|Abstracts on Sustainable Agriculture (GTZ, 1992, 423 p.)|
|Abstracts on farming systems research and development|
ISNAR LINKAGES Theme Paper No. 1; Int. Service for Nat. Agric. Research, The Hague, Netherlands; 1989, 28 pp. + references
This paper synthesizes the contributions of seven papers commissioned by ISNAR as part of an international project to study the links between agricultural research and technology transfer.
In particular, the paper addresses four basic questions:
- What linkage mechanisms exist and what are their characteristics?
- What contextual factors influence which linkage mechanisms are appropriate to use and how?
- Which of these contextual factors can be controlled or influenced by policy makers and leaders of research and technology transfer institutions?
- What limitations do contextual factors impose upon the use of linkage mechanisms?
ISNAR initiated a major international comparative study on the links between agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries. This study was developed in response to requests from agricultural research managers for advice in this area.
Many institutions have noted the problem of poor links between research and technology transfer in developing countries.
This framework is the subject of this paper, and represents the first phase of the ISNAR study. It is the result of 18 months spent synthesizing the experts' contributions and reviewing the available literature.
This framework should help leaders of research systems find out what paths exist and where they lead. The specific routes to guaranteed improved performance are not yet known, but this paper gives some indications of their general direction. It opens with an elaboration of the key concepts of the framework, and then discusses the criteria for evaluating performance. This is followed by analyses of the political, technical and organizational factors which affect linkage mechanisms in the development and transfer of agricultural technology.
Experience has shown, however, that it is impossible to come up with a set of general recommendations which would be appropriate in all circumstances. Solutions which work well in one context perform poorly in others.
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Farming systems research and development
Case studies, Africa, Asia, Latin America, on-farm research,
extension, linkage problem, sustainability, ISNAR