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close this bookNitrogen Fixing Trees Highlights (Winrock, 1990-1997, 100 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcacia koa - Hawaii's most valued native tree
View the documentAcacia leucophloea - shade and fodder for livestock in arid environments
View the documentAlnus acuminata: valuable timber tree for tropical highlands
View the documentAlbizia saman: pasture improvement, shade, timber and more
View the documentCasuarina junghuhniana: a highly adaptable tropical casuarina
View the documentEnterolobium cyclocarpum: the ear pod tree for fasture, fodder and wood
View the documentErythrina variegata: more than a pretty tree
View the documentInga edulis: a tree for acid soils in the humid tropics
View the documentPithecellobium dulce - sweet and thorny
View the documentPterocarpus indicus - the majestic n-fixing tree
View the documentRobinia pseudoacacia: temperate legume tree with worldwide potential
View the documentAcacia nilotica - pioneer for dry lands
View the documentAcacia saligna - for dryland fodder and soil stabilization
View the documentAcacia senegal: gum tree with promise for agroforestry
View the documentAcacia seyal - multipurpose tree of the Sahara desert
View the documentAcacia tortilis: fodder tree for desert sands
View the documentAlnus nepalensis: a multipurpose tree for the tropical highlands
View the documentCasuarina equisetifolia: an old-timer with a new future
View the documentCasuarina glauca: a hardy tree with many attributes
View the documentChamaecytisus palmensis: hardy, productive fodder shrub
View the documentDalbergia latifolia: the high-valued Indian rosewood
View the documentDalbergia melanoxylon: valuable wood from a neglected tree
View the documentErythrina edulis: multipurpose tree for the tropical highlands
View the documentErythrina sandwicensis - unique Hawaiian NFT
View the documentHippophaƫ rhamnoides: an NFT valued for centuries
View the documentLeucaena diversifolia - fast growing highland NFT species
View the documentLeucaena: an important multipurpose tree
View the documentOlneya tesota - a potential food crop for hot arid zones
View the documentHoney mesquite: a multipurpose tree for arid lands
View the documentPongamia pinnata - a nitrogen fixing tree for oilseed
View the documentGuazuma ulmifolia: widely adapted tree for fodder and moreli
View the documentFaidherbia albida - inverted phenology supports dryzone agroforestry
View the documentGleditsia triacanthos - honeylocust, widely adapted temperate zone fodder tree
View the documentAndira inermis: more than a beautiful ornamental tree
View the documentErythrina poeppigiana: shade tree gains new perspectives
View the documentAlbizia procera - white siris for reforestation and agroforestry
View the documentAlbizia odoratissima - tea shade tree
View the documentAdenanthera pavonina: an underutlized tree of the humid tropics
View the documentAcacia mangium: an important multipurpose tree for the tropic lowlands
View the documentAcacia auiculiformis - a multipurpose tropical wattle
View the documentPentaclethra microphylla: a multipurpose tree from Africa lwith potential for agroforestry in the tropics
View the documentMyroxylon balsam and much more
View the documentOugeinia dalbergioides: a multipurpose tree for sub-tropical and tropical mountain regions
View the documentProsopis alba and prosopis chilensis: subtropical semiarid fuel and fodder trees
View the documentSesbania sesban: widely distributed multipurpose NFT
View the documentProsopis cineraria: a multipurpose tree for arid areas
View the documentJuliflorae acacias: new food source for the sahel
View the documentSesbania grandiflora: NFT for beauty, food, fodder and soil improvement
View the documentAcacia aneura - a desert fodder tree

Casuarina equisetifolia: an old-timer with a new future

Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. & Forst. (syn. C litorea L), is the most widespread ant well-known member of the family Casuarinaceae, ant has many names: casuarina, ironwood, coast she-oak, horsetail, Australian pine, whistling pine, beefwood, agoho (Philippines), ru (Malaysia), filao (Vietnam, West Africa, West lndies) ant nokonoko (Fiji). All the casuarinas are nitrogen-fixing. Casuarinas support an actinorhiza symbiont in their root nodules, as opposes to the rhizabium symbiont found in the root nodules of leguminous trees that fix N2.

C equisetifolia has two variants. C equisetifolia var. incana is a small (6-10 m) tree that grows exclusively alone the coast of Queensland and northern New South Wales. Var. equisetifolia is a tall (10-40 m) tree fount on seacoasts from Malaysia to subtropical Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, the Philippines ant Polynesia.


Like other Casuarinaceae, C equisetifolia has a conifer-like appearance which is increased by hanging green branchlets ant cone-iike fruits. Casuarinas are actually typical angiosperms with simplified and reduces unisexual flowers. They are dioecious or monoecious, the proportion of male, female and monoecious trees varying widely from one site to another. The stem of Casuarinaceae is composed of two parts indeterminate persistent branches which after secondary thickening, form the permanent above-growt plant body; ant determinate deciduous branchlets (incorrectly called cladodes), about 15-25 mm in diameter. These branchlets are the major photosynthetic organs of the plant (Torrey ant Berg 1988). The leaves are reduced to white or brown scales fuses laterally at the base in whorls that define notes on the branchlets.

Individual plants have striking phenotypic variations in the crown shape, branch angle, length of branchlets ant size ant shape of cones C equisetifolia is known to hybridize with other casuarinas, such as C junghuhniana and C glauca..


Casuarina cquisetifolia is intolerant of frost. Var. incana thrives in the warm subhumid zone while var. equisetifolia is a heat-loving plant of the hot subhumid zone. Although C equisetifolia is generally a lowland tree, it grows at altitudes up to about 600 m in Hawaii.

Casuarina equisetifolia structures including 1) photosynthetic green branchlets, 2) fruit,, 3) female flower, 4) seed and 5) male flower.

C equisetifolia tolerates a wide range of moisture availability. C equisetifolia grows best along the coast, where sea spray supplements moisture from the water table in arid ant semiarid climates with average annual rainfall <300 mm. C equisetifolia's N2-fixing ability seems to depend wholly on the availability of adequate soil moisture.

C equisetifolia tolerates both calcareous ant slightly alkaline soils, but withstands salinity less well than C glauca and C obesa. It thrives in sandy soils ant grows poorly on clay soils, with some exceptions. It cannot stand to be waterlogget long.


The wood of C equisetifolia is dark brown, very hart (density 1000 kg/m3), ant resistant to decomposition in soil or saltwater. It is often used as round wood for making piles, poles and fences, but splits too severely during drying to be popular as lumber; although in areas with acute wood shortages, such as southeastern China, C equsetifolia is used for house beams ant simple furniture (Midgley et al. 1983).

Because of its high calorific value (ca. 5000 kcal/kg), C. equisetifolia wood is an excellent source of fuel and charcoal. People in China and India use stumps and even litter for fuel. use which also draws heavily on soil phosphorus and potassium reserves.

Because of its resistance to salt-laden winds. C equisetifolia is widely used to stabiles coastal sand dunes. It is also extensively planted as windbreaks to protect crops. In some tropical lowland agroforestry systems it is associated with crops such as coffee, cashew nut, coconut, groundnut, sesame and various grain legumes.

C. equisetifolia and its hybrids are often used as ornamental plants for urban beautification, parks and seaside resorts. There is also potential for incorporating C. equisetifolia into mixed-species tree plantations.


Root nodules are prolific on C. equisetifolia when they occur. Effective strains of Frankia are now available to inoculate C. equisetifolia on sites where the same Frankia-compatible group of trees (in principle any species of the Casuarina genus) have not been previously planted.

When there are no limiting factors, the response to inoculation is spectacular. Inoculation with Frankia entrapped in alginate beads is the most convenient system (Sougoufara et se. 1989). Inoculation with crushed nodules, which is sometimes practiced, should be discouraged because of the risk of introducing nonnodulating or poorly effective strains and disseminating soil-borne pathogens like Pseudomonas solanacearurn, a bacterium that causes casuarina wilt. Prolonged waterlogging inhibits nodule development.

As in other actinorhizal plants, spontaneous endomycorrhizal (YAM) infection occurs easily in C equisetifolia True ectomycorrhizae have, however, been seldom reported, except in certain coastal areas of northern Australia where a wide range of fungi are involved (Paul Reddell, pers. comm.). Proteoid roots have also been observed on their root systems. These are unique structures made of tightly packed rows of rootless which may increase the ability of the host plant to absorb nutrients and thereby better tolerate nutrient deficient soils.


Ripe green cones are collected from branches lopped from mature trees and dried in the sun. One kg of green cones yields 20-60 g of seeds. There are 300,000-700,000 cleaned seeds/kg. The seeds have a relatively low viability of 80-90% for fresh seeds and 3040% for seeds after 3 years storage. Germination is usually complete within 2 weeks after planting.

At 6-10 weeks the 10-15 cm high seedlings are transplanted into containers where they are grown for 5-8 months to a height of 50-70 cm, at which time they are transplanted to the field. Another procedure is to transplant the 10-15 cm seedlings in a new bed at a 10 x 10 cm spacing to obtain plants ready to be planted bare rooted in the field. Cuttings and microcuttings can be used when working with clones.

C. equisetifolia does not sucker as vigorously as C. glauca. Plantation planting density is usually around 2,000 plants/ha but private farmers can plant up to 8,000 to 10,000 trees/ha (Midgley et al. 1983).

C. equisetifolia can be improved by exploiting the large phenotypic variation of its populations. There are essentially two approaches to increase both wood production and N2-fixation potential: conventional plant breeding and screening of elite individuals followed by vegetative propagation.

The N2-fixing potential of C equisetifolia can be greatly enhanced through the use of selected clones inoculated with effective Frankia strains. Clone beta of C equisetifolia inoculated with strain ORS021001 and irrigated throughout the dry season in Senegal, fixed 45 g N2/yr/tree during the two first years of growth (Dommergues. unpublished data). Extrapolating this result gives a figure of 90 kg of N2 fixed annually/ha at a planting density of 2,000 trees/ha.


Compared to some of the other casuarinas, C equisetifolia is relatively short-lived, surviving only 40-50 years. Its growth is rapid during the first 7 years (15-25 m/yr), then gradually declines. In general, the volume yield reaches a maximum at age 15-20 years (7-10 m /ha yr-1). The yield could probably be greatly increased by using selected clones and applying proper management practices, including irrigation and inoculation with effective Frankia strains. C. equisetifolia plantations are generally managed on a rotation of 7-15 years.


C equisetifolia is not prone to any serious pest and diseases, except when grown in unfavorable conditions. Pests that attack the tree include crickets and grasshoppers (Chondracis rosea, Schistocerca gregaria), defoliators (Lymantria xylina), stem borers (spate monachus) and sap feeders (Icerya spp.). The major root diseases are caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum, Trichosporium vesiculorum and Rhizoctonia spp.


Midgley, S.J., J.W. Turnbull and R.D. Johnston (eds). 1983. Casuarina Ecology, Management and
Utilization. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Sougoufara, B., H.G. Diem and Y.R. Dommergues. 1989. Response of field-grown Casuarina equisetifolia to inoculation with Frankia strain ORS021001 entrapped in alginate beads. Plant and Soil 118:133-137.

Torrey, J.G. and R.H. Berg. 1988. Some morphological features for generic characterization among the Casuarinaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 75:864-874.

NFTA 91-05 July 1991