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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1982, 685 p.)
close this folderPhase IV: Solar water heaters
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPhase IV Calendar
View the documentSession 1. The role of the volunteer in development: international development part 2: the green revolution: successes and failures
View the documentSession 2. Introduction to solar water heaters
View the documentSession 3. Assessing community water needs and uses
View the documentSession 4. Introduction to solar water heating: determining hot water demand
View the documentSession 5. Plumbing a solar water heater
View the documentSession 6. Sizing a solar water heater
View the documentSession 7. Demonstrating a technical concept
View the documentSession 8. Shade mapping and solar siting
View the documentSession 9. Design of solar water heaters.
View the documentSession 10. Construction of solar water heaters
View the documentSession 11. Multi-media standard first aid
View the documentSession 12. Wind technology
View the documentSession 13. Volunteer in development part 2: women in development
View the documentSession 14. House design in four climates
View the documentSession 15. Presentation of solar water heaters

Session 12. Wind technology

Total time:

2 hours

Objectives:

* To describe the characteristics of a good wind site


* To identify several types of wind machines and their major uses


* To discuss advantages and disadvantages of locally-designed and built wind machines

Resources:

* Attachment IV-12-A, "Good and Bad Sites for Wind Machines"


* Attachment IV-12-B, "Dempster Typical Windmill Installation"


* Attachment IV-12-C, "Wincharger 12 Volt Wind Electric Battery Charger"


* Attachment IV-12-D, "Savonious Rotors and Other Wind Machines"


* Attachment IV-12-E, "Wind Power Formula"


* Barnhart and Hirschberg, The New Alchemy Sailwing


* Moore, Pradera Windmill


* VITA, "Horizontal Axis Sail Rotor Windmills"

Materials:

Newsprint, felt-tip pens, notebooks, pens and pencils

Trainer Notes

There are direct uses of solar energy, such as solar water and space heating. But there are also indirect uses of solar energy, such as water and wind power. This session serves to introduce participants to one of these indirect uses of solar energy.

This session is included in response to what has been a continually expressed felt need on the part of previous program participants, i.e., to understand wind technology as an example of indirect solar energy.

This is intended as an optional session which can be used as a format for the discussion of other indirect applications of ! solar energy. (For example, hydraulic rams, micro-hydroelectric power, solar stills, solar cookers, biogas production, cookstoves, etc.) The choice of the session theme should be a response to participant's needs and/or in-country programming needs.

The "Discussion Questions" (See Step 2) should be modified to reflect the chosen theme. They should be written out on newsprint prior to beginning the session.

Step 1. (5 minutes)
Present the objectives and describe the session activities.

Step 2. (15 minutes)
Post, review and clarify the "Wind Technology Discussion Questions."

Trainer Notes

Post, on newsprint, the following questions, leaving space between each question for filling in responses (See Step 3):

Wind Technology Discussion Questions

1. What are some characteristics of a good wind site?

2. What are some types or styles of wind machines?

a. Mass-produced
b. Locally-made

3. What are some potential applications of wind machines?

4. What are some advantages and disadvantages of locallydesigned and -built wind pumps versus imported U.S. multi-blade wind pumps (i.e., in Africa)?

5. How does P = V³ d² relate wind machine power to wind velocity and blade diameter?

Remember to leave ample space between each question for filling in the responses.

Step 3. (20 minutes)
Have participants form groups of 3 to 5 people and develop responses to the "Discussion Questions."

Trainer Notes

* Ask that one member of each small group copy the questions and record the group's responses.

* You should circulate among the groups to see if they need any help.

Step 4. (40 minutes)
Reconvene the groups and encourage a discussion of their responses.

Trainer Notes

* As the responses are being discussed, you should note appropriate answers to the questions in the space under each question on the posted newsprint.

* Be sure that all participants understand the answers to each question.

* Ask those participants who understand the concepts being discussed to assist those who are having more difficulty.

Step 5. (30 minutes)
Distribute and explain the attachments and other available wind technology resources (See "Resources").

Step 6. (10 minutes)
Conclude the session by reviewing the objectives and checking to see if they were met.


GOOD AND BAD SITES FOR WIND MACHINES

TYPICAL WINDMILL INSTALLATION


Dempmester


Pump


Close top pump


Open top


Windmil

GET MAXIMUM POWER FROM THE FREE WIND WITH A HEAVY DUTY 12 VOLT


FIG 1


FIG 2

MODEL NO.1222 H WIND ELECTRIC BATTERY CHARGER


FIG 3


FIG 4

STARTS CHARGING IN 7 MILE AN HOUR BREEZE

The ideal source of electrical power for remote applications where a limited amount of 12V electricity is required. The Wincharger 12V Heavy Duty Wind Oriven Plant requires a minimum amount of maintenance and gives years of trouble free service. The Wincharger starts charging in 7 mile breeze and reaches its maximum charge at 14 amperes is a wind velocity of 23 miles per hour.

6 FOOT PROPELLER

Built on the famous Albars Air-Foil principis. Machine made ... perfectly balanced. Cooper armored leading edges. Protected by three coats of wather-proof varnish.

200 WATT GENERATOR

Bearings grease sesied. 7(½) frame diameter.

ENCLOSED COLLECTOR RING

Provides complets protection against dust, frost and kea. Equipped with double carbon brashes.

NO RADIO INTERFFERENCE

Cardaasars is generator and special grosadiag spring taside generator allmisats radio interference.

STRONG WINCHARGER TOWER

Model 1222H mounts on sturdy 10 foot 4 leg angis iran tower. Rigidry braced ... invest costrac then fastured. All parts fit perfectly in make erection simnle.

HEAVY DUTY 12 VOLT MODEL NO. 1222H WIND ELECTRIC

LARGE. STURDY GENERATOR

Wincharger's heavy duty 4 Pole 7(½) diameter generators are built for long life and low maintenance Ball bearings are permanentally sealed.


Generator

INSULATED INSTRUMENT PANEL

Completely wired. Connections-marked for easy installation. Reverse current device. Ammeter shows amount of charge or discharge Voltage regulator not available.


Instrument panel

PATENTED AIR-BRAKE GOVERNOR

Operates by centrifugal force. When wind velocity exceeds 23 miles per hour governor flaps automatically open and spread wins away from propeller (See illustration). Governor also acts as a fly wheel to maintain even propeller speed and eliminate vibration in gusty wind.

Tower can be mounted on pitched roof on a mounted platform, or on any flat surface of any height.


Governor

Optional Voltage Available at extra cost
24 volt, 28 volt, 32 volt and 36 volt

CHARGING RATES:

Revolutions Per Minutes

Amperes

270

0

350

2(½)

440

6

570

10

700

12

900

14

WINCHARGER STANDARD EQUIPMENT INCLUDES:

* INSULATED INSTRUMENT PANEL
* 6 FOOT PROPELLER
* 200 WATT GENERATOR
* ENCLOSED COLLECTOR RING
* AIR BRAKE GOVERNOR
* 10 FOOT WINCHARGER TOWER

SPECIFICATIONS

Tower

10 Feet High

Propeller

Type

2 Blade


Size

6 Feet


Material

Wood

Gear Ratio

Direct

Generator

7(½)" Diameter 4 Pole

Capacity (Watts)

200

Approximate Maximum Amps.

14

Approximate Maximum Volts

15

Generator Speed Range (RPM)*

270/900

Governor Type

22" Air-Brake

WEIGHTS

Not

Domestic Shipping

Export Shipping

Vol. Cu. Ft.

Generator and Parts

61 Lbs.

67 Lbs.

53 Lbs.

1.7

rower and Propeller

70 Lbs.

74 Lbs.

103 Lbs.

3.0

Governor Assembly

3 Lbs.

4 Lbs.

7 Lbs.

.4

Propeller Speed Range (RPM)*

270/900

Wind Speed Range (MPH)*

7/23

Voltage Regulator

Not Available

Average Usable KWH per month

10 MPH Average

20

12 MPH Average

26

14 MPH Average

30

Size Battery Recommended (Batery not included)

230 A.H.

No. Battery Cells

6

Volts per Cell (When fully charged**)

2.5

* Wind and Propeller and Generator speed rangers as given indicate first the speed is required a begin charging the battery and then the speed required for the generator to begin operation. For example: On Model 1222 the propeller begins charging the battery at 260 RPM wich corresponds to a generator speed of 260 RPM and a wind speed of 7 MPH. Coverning speed is reached at 700 RTM, which corresponds to a generator speed of 70 RPM and a wind of 23 MPH.

**Fac lead, acid batteries only.

SAVINIOUS ROTORS AND OTHER WIND MACHINES


Wind


Single tier savonious


Graphic


NUMBER OF VANES


ASPECT RATIO


VANE FORM


Thai jib-sail rotor


Darieus rotor


Three iered Savonius rotor


Gyro rotor blade modulation


Gyro rotor

WIND MACHINE POWER FORMULA AND SITING

P = V³ d²

Where:

P = Power available from the wind generator


V = Velocity or speed of the wind


d = Diameter of the propeller