|Case Studies of People's Participation in Watershed Management in Asia (PWMTA, 1996)|
This field document is a part of a series of publications of the Participatory Watershed Management Training in Asia (PWMTA) Program of the Netherlands/FAO (UN), GCP/RAS/161/NET and the Farmer-Centred Agriculture Resource Management Program of the UNDP/FAO, RAS/93/062. The earlier WMTUH sub-program, RAS/93/063 fully merged into the retuned FARM program, RAS/93/062, in April, 1996. At the very onset of the watershed management thrust area (earlier called sub-program RAS/93/063) of the FARM program, it was realized that by now some successful cases of people's participation in watershed management have started emerging in Asia. Hence, in Nov. 1994, the focal points of this area agreed to try to locate such cases in their respective countries. The UNDP/FAO, RAS/93/063 commissioned these studies in the beginning of 1995. Three of the studies i.e. for Nepal, China and India (sponsored by the PCSD/FARM, RAS/93/067 and included here with their permission) are presented here. The case studies from Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam have been published as Part II of this series (Field Document No. 5). The authors have analysed them in their national contexts. The three case studies presented in this publication are distinctly different. In the case study from Nepal, the government agency has been assisted by an international organization in its funding and execution. The China case is a fully national effort, hence is a complete reflection of national policies and programs mainly after the reforms were instituted in 1982. The India case is a case of Gandhian approach to watershed management by a village level farmers' organization led by a highly dedicated and motivated local leader. Thus, the three case studies cover a very broad spectrum of approaches to people's participation ranging from international assistance to government (Nepal), national efforts (China) to completely farmer driven local efforts by Gandhian approach (India). In Oct., 1996, a regional workshop of the PWMTA, GCP/RAS/161/NET, was held to analyse all these case studies. The outcome of this analysis has been published in June, 1997 as Field Document No. 7, "Participatory Processes for Integrated Watershed Management".
I thank the authors of these studies for their efforts. It is hoped that soon the design of the national WM programs will emphasise on the mechanisms of people's participation such as highlighted by these case studies. In selecting the cases as well as in conducting these studies, the national watershed management focal points of Nepal and China assisted the authors for which they are highly appreciated. Special thanks are to the PCSD/FARM, RAS/93/067, and Dr. B. Mishra for permitting their India study to be reproduced here. The third edition of this document is being printed to meet the contineously growing demand as the 1,500 copies of first edition as well as 1,000 copies of the second edition exhausted by June, 1997. Your comments on this edition are welcome.
Prem N. Sharma
Regional Coordinator/Chief Technical Advisor & Senior Natural Resources Management Advisor (WM) PWMTA-FARM, FAO (UN), Kathmandu, Nepal