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close this bookAccess of Girls and Women to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Africa (UNESCO, 1999, 480 p.)
close this folderPART II
View the documentScientific, Technical and Vocational Education (STVE) for Girls in South Africa
View the documentParticipation of Girls and Women in Science, Technical and Vocational Education in the Republic of Benin
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Africa a Case Study of Burundi
View the documentSpecial Project on Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education for Girls in Chad
View the documentThe Participation of Girls and Women in Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Ethiopia
View the documentStatus Report Baseline Information on Girls in Science, Technical and Vocational Education in Ghana
View the documentPromotion of the Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in the Republic of Kenya
View the documentThe Status of Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education of Girls in Madagascar
View the documentPromotion of the Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Malawi
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Mali
View the documentPromotion of the Equal Access to Girls in Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Republic of Namibia
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Niger
View the documentScientific, Technical and Vocational Education of Girls in Nigeria
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Science Education and Technical Education in Africa. Case for Uganda
View the documentThe Promotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Africa Case Study of Senegal
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Vocational and Science Education in Swaziland
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Science Education and Technical/Vocational Education in Africa: The Case of Tanzania
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access for Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Togo
View the documentPromotion of Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Zambia
View the documentPromotion of the Equal Access of Girls to Scientific Technical and Vocational Education in Zimbabwe

Promotion of the Equal Access of Girls to Scientific, Technical and Vocational Education in Malawi

T. ALIDE*

*University of Malawi, The Polytechnic

BACKGROUND

Malawi is a large extent a traditional society (Rayes 1973) with 90% of its population living in the rural areas, 53% of whom are women (GOM).

Traditional norms and values have defined distinct roles for men and women. Parents prepare the girl child to ba a subservient of man and the boy child to effectively play the role of a provider for a successful marriage. This has an effect on the parents' “ and children's aspirations, consequently their attitudes about education and training, particularly in the areas of science, technical and vocational education and training which they find very challenging.

The formation of the National Commission for Women in Development (NCWID° in 1984 and the Chitukuko Cha Amayi M'Malawi (CCAM) in 1985 were an attempt to address constraints women encounter in development. Several initiatives were launched as interventions.

Status of Women at Homes

The current policy document for women in Malawi (not dated) outlines roles that women play, which include, parental, occupational, conjugal, kinships, community, individual and social roles. According to the policy document, the 1977 census indicated that 70% of full-time farmers were women. Although men were engaged in farming activities, Clerk (1975 in the Policy Document) revealed that 50-70 percent of all farming activities were handled by women with or without their husbands. In addition, the woman has to fetch firewood and draw water, both of which have to be carried on the head. The woman also has to prepare food for the family and tidy up the home.

The policy document refers to a study of women's activities in five selected areas in Malawi which revealed that women spent almost as much time in the garden as in domestic activities. While men's activities are one off apart from farming, women's activities are routine for as long as one lives.

A study by Engberg (1982) referred to by the policy document revealed that women's work days lasted 12 hours with household tasks taking 4-6 hours while men had a 4-6 hour workday. Efforts by research institutions to develop simple time and energy saving devices have reduced the burden, but more has to be done to alleviate the women from this suffering (World Bank, 1991).

Despite the multiple roles described above, the socio-economic status of women leaves a lot to be desired. Culture and traditional practices deny the woman equal status and the same power as man, which contributes to the women's lack of confidence, self affirmation and low self worth (GOM).

Status of Girls/Women in School

The Illiteracy rate for women is 68.4%. This has an implication on their socio-economic and socio-cultural status. At the early stages of education, the number of boys is comparable to that of girls (World Bank, 1991) but as they progress the dropout rate for girls is more than that of boys, and by the time they finish primary, a third of the initial intake will have dropped out, reasons, being the lack of school fees, inadequate teachers, inadequate teaching and learning materials/facilities (Fabiano, 1992), and a curriculum that may not be catering the needs of girls. This tends to lower girl's aspirations, leading to poor performance and eventual withdrawal, or indulgence in unnecessary and harmful behaviour.

The policy document noted that more girls shy away from science subjects and if they do decide to take such subjects, their performance is low as compared to that of boys. Science, through a directive from the Ministry of Education in the mid-1980's, was made compulsory, and the low performance of girls was expounded by Kadzamira (1987) through her research on the subject, which confirmed beyond a doubt the speculation that boys outperformed girls in sciences. But Katzamira wondered whether this was in line with findings in Western countries that boys do better in numerical and spatial tasks while girls do better in linguistic and verbal tasks.

The policy document also noted that girls avoid technical/vocational subjects. Data from the Ministry of Labour which is responsible for the recruitment of apprentices (Annex II (f) confirms this situation.

Status of Women in the Community

The status of women in the community is affected by low education (World Bank, 1991). Their output is limited by their capabilities and only a few take up the challenge to compete with men in community services. One can easily notice this through under-representation of women in various fora. Women and girls are thought to be shallow, feeble-minded, emotional and less able to cope with situations. This affects their contribution even at policy level. It is with this view that the policy document, after acknowledging the fact that the Development Plan 1987-1996 (DEVPOL) recognised the role women play, noted that gender differences and women's needs were note adequately articulated to guide development programmes for them.

In an attempt to improve women's education for better participation, adult literacy centres were established but have not been very effective in raising the status of women.

Status of Women in Employment

The policy document stated that women's participation in the formal sector is only 15% and that their involvement is mostly in jobs that require low skills. Women and girls are thought to be of low ability and achievement but usually most trustworthy.

Despite the fact that they are trustworthy when it comes to responsibility sharing, bosses shy away from giving big responsibilities to females, and both male and female juniors find it more difficult to take instructions from a woman boss. A woman boss has to work twice as much to gain recognition, and if successful she is sailed to possess manly character. It is this practice that denies females occupation of posts at senior level. The 1977 population census (World Bank, 1991) indicates the following:

Table 1: Comparative percentage of males and females in each occupational category

Occupation

Percentage of Men

Percentage of Women

Professional and technical

74.4

25.8

Administrative and Managerial

86.1

4.9

Clerical

87.1

12.9

Sales

80.1

19.9

Services

81.2

18.8

Agriculture

47.7

52.0

Production Transport Labour

80.3

9.7

Unclassified

69.3

30.7

A similar indication was made by Gondwe (1989) after conducting a survey of eight manufacturing and trade companies in Blantyre. 4.5% of the managers, 5.4% of the supervisors and 21.9% of other employees were females.

Through analysis of data from the National Statistics office for the years 1985 and 1992, there is an indication that more girls and women are being employed in the formal sector. There is however, substantial increase in some areas like Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, Mining and Quarrying with an average of 71.38% and a drop of 74.6% in manufacturing. Whether or not this increase in employment, has a corresponding increase in women's occupation of managerial and administrative jobs and access to male dominated areas, remains to be investigated.

Employment of women in the teaching of science in secondary school also increased, from 123 in 71 schools in the 1991/92 academic year, to 151 teachers in 57 schools in the 1995/96 academic year. The enrolment of female science students at Chancellor College increased from 17.3% in 1992 to 19.6% in 1995. (Annex II) ©. A lot is being done in the form of initiative to increase self-employment opportunities for girls and women.

Evaluation of Gender Related Policies/Measures

Despite the launching of various programmes to enhance the participation of women in development, the policy document indicates that the effect of such programmes has been minimal as may be evidenced by a still low status of women in various sectors of development. A summary of reasons is as follows:

i) Lack of capacity building for effective management of the programmes;

ii) Lack of coordination resulting into failure of initiatives to complement each other;

iii) Inadequate funding for sustainable development of the initiatives

iv) Some programmes not specifically catering for the needs of the women resulting from inadequate articulation of needs.

Although access to science in primary and secondary school has been increased the performance of girls as compared to boys in this area has not improved.

The 1987-1996 Development Policy made specific mention of the improvement of technical education for women, but statistics from the Ministry of Labour indicate an average of 4.6% access for a period of 5 years. Statistics from the Polytechnic, a constituent college of the University of Malawi, however, show a steady increase in the enrolment of girls/women in Diploma/degree and technician programmes for the period between 1987 and 1991 (Annex II (b).

In conclusion then, the policies and measures have to a certain extent been effective but the effect has not made much impact on the status of women, especially in the rural areas where the majority of Malawians live.

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE FACTORS DETERMINING THE ORIENTATION OF GIRLS TOWARDS SCIENCE, TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

National Economic Development

Economic development versus population growth has not done very well in Malawi. The annual per capita income has dropped from US$ 200 last year to US$ 150 this year (UND, 1997). This has negative impact on the expansion of educational facilities and on the living standards of the people. With an average transition rate of 10.2 from 1991 to 1995 (MOE, 1995), there is a lot of competition. This competition also exists in the family when parents have to decide on who goes to a good private secondary school or to a Malawi Distant Education Centre. The male child goes to a better school (Chawanje 1989).

65% of the schools in Malawi do not have adequate teaching and learning materials (Fabiano, 1992). Science equipment in most private schools and Malawi Distant Education Centre is basic. Even some conventional secondary schools have similar problems. Most girls therefore fail to recognise the practicality of some concepts in science and mathematics. With their visual spatial difficulties, girls find it even more difficult to cope (See Table 5 (a). Primary schools, however, are provided with science kits made by the School Science Project funded by the German Government. How effective these kits are in attracting girls has not been established.

The Status of technical subjects in schools provides a very gloomy picture. Khowoya (1992) summarised the problems as follows:

a) Inadequate number of technical teachers in secondary school;

b) Brain drain of technical teachers into the industrial sector;

c) Insufficiency of workshop tools and materials;

d) Damage and lack of maintenance of workshop machine and equipment;

e) Lack of physical and moral support by the Government and the private sectors for technical education;*

f) Low participation of girls in technical education.

Low transition rate also creates a problem for those who would like to progress with technical subjects, as they are sometimes selected to an institution that does not have technical education facilities. The small number of technical primary and secondary schools has failed to impact on the selection criteria at Secondary, University and Technical Colleges. Selection into Engineering courses does not consider school technical skills. The same applies to technical/vocational courses in technical Schools/Colleges. This may be discouraging to girls/women.

Malawi is in the process of formulating a vision statement. The draft vision statement (1996) advocates a shift from an agricultural based economy to one that is technologically driven. A major strength that Malawi has is fertile soil, which indicates that for years to come, Malawi will depend on agriculture to create a technologically driven economy. This requires a boost in the agricultural industry. Since most women are engaged in agriculture, for them to fully participate, they require a set of specific skills as well as the more general skills for increased agricultural production. Increased agricultural production requires capabilities in problem solving that are required to improve technologies. Scientific and technical know-how is a prerequisite for the above, which women do not have, as a result their failure to occupy male dominated posts. It is, however, apparent here that they can non longer afford to sideline science and technology. But if men continue to ignore the contribution of women in this venture, the vision may not be realised.

The Government's intention to build 250 secondary schools, free secondary education for girls and free primary education for all are major steps to promote girl's access to science and technical education. The Government also, with funding from Germany, intends to establish more vocational training centres which will increase girls/women's access to technical/vocational education and training.

Sociological Trends

Distinct roles identified by traditional norms and values which place the woman in the kitchen and the man under the tree, each playing his or her role, and teaching their children such roles, has created a gap between the two sexes. Girls play with dolls and practice cooking and associated activities, while boys are involved in the making and dismantling of toys, trying to make improvements each time, and practice building and associated activities. Boys' activities are more science and technology related than those of girls. In the process, boys develop a critical mind, logical thinking and problem solving capabilities as they meet new challenges (Chawanje, 1989). Girls' activities are monotonous and give them low aspirations. It may be for this reason that girls/women lack confidence, patience and perseverance, they easily give up before they even attempt to put up an effort. Therefore, science and technical fields which require such characteristics as stated above remain a male domain. Although girls may want to take part in science and technical education as revealed by Khowoya (1992), their capabilities may not allow them to persist. It is therefore necessary to remove gender stereotypes and involve girls in activities that should develop their creativity and imagination at an early age. The development of a critical mind may enable girls to critically examine certain traditional practices like early marriages, and activities associated with initiations to marriages. Although the social mobilisation campaign is being expanded, the schools have to respond for the needs to be realised.

Technological Trends in the World of Work

The World of work in Malawi is agriculture which employs almost 90% of the population. Not much has changed in agriculture; the hoe still remains the most useful and widely used tool in cultivation. 95 percent of smallholder farmers use the hoe and only 2 percent have ploughs (World Bank, 1995).

In 1995, Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Centre conducted a needs assessment survey in six Local Impact Areas in Malawi to determine appropriate technology needs of the areas. Most of the technology requirements listed in the directory produced are to be used by women.

Intensification of research and development would increase the uptake of technology, thus drawing girls and women nearer to technology, which would eventually develop in them some interest to repair or suggest improvements on the technological products.

Not much has changed in industry and commerce except the use of computers, which seems to be on the increase in most offices, but not in production. The most used piece of technology in schools is the radio. Some schools have audio/visual equipment and only a few rich private schools provide access to computers.

Employment Related Trends

The World Bank (1991) once stated that the majority of women are not employable because they lack skills. This is why the majority are subsistent farmers. Those employed are mostly self-employed in small business in urban and semi-urban areas. The World Bank (1991) indicated that women are found in food and beverages processing, pottery and beer brewing, and that only 25 percent of tailors using sewing machines are women, and yet needlework in schools is done by women/girls only. Apart from those who are teachers, nurses and secretaries, there is a small fraction in other professional and business fields. Initiatives to empower women have, however, introduced several skill training programmes for women which may incite them to develop positive attitudes towards technical/vocational education, but a lot more has to be done to access girls to professions that have scientific and technological underpinnings.

Jobs that require technical skills are not adequately remunerated as opposed to white collar jobs. Those who have gone through a 4-year technical training find themselves being paid less than their colleagues who acquired a white collar job straight from school. Unless this problem is addressed, technical training will continue to have low status and be less attractive to women/girls.

There are no differential salary structures for males and females occupying the same posts in the formal sector. However, in the informal sector especially in agriculture, such treatment exists. The World Bank, (1991) presented the following picture:

Table 2. Average Daily Pay (Tambala) for women and men in ten flue-cured tobacco Estates in Kasungu District, 1984

Estate

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Women

43

58

46

54

58

56

44

48-58

18-55

58

Men

58

58

58

58

58

58

58

58

44-55

58

If women are to be encouraged to fully participate in technical/vocational education and training, differential treatment has to be abolished.

Education Trends

Since science at both primary and secondary school was made compulsory, it can be said that both girls and boys have equal access to science in schools (Kadzamira, 1987). However, the science education being offered is more theoretical than practical and is examination oriented (Fabiano, 1992). As such, it is easily forgotten once one finishes school unless one is engaged in a science related job.

Efforts are being made to improve the performance of girls in science subjects. Research carried out by Hyde (1993) revealed that gender streaming in science subjects can raise the results of both boys and girls, but gender streaming is considered by many to prevent interaction between boys and girls, which is considered to be very important. Hyde noted that in mixed schools girls form a 30 percent minority and are younger. They are subject to verbal and psychological harassment when they show signs of high performance.

The secondary school science competition (GOM, 1995) which rewards the best three students and the best schools in two categories, one for males and the other for females, is a very positive move to encourage girls to do well in science.

The prevocational nature of school technical education makes it so superficial that prior learning is not considered in technical colleges. Students end up repeating what they had done in school, but with precision. This can be demotivating to both boys and girls.

Activities in the workshop require muscular strength which is associated with men, although women, do pounding which is heavier than workshop activity. This makes girls shy away from technical subjects.

The World Bank (1991) gave an indication that inadequate accommodation for girls in technical/vocational institutions could be one of the possible reasons preventing access of girls to technical/vocational education. There is hostel for girls at the Lilongwe School of Health Sciences with a capacity of 40 students which lies empty. The school requires credits in English, Mathematics, Biology and Physical Science. Many girls don't apply despite being encouraged to do so. Enrolment in a number of courses during the 1995/96 academic year at this school is as follows:

Table 3: Enrolment at Lilongwe School of Health Sciences

Course-Initial

Total

Male

Female

Course 1

77

66

11

Course 2

21

16

5

Mature, Entry

Total

Male

Female

Course 1

25

21

4

Course 2

20

17

3

Course 3

21

15

6

Source: Given by the Principal of the School

At the Kamuzu College of Nursing, a constituent College of the University of Malawi, the reverse is true. There are more girls than boys as the table below indicates.

Table 4: Student Enrolment at Kamuzu College of Nursing 1988/89-1994/95

Year

Total

Male

Female

% Female

1988/89

399

230

169

42

1992/93

262

28

234

89

1994/95

262

35

227

87

Source: Basic Education Statistics 1933 and 1995 (GOM).

The number of boys has dwindled so much within six years so that nursing remains a female dominated area. Attempts are being made at the Zomba School of Nursing to break this tradition. In the 1995/96 academic year, out of an intake of 44 students, 32 were males and the rest females. However, one can rarely find male nurses in hospitals in Malawi.

The Polytechnic of the University of Malawi has managed to have a steady increase of girls/women in Diploma/Degree and Technician courses as indicated in Annex II(b).

The Government's endeavour to promote and strengthen guidance and career counselling is an activity that should spread throughout the country including the rural areas, and at all levels of formal education. Gondwe (1989) noted that sometimes guidance and counselling comes too late when one has missed the prerequisites for the career he/she wants to pursue.

PRESENT MEASURES TO PROMOTE ACCESS TO SCIENCE EDUCATION AND TECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

A lot of policy issues were handled through directives (Kaluwile 1989) from higher offices during the previous Government. The current Government has formulated written policies for various Government sectors. Therefore, most of the written policies, objectives and strategies are taken as present and future measure to promote access.

National Policies and Strategies

The Malawi Government National Training Policy (1996) states as one of the objectives for training, the promotion of the development of entrepreneurship and the easing of any structural changes. An example of the science and technology policy has been mentioned. The science and technology policy (1991) advocates equal and adequate opportunities for all to acquire basic science education to facilitate development.

The National Youth Policy (not dated but launched in 1996) in its objectives, mentions the creation of educational and training opportunities to enable the youth to use basic scientific and technological principles in the promotion of creativity and imagination. In its priority areas for action, the policy intends to encourage females to take up science and technical subjects. The policy also recognizes the importance of engaging the youth in environmental education.

The strategies of the policy on Women in Development endeavours to encourage the development of projects for women based on local skills, to increase the uptake of appropriate technologies to facilitate work done by women, and to support any moves that would widen career options for girls, specifically in the areas of technical and other non traditional areas. The policy also supports the expansion of vocational institutions that offer vocational skills to female dropouts.

Technical Colleges are aspiring for a 30 percent access of girls Government would like to increase the transition rate to secondary school from about 10% to 50% and girls' access to secondary education to 50%. The draft policy on education wishes to enforce readmission of girls and boys suspended on pregnancy grounds.

Strategies in the Poverty Alleviation Programme (1995) include the expansion of education facilities at all levels and the closing of the gap between males and females in access to education, and the revision of the curriculum to include among other things health, entrepreneurship, environment gender issues, and creative arts and crafts. The establishment and planned expansion of Domasi Teachers College for mass production of diploma bearing teachers in science and other subjects is to increase output from an average of 13 per annum between 1967 and 1979 and 21 per annum between 1980 and 1991 by enrolling 200 per year (Fabiano, 1992).

The policy objectives and strategies mentioned above, coupled with compulsory sciences for all in primary and secondary school, can enhance achievement of the promotion of access of girls to science, technical and vocational education and training.

Innovative Practices

The primary curriculum has been reviewed to reflect the needs of society, including for women. The secondary school curriculum review is long overdue for reasons not known, but attempts are being made to make the curriculum gender sensitive and to make it more relevant to the needs of society. Alide (1990,1996) advocates sciences and technology education using appropriate tools and materials for all males and females from nursery school to tertiary level, and the expansion of technical schools and colleges to absorb school drop-outs at all levels of the education system. A statement by the Minister of Education on his return from South Africa very recently supports these views. The German Government is keen to expand technical school and colleges and there are plans to establish a Technical and Vocational Education Council to oversee activities in this field.

Career guidance and counselling is being intensified in schools with the setting up of a department in the Ministry of Education, and the establishment of GAC at the Domasi Institute of Education. Teachers are being given orientation in gender sensitivity and there is an expansion of the social Mobilization Campaign.

Efforts to Provide Employment Opportunities

Some positive steps to assist women by giving them technical skills and granting them loans through well and newly established lending institutions which demand less collateral have been made. In villages, women's groups have been formed to facilitate the acquisition of loans. The World Bank (1991) has provided a list of 16 women in Development Projects in Malawi funded by the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development, the United Nations Development Programme, the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), the International Development Association, the Overseas Development Association, and others. These projects range from education to income generating activities, and are carried out by or in conjunction with 19 other non-governmental and Governmental organisations in Malawi.

The establishment of a Youth Scheme that provides loans to youth to start business and the Government's intention to recruit women in the Army are attempts to provide employment opportunities.

Difficulties and Constraints Encountered in Implementation

Lack of mechanisation in agriculture and slow industrial expansion affecting economic growth do not create adequate job opportunities in science and technology related areas. The competition between males and females for the few such jobs favours males. Income generating activities cannot prosper in an economy that has stunted growth because buying power is inadequate to boost the activities.

Failure to articulate needs of women leaves out certain important aspects in the formulation of policies and strategies for women programmes. This, coupled with inadequate coordination of the various policies for a concentrated effort to effectively implement the various strategies, reduces the impact of the various projects. The Science and Technology Policy, which was produced in 1991, has not been implemented to date and many people do not know that it exists.

Shortage of science, technical and vocational teachers and the use of inadequately trained teachers affects the performance of students.

Large classes, resulting from increased enrolment versus slow expansion of facilities, and long syllabuses, against the need to finish them for examinations, are some of the problems that make the teaching and learning of science difficult. Girls find learning more difficult.

Inadequately trained in career guidance and counselling fail to spot talents and give proper advice for students to excel in their areas of strength.

SCIENCE INFORMATION

While at the primary level, there is some form of integrated subject, specialisation comes at secondary level, especially senior secondary. Science subjects at secondary level are: Agriculture, Biology, Physical Science (Physics and Chemistry), and General Science (Biology Physical Science). (See Annex I). One can choose to take Physical Science and Biology as separate subjects of General Science. Since Mathematics facilitate the scientific and technological activity they are in certain cases lamped together with sciences in this paper.

Health and environmental issues have not been articulated. The planned review of the curriculum is intended to, among other things, address these issues.

The teaching of skills are stressed in the syllabuses but examination-oriented and teacher-centered learning resulting from long syllabuses and inadequate equipment and materials, hamper the development of critical and logical thinking and problem solving skills. Values are taught across the curriculum.

Science teaching is done by those who were trained at Diploma and Degree levels to teach it. For those who have Bachelor of Social Science, Engineering and Technical Education degrees but were not trained as Science teachers a one-year University teaching certificate course has been offered, and some have benefited from the Malawi Mathematics and Sciences Teaching Improvement Project which started in 1990 (Fabiano, 1992). Some are still not trained as teachers but are teaching science, especially in private schools.

ABBREVIATIONS

ATTIGA

Appropriate Technology Training Unit for Income Generating Activities

CCAM

Chitukuko Cha Amayi M'Malawi

DEVPOL

Development Policy Statement (1987-1996)

GAC

Girls Appropriate Curriculum

GOM

Government of Malawi

GTZ

German Technical Cooperation

IDA

International Development Agency

MAMSTIP

Malawi Mathematics and Sciences Teaching Improvement Project

MANEB

Malawi National Examinations Board

MIE

Malawi Institute of Education

MSCE

Malawi School Certificate of Education

NCWID

National Commission for Women in Development

ODA

Oversease Development Administration

PSLC

Primary School Leaving Certificate

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNESCO

United Nations for Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation

UNICEF

United Nations Children's Fund

USAID

United Nations Agency for International Development

Data on girls attainment Grades 1 and Distinction, Grades 3 to 6 Credit, Grades 7 and 8 pass, and 9 is a failing grade

TABLE 5 (a)
Comparative statistics of grades by subject, the average for examination years 1989 to 1996 -
Female internal


Average

Grades and average pass rates

Subject

Entry

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Agriculture

2153

14.01

20.5

25.0

17.8

12.3

6.5

2.5

0.98

0.11

Biology

3004

42.1

25.0

18.0

7.3

4.09

2.2

0.8

0.3

0.005

Physical science

2097

52.8

18.0

12.5

6.6

4.09

2.7

1.38

1.26

0.38

Mathematics

3003

62.9

12.6

8.9

6.2

3.8

2.5

1.46

1.06

0.27

Source: Malawi National Examinations Board (MANEB) (Raw Data)

TABLE 5 (b)
Comparative statistics of grades by subject for examination years 1993, 1995 and 1996 - Female Internal candidates (the only years females attempted technical subjects)


Candidates

Grades and pass dates

Subjects

Year

Entry

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Woodwork

1993

2

50.000

0.0

50.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Metal work

1993

1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

100.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Technical drawing

1995

3

33.3

33.3

33.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0


1996

3

33.3

33.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

33.3

0.0

Source: MANEB

ANNEXES

ANNEX I.
DIAGRAM REPRESENTING SCIENCE EDUCATION CURRICULUM

SECONDARY SCIENCE
MALAWI SCHOOL CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATION (MSCE)

TOPICS

TOPICS

TOPICS

Food & Energy, Soils, Nutrition in Plants &animals, Circulation &Transportin Mammals, Respiration and Excretion, Locomotion, Response Growth and Reproduction and Genetics and Genetic & Evolution, Living things& Environment, Populations Micro organisms Man & Diseases

Graphics, Scalar & Vector Quantities, Electricity, Vibrations & Waves, Optics, Coulour & spectra

Organic Chemistry, Electrolysis, Electrons Transfer Reactions, Mole and Malarity Solids, Liquids & Gases, Elements & Compounds Atomic structure & periodic Table


PHYSICS

CHEMISTRY

BIOLOGY

SCIENCES PHYSIQUES

GENERAL SCIENCE

PRIMARY SCIENCE AND HEALTH EDUCATION
PRIMARY SCHOOL LEAVING CERTIFICATE (PSLC)

Vertebrates, Invertebrates, Common Diseases, the Skeletal System, the muscular System, the Blood System, Bleeding, Animal bites, Dislocation, Fractures, Properties of Heat & Light, Poisoning, Blood Transfusion Machines, the Sense Organs, Substances, Body Wastes, Sources & Uses of Energy, Cuts Abrasions & bruises, Burns, foreign bodies, diseases of the eye, common accidents, scabies & Ring Worms, Food Beliefs and Taboos, Food and Nutrition, The Brain and Sense organs, Growth & Development in Animals and Plants, The Breathing System, Tooth Structure and decay, Choking, Typhoid, Suffocation, Drowning, expansion & Contraction of Solids, Change of Shape in Solids, Sexual transmitted Diseases, Immunization, Sprains & Strains, Properties of sounds, Interdependence of Living things, Human Population, Food Supply, Storages & Preservation, Health Services, Shock & Faint, Mixtures, Electricity, Protecting the Environment, Convulsions, Liquid and Air-pressure, Population and use of energy.

ANNEX II (a)
PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE STUDENTS IN ALL UNIVERSITY COURSES IN 1986/87

COURSES

%F

Diploma/Degree in agriculture

13,0

Bachelor of science (ARTS)

11,4

Bachelor of sciences

16,3

Bachelor of social sciences

14,5

Diploma/Degree in Education (Home economics)

91,6

Diploma/Degree in Education (Humanities)

25,0

Diploma/Degree in Education (Science)

23,0

Diploma in Education (Primary Teaching)

17,8

Master of Education

41,7

University Certificate of Education

36,4

Diploma in Public Administration

12,3

Bachelor of Laws

4,4

Diploma/Degree in Business Studies

18,7

Diploma/Degree Engineering

15,00

Diploma in management Studies

0

Bachelor of science (Technical Education)

0

Diploma in Public health

0

Diploma in nursing

87,0

Certificate in Midwifery

100,0

Average

27,8

ANNEX II (b).
PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE STUDENTS IN ALL POLYTECHNIC COURSES INCLUDING TECHNICIAN

Year

Diploma/Degree % F

Technician % F

1986/87

6,7

1,2

1990/91

8,6

11,14

1995/96

9,4

8,8

Average

8,4

7,0

Source: Chipfya, 1992 et Polytechnic List of Names, 1995/96 (Raw Data)

ANNEX II (c).
PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE STUDENTS IN BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (SCIENCE) AT CHANCELLOR COLLEGE FOR 1992 AND 1995

Year

1992

1995

1st

15,2

8,1

2nd

8,2

29,8

3rd

25,8

18,6

4th

20,0

22,0

Average

17,3

19,3

Source: Chancellor College Registry (Raw Data)

ANNEX II (d).
PERCENTAGE FEMALE ENROLMENT IN DIPLOMA/DEGREE AGRICULTURE AT BUNDA COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE

YEAR

1990/91

1992/93

1994/95

15,4

18,0

21,4

Source: Basic education statistics - GOM

ANNEX II (e).
PERCENTAGE OF FEMALES AWARDED DIPLOMAS AT DOMASI COLLEGE OF EDUCATION IN 1996 AND THOSE TO GRADUATE IN 1997

SUBJECTS

1996

1997

Physical Science

13,1

7,4

Biology

16,6

0,0

Mathematics

18,2

7,6

Source: Domasi College - Principal' office (Raw Data)

ANNEX II (f).
PERCENTAGE FEMALE ENROLMENT IN ALL TECHNICAL SCHOOL/COLLEGES UNDER MINISTRY OF LABOUR

YEAR

TOTAL

MALE

FEMALE

% FEMALE

1989

389

372

17

4,3

1990

446

418

28

6,3

1991

348

333

15

4,3

1992

436

419

17

3,9

1993

208

199

9

4,3

Average




4,6

Source: Ministry of Labour

ANNEX III.
PERCENTAGE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL FEMALE TEACHER

Year

%F

Number of schools

1990/91

40,7

71

1995/96

38,4

54

Source: Ministry of Education

ANNEX IV.
SPECIALISTS WORKING IN THE FIELD OF INTEGRATED PRIMARY SCIENCE AND HEALTH EDUCATION

NAME

POSITION

- M. Harold F Gonthi

Principal Curriculum Specialist (MIE)

- M. Alson S Mhlanga

Senior Curriculum Specialist (MIE)

- M. WK Makulumiza Nkhoma

Curriculum Specialist (MIEC)