|GATE - 1/82 - Appropriate Technology - by whom? for whom? and how? (GTZ GATE, 1982, 36 p.)|
"Oh, come off it! Without all that, you'd still be using your old tin bowl instead of a modern non-stick frying pan!"
Drawing: Jupp Wolter
Resources for Military Purposes
Expenditures: In 1980, world military expenditure was as much as $ 500,000 million or approximately 6 per cent of world output... These expenditures are nearly 19 times as large as all the official development assistance provided by the OECD countries to poorer countries. On a smaller scale, it has been pointed out that the World Health Organization spent 10 years and somewhat less than $ 100 million to eradicate smallpox, while, over the same 10 years, one country spent considerably more than that merely to develop a more advanced version of a small air-to-air missile.
Labour: It has been estimated that 100 million people are affected, directly or indirectly, by the $ 500 billion that the world devotes to military preparations... It can simply be noted, world wide, an estimated 500,000 scientists and engineers are engaged in research and development for military purposes.
Industrial Production: The military demand for industrial goods is unquestionable significant: in our estimation the present size of this market is at least $ 127,000 million.
Raw materials: It can be pointed out that, in the case of aluminium, copper, nickel and platinum, estimated global consumption for military purposes is greater than the demand for these materials for all purposes in Africa, Asia (including China) and Latin America combined... Petroleum is much more important for the military sector than for the economy as a whole... Including indirect consumption, that is including petroleum consumed in the production of military goods and services, this has been estimated at 5 to 6 per cent of total consumption.
Land: Despite its small relative demand (less than half of one per cent of the total and perhaps as low as one third of one per cent), the military can and often does compete directly with civilian demands by the urban, industrial, agricultural, recreational sectors or based on environmental concerns.
Research and development: Global expenditures in military research and development in 1980 were of the approximate order of $ 35,000 million or approximately one quarter of the estimated $ 150,000 million expended for all research and development.
From: "Development and international economic co-operation - study on the relationship between disarmament and development", a report of the Secretary General of the United Nations; published in New York, 5 October 1981 (A/36/356).