to get involved by posing them in different positions and moving them around on the flannel board at appropriate points in the story or presentation. They can also be given to a small group to handle as they discuss, for example, an issue of local needs.

Flexiflans arc especially effective to stimulate discussion among people who are not used to being asked their opinions. Prepare a variety of flexis representing local people, and ask small groups to choose the ones they like in order to share something about their community.

Materials Needed

· Very lightweight cardboard (file cards are ideal) or heavy paper
· Paper fasteners (dressmaker's snaps, grommets or thumbtacks)
· Glue
· Scissors
· Hammer
· Colored markers
· Wood sandpaper (roughest grade)
· Old magazines or photos e NOTE Making Sandpaper:

If sandpaper is not available, home-made sandpaper can be easily produced. Spread a thin layer of glue on cardboard, then sprinkle on a light covering of sand. Allow to dry and shake off excess sand.

Instead of sandpaper - You can also use wheat chaff (the barbed husks left over after wheat is made into grain) glued onto the backs of the flexiflans with flour and water paste.

See Helping Health Workers Learn, pp. 11-18 and 11-19


1. Draw the arms, legs, body and head of the figure separately on light cardboard.

Figures should be made facing opposite directions so that they can be made to "talk" together on the flannel board.

2. Cut out body parts. Attach them with metal clasps. The simplest kind of attachment is thumb tacks, pushed through the cardboard and lightly hammered down on the back side. You can also use dressmaker's snaps or two-pronged brass paper fasteners. Parts should be free to move.

3. Color the figure as desired with markers, or glue on faces and culturally appropriate "clothes" cut from old magazines. To add a touch of realism, use photos of key local people in the situation or drama that the group wants to present.

4. Attach a sandpaper strip to the back with glue.

5. Try out your flexi on a flannel board and make technical improvements, if necessary.


In Indonesia, local people made flexiflans from photos pasted on light cardboard of well-known characters in their village. They used the flexis to talk about problems and plan an effective course

6. Participants can also experiment with making large size maxiflans. These figures have been made up to two feet high (from the torso up) and can be displayed against a large blanket draped over a blackboard.

Maxiflans have been used successfully when presenting Problem Dramas (See Session 5, Activity 2). Three characters are constructed, a main character who presents the problem, and two minor characters who give conflicting advice. Names may be assigned to characters and placed on cards below the figures as they are introduced.

See: Took for Community Participation, pages 83-87 for models of beautiful flexiflans and more suggestions for their use.

Flannel Board Figures

Description and Use

Non-moveable flannel board figures such as people, animals, houses, trees, charts, captions or symbols can be used instead of flexiflans or to accompany them. Cut-outs should be large so that the audience can see them clearly. Simple, brightly colored displays are more visually effective than complicated, detailed pictures. Lettering for labels or titles should be bold. Figures should be in proportion to each other, larger in the foreground, smaller in the background.

Materials Needed

· Old magazines and/or photos
· Light cardboard
· Glue
· Scissors
· Colored markers
· Wood sandpaper (roughest grade)


1. Glue photos or magazine pictures to light cardboard or draw your own designs. Cut out.

2. Glue sandpaper strips to the back of the figures.

Activity 1: Warm-up - Local "Junk " Contest

Activity Time 20 minutes

Purpose To stimulate participants' imagination in using local materials for NFE activities.

NOTE Starting with this activity and for the rest of the sessions you could use the roll-up blackboard(s) you have made (See directions page
98) as a practical demonstration of how home-made materials are usable and sensible in your context.

Step - by - Step

1. Display the local "junk." you have collected (See Trainer Preparation 8) so that all participants can see and handle it. (If appropriate in your context, you might spread it out on a blanket on the floor as in an outdoor market)

2. Explain that since this session focuses on making NFE materials, the group could start by seeing how creative and original they can be in thinking of uses for common things in the environment for NFE activities.

3. Ask the group for one or two examples of how some of these materials could be used in NFE or work-related activities. (They don't have to actually use them, just think of possible uses.) Examples: berries could be used for dye or paint; bottle caps could be strung together in many long strands to make a curtain for a puppet show, a stick could be frayed to make a paintbrush, coconut shells might act as props for a role play (hats? a noisemaker?), etc.

4. Ask participants to form groups of 4 or 5. Give each group a piece of flip chart paper and a marker.

5. Say that groups will have 10 minutes to look at the articles displayed and think of all the possible ways they could be used in NFE activities. A recorder for each group should write down their ideas on flip chart paper. The group that thinks of the most ideas (or perhaps the most original ideas) wins the contest.

6. Keep time (10 minutes).

7. When time is up, ask groups to post their flip charts and give everyone a few minutes to walk around and look at the ideas that have emerged. Have the entire group vote on a "winner."


If you want to emphasize cooperation over competition, you might have groups share ideas informally as they think of them, the object being to try as a large group to come up with the maximum number of ideas.

Activity 2: Making NFE Materials for a Presentation

Activity Tune 90 minutes (includes informal break)

Purpose To make NFE materials and practice using them.

NOTE: You have already set up tables and materials for this activity (See Trainer Preparation 7).

Step - by - Step

1. Let the group know that the purpose of this activity is to make NFE materials and use them to make presentations similar to those they may actually do in their work.

2. Suggest that they divide into three working groups; Group 1 will make flannelboards and flannelboard figures, Group 2 will make flexiflans and maxiflans, and Group 3 will make hectographs and materials for a community display.

3. Say that each group will be given a handout with sample work situations for which these NFE materials could be used. Emphasize that it is important for them to practice using the materials to stimulate discussion rather than simply make them. To give them a chance to do this, the groups will have 90 minutes to both make the materials and to prepare a presentation using the materials they have made. This presentation will later be made involving the large group. Since the time for the break is included in the 90 minutes, participants should take their break whenever they need to during the activity, e NOTE: The group making hectographs may need to use the demonstration model you have made earlier for their presentation, as the gelatin may take a few hours to set completely.

FOR IST: Groups should create their presentations around the real work situation of one of their members. If you like, you can use the PST handouts as examples of situations (page 111), and then ask each group to think of a similar situation that one of the members might actually be involved in.


If participants express an interest in making more materials than is possible in this session, consider adding an informal evening session for participants to make materials to take to their sites.

4. Explain these materials and their uses briefly (See Directions for Making and Using the NFE Materials in this Session) and show demonstration models if you have made them.

5. Ask the group to divide themselves more-or-less equally according to the materials they would like to make, and go to the appropriate tables.

6. Give each participant the handout Situations for Presentations Using Locally Made

Materials. Let the groups know they can choose any of the situations or develop their own instead. They should plan to make a 15 minute presentation to the large group with the materials they have made at the end of their 90 minute work period.


The group making the hectographs can create materials for a community display (newsletter, fliers, cartoons to stimulate discussion, posters, etc.) and explain strategies for getting local people involved in planning, making and using the materials.

7. Keep time (about 90 minutes total, including break). Work with groups to help them develop meaningful presentations. Refer groups to whatever books you have on hand to give them ideas for presentations and adaptations of materials (See Related References at end of this Session.) Encourage groups to make adaptations of the materials to fit the local context.

Example: One group redesigned the flannel board to be more easily transportable by sewing a large hem on both top and bottom of the cloth and inserting removable bamboo poles. The cloth "board." could then be folded and carried in a backpack and the poles could be replaced at each site where the Volunteer was doing a presentation.

Activity 3: Presentations and Processing

Activity Time 60 minutes

Purpose To present an NFE activity using the materials they have made.

Step - by - Step

1. Assemble everyone in the large group. Have each group make their 15 minute presentations to the audience. (Time: 45 minutes)


Participants should try to involve the audience in their presentations, but because of time limitations, the emphasis here will be on making and using the materials to tell a story or to get across a concept, rather than on getting the audience to reflect and analyze fully. To carry this exercise further, see the OPTIONS at the end of the activity.

2. Take 15 minutes to process the experience by asking questions of the large group such as the following:

What materials and techniques made the presentations effective? Have participants cite specific examples and say what made them effective. Write their responses on flip chart paper.

What were some of the technical problems involved in making or using the materials? List on flip chart paper. How might those problems be solved?

What were some of the problems involved in the presentation of the stories or concepts? Ask those who presented to mention a few problems they saw or sensed in the performance. Then have the group add their observations. List on flip chart paper. Have the group try to give constructive suggestions for change.

Add your own observations about both the positive aspects and your suggestions for improving the presentations at the end.


Invite a Volunteer or an HCN with experience making such presentations in the community to come and watch the group's presentations and talk to them about their own experiences doing these kinds of activities. They might focus on which materials were particularly effective in the local context, how they overcame difficulties in developing and using materials, and how they involved the local community in helping to make materials and present the activities.


If you have about 45 minutes more time available, it is recommended that you expand Activities 2 and 3 to include planning and practicing getting the audience involved in critical reflection on the story or concept presented. Use flannelboard and figures and flexi-/maxiflans for this option. Puppet shows also can be used here (See NFE Manual Chapter 8 for puppet making directions).

Step - by - Step for OPTlON (Time: 195 minutes)

1. Participants divide into four small groups and choose a story or concept they would like to present, using the handout for this exercise (Situations for Presentations Using Locally Mode Materials) or situations from their own experience. (30 minutes).

2. Participants make the figures to illustrate their presentation, as above (45 minutes).

3. Participants write processing questions and rehearse how they will involve their audience in critical reflection (30 minutes).

4. Participants make their presentations to small groups who act as the audience (15 minutes per group, i.e. 60 minutes).

5. Presenters and audience critique the activity as above. (30 minutes)


To do INSTEAD OF Session 6: (Time: 2 three-hour sessions)

The above option can be expanded to be used as a "field test of participants' ability to practice their NFE skills. Participants decide what to present in consultation with HCNs and/or cultural coordinators, make their materials, decide how to involve the audience in the discussion, practice on each other and critique their presentations. Then they "take their show on the road," presenting their flannelboard or flexiflan stories to members of the local community. You will need to arrange beforehand to have a space available for them in the market, or someone's yard, or on the veranda of a friendly shopkeeper. If you choose this option, keep the following things in mind:

· Investigate places to hold the "show" before your workshop begins. Get the necessary permission from owners and/or local authorities. Create interest by letting local people know that their participation will help Peace Corps Volunteers work more effectively in the community.

· You might consider finding two different sites for the different presentations, according to the audience you expect. For example, a schoolyard during a recreation period will attract children, a village well might catch women's attention, and a stall in the weekly market will probably involve men as well. Plan the logistics of these presentations by having your co-trainer go with one group, while you go with the other.

· Find out what topics or problems are likely to interest people but are not politically charged or embarrassing. For example, a flexiflan presentation about dental hygiene for children is not likely to offend anybody, especially if the presenters stress the value of inexpensive materials already used in the culture (such as sticks to clean the teeth). See Helping Health Workers Learn (pp. 27-37 27-39) for more ideas about a similar presentation.

· Help participants succeed in their demonstrations by providing a good variety of local materials for them to work with, and by giving participants adequate time for construction and to practice their presentations in the local language. Allow a full session for planning the presentation and developing the figures. In addition, you might allow a free evening just before the "road show" for participants to practice on their own.

· After participants stage their presentations, bring everyone back into the training room for critique. Arrange chairs in a circle. Critique the presentations as follows:

1. Presenters say what they liked about their own presentations or thought they did well.

2. Presenters mention problems they had with their own presentations (with materials, dialogue, appropriateness of subject, reaction and involvement of audience) and how they might avoid these problems next time.

3. Individual observers add the positive things they saw and may suggest one area for improvement

4. Facilitator and co-trainer add their own observations, both about the positive qualities and suggestions for improvement.

Activity 4: Evaluation of Session

Activity Time 10 minutes

Purpose To have participants plan and carry out an evaluation of the session.

Step - by - Step

Have participants who signed up to evaluate the session carry it out.

For Next Time

Participants can look ova whatever reference materials you have on games and simulations.

· End of Session 6, time Saver #1

1. Making NFE Materials for a Presentation 90 minutes

2. Presentations 60 minutes

Total Time 150 minutes

Tim" Saver #2

1. Making Boards and Copiers

40 minutes

2. Making Flexiflans,

Flannel Board, Figures and Puppets

40 minutes

3. Evaluation of Session

10 minutes

Total Tune

90 minutes

The purpose of this time saver is only to make materials, not to design them for presentations. It can be done earlier in the training program (such as after Session 2). The resulting materials, especially the boards and copiers, can be used in remaining sessions.

Time Saver #3

Choose other NFE materials that are applicable to your context from Chapter 8 of the NFE manual or other references. Or use the results of the Interests/Sldlls Inventory to plan a session based on the needs of participants.

Time required: Variable


Werner, D. Helping Health Workers Learn: Chapter 11 - Flannel Boards, Posters; Chapter 12 - Photos and Drawings; Chapter 13 - Comic Strips, Photonovellas, Slides; Chapter 16 Silkscreen Copier, News Sheets; Chapter 2? - Theater Props and Costumes

Situations for Presentations Using Locally Made Materials

1. Julie learns that women in the next town might be interested in starting a small business development group. As far as Julie knows, the new group really has no idea of what they would like to make and sell. Her goals are to stimulate people's interest, give them confidence, and involve them in determining what people in the area would buy. Help Julie get discussion started by using the materials you make to design a 15 minute group activity.

2. Steve is working with farmers who have shown some interest in using organic compost to fertilize their vegetable plots instead of the expensive chemical fertilizer that is available in the local shops. However, several in the group are skeptical, saying that making and applying the compost is too much work, and besides, using chemicals is the modern way. Steve hopes to help the group make an informed decision about how best to use their limited resources to improve their plots. Help him prepare a 15 minute group activity to stimulate discussion with the materials you have made.

3. John, who is working in latrine construction, has been informed by the local health officials that cholera cases have been mounting in the area and that they fear an epidemic. It is vital that they know how many people are using the latrines that have been built recently in the area, and if they are not using them, to discover the reasons why. Help John get people talking about the latrine situation by using the materials you have made to prepare a 15 minute group activity.

Things to keep in mind:

· Use the materials to get people involved, not to "teach.

· Review the experiential learning cycle and plan how you can use it to involve your audience in the presentation.