|APPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 1: Continuing Education: New Policies and Directions (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 115 p.)|
The overall stages is the implementation of a coherent system of continuing education in a particular country have been reviewed in Chapters 4 and 5. They involved (i) the integration of continuing education in the national socio-economic development plan; (ii) establishment of or strengthening an existing national body for co-ordinating continuing education programmes; (iii) setting up or upgrading an existing infrastructure for continuing education programmes; and (iv) establishment of a mechanism for administering the various types of continuing education programmes.
In Chapter 5 an infrastructure which coordinated activities at three levels (i) national (ii) provincial and (iii) local was advocated. It was noted that this corresponds to the three levels of personnel provided for under ATLP
Level A: Senior Administrators and Policy Makers [National level]
Level B: Provincial/District Supervisors; Trainers of Trainers
Level C: Trainers or presenters [Local level]
As in the case of basic literacy programmes a continuing education infrastructure requires clear management, coordination and evaluation policies at national level (level A). At provincial level (level B) it requires well organized networking, training and supervision and an effective and efficient system of administration. At local level (level C) there is need for effective institutions, agencies and individuals to actually provide direct continuing education opportunities and a system of supervisors and field consultants to monitor and upgrade all aspects of the programmes.
The precise administrative policies and responsibilities to be developed at each level would vary according to the types of continuing education programmes involved. For example, post-literacy programmes have specific purposes and approaches which are in marked contrast to programmes concerned with improvement in overall quality of life or in the promotion of individual interests for personal growth.
This chapter presents basic checklists of administrative policies and strategies for each of the six types of continuing education programmes as defined in Chapter I Section D.
B. Strategies for Post-Literacy Promotion Programmes (PLPs)
Post-Literacy Programmes aim to maintain and enhance basic literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills, giving individuals sufficient general basic work skills enabling them to function effectively in their societies.
Since post-literacy promotion programmes are concerned with maintaining and enhancing basic literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills so as to ensure social effectiveness they have many administrative features in common with basic literacy programmes as catered for by ATLP. They require a sensitive policy making system at level A; good literacy training, networking and supervisory systems at level B and effective literacy classes at level C. What is especially needed, however, is an upgrading of the skills of literacy personnel to enable them to deal with more sophisticated aspects of literacy such as advanced reading skills, creative writing and problem solving. The following box lists some of the administrative strategies and policies which should be promoted at national, provincial and local levels for these types of activities.
I. POST-LITERACY PROMOTION PROGRAMMES
1. Integrating post-literacy programmes with other development initiatives by strengthening linkages between agencies/organizations, both government and non-government, involved in social services and development programmes.
2. Reinforcing pre-literacy, literacy and post-literacy programmes as an expansion of the ATLP approach by providing varied modes and opportunities through multi-sectoral linkages.
3. Improving the internal efficiency of post-literacy programmes by instituting policy measures and development programmes geared towards the effective delivery of post-literacy promotion programmes at all levels.
4. Giving increased emphasis to the needs of special groups of learners, such as women, cultural sub-communities and the disabled, by providing post-literacy programmes suited to their needs.
5. Focusing on minimum essential learning needs for the meaningful and productive life of adults in terms of content (knowledge) and psychological processes (adult learning).
6. Developing a training plan for post-literacy teachers and supervisors.
7. Monitoring and evaluating post-literacy programmes at national level - especially the promotion of input studies in relation to national development policies.
1. Reflecting and implementing all aspects of national policy at provincial and local levels.
2. Training post-literacy teachers and supervisors including extension workers from various sectoral agencies to complement the work of school teachers and others from the formal educational sector.
3. Strengthening supportive programmes like mobile libraries and provision of rural newspapers, books and other development materials.
4. Enhancing/improving post-literacy training programmes and activities by:
4.1 Developing varied teaching-learning materials and methodologies appropriate to clientele needs.
4.2 Using non-traditional delivery modes e.g. correspondence programmes, distance learning, mass media, etc.
4.3 Integrating «learning», «working» and «living» at community level for an environment conducive to «whole of life» learning.
4.4 Utilizing local resources and relevant teaching aids.
5. Strengthening linkages between involved agencies at the provincial level.
6. Monitoring and evaluating provincial post-literacy programmes.
1. Ensuring the involvement of local people in planning, implementing and evaluating post-literacy programmes.
2. Utilizing local people as instructors or teachers in post-literacy programmes.
3. Assessing local resources.
4. Organizing post-literacy programmes at all appropriate local venues
5. Encouraging volunteerism at local level.
C. Strategies for Equivalency Programmes (EPs)
Equivalency Programmes are designed as alternative education programmes equivalent to existing formal general or vocational education.
Since Equivalency Programmes as part of continuing education provide alternative education equivalent to upper primary and above, they have many administrative features in common with both basic literacy programmes and with the formal educational system. From an administrative point of view a system of continuing education should ensure that there are sufficient numbers and types of educational agencies providing such programmes; that an equitable system of accreditation is developed and that appropriate records of certification are developed and maintained.
II. EQUIVALENCY PROGRAMMES
1. Defining the standard competencies for post-literacy appropriate for entry into defined grades of education.
2. Providing for certification of equivalent accreditation by appropriate bodies such as Academic Award Boards or selected universities and colleges.
3. Establishing a comprehensive system of locating, identifying, monitoring, evaluating and accrediting those post-literacy programmes which prepare for entry or transfer into specified levels of education.
4. Formulating guidelines for national policy on recognition of various alternative programmes and records.
1. Advocating equivalency programmes/and reflecting national policy at provincial level.
2. Preparing rules and regulations for equivalency.
3. Organizing the development and administration of equivalency tests.
4. Developing and administering a counselling and advisory service at provincial level based on a data bank.
1. Promoting equivalency programmes.
2. Organizing equivalency courses.
3. Developing a local advisory service on equivalency opportunities.
D. Strategies for Income Generating Programmes (IGPs)
Income-Generating Programmes help participants acquire or upgrade vocational skills and enable them to conduct income-generating activities. IGPs are those vocational continuing education programmes delivered in a variety of contexts and which are directed in particular towards those people who are currently not self-sufficient in a modern world, that is those persons at or below the poverty line.
Programmes for generating income are especially significant in rural areas, for women, and for unemployed youth. While vocational courses are well developed in most countries within technical colleges and polytechnics, formal education alone cannot meet the demand or cater for the variety of opportunities required by the community. Administratively, however, there are some points in common between policies and strategies developed in formal technical and vocational education and in income generating programmes within the context of continuing education. For example, both types of approach depend for success on careful market analysis.
III. INCOME GENERATING PROGRAMMES
1. Examining national policies for agriculture, trade and industry, tourism etc. present and prospective - to identify labour requirements.
2. Surveying the labour market situation; levels of manpower skills; per cent of population joining labour market; labour demand; existing resources and resource potential; existing agencies offering IGPs.
3. Analyzing the national Human Resource Development Plan (HRD) to identify needs and gaps.
4. Promoting awareness programmes to build favourable attitudes towards national policy.
5. Promoting guidelines for the development of curriculum and teaching/learning materials for IGPs.
6. Developing guidelines for staff development e.g. training in needs assessment, curriculum development, and so on.
7. Developing guidelines for vocational guidance and counselling.
8. Developing guidelines for co-ordination and networking.
9. Monitoring and evaluating all aspects of the programme, including guidelines for evaluation of IGPs in line with the HRD Plan.
10. Developing guidelines for marketing IGP products.
11. Creating or utilizing an existing National Implementing Co-ordinating Body/Committee.
12. Establishing a mechanism for mobilising resources - financial and human - for IGPs.
13. Utilizing mass media for the delivery of IGPs.
14. Developing guidelines for the development of R & D for IGPs.
1. Interpreting and adapting all national policies and strategies in the context of provincial situations and needs.
2. Establishing a provincial implementing and co-ordinating body/committee.
3. Training IGP/CE personnel.
4. Providing support to institutions implementing IGPs.
5. Advocating expansion of IGPs.
6. Involving NGOs/Private sector in IGP activities.
1. Establishing a mechanism to ensure local peoples involvement in planning, implementing and evaluating community programmes and activities.
2. Promoting guidance and counselling services, especially on vocational and marketing issues.
3. Encouraging local participation in the programme with emphasis on disadvantaged groups.
4. Devising local marketing strategies.
5. Assessing local needs, wants and resources in regard to training and marketing.
6. Devising programmes and learning materials to suit local needs and situations.
7. Utilizing local experts as teachers, especially those representing successful income generating activities.
8. Encouraging volunteerism.
9. Establishing linkages between local income-generating activities.
E. Strategies for Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs)
Quality of Life Improvement Programmes aim to equip learners and the community with that essential knowledge, attitudes, values and skills to enable them to improve quality of life as individuals and as members of the community.
In Quality of Life Improvement Programmes the emphasis tends to be broader and more all encompassing than some other types of continuing education. This is because, by definition, such programmes aim to equip the community as a whole with essential knowledge attitudes and skills which are universally required for adequate functioning in society and which foster essential improvement in life styles and living standards. The programmes are thus universal in target and comprehensive in terms of basic social functionality. Administratively, therefore, the main aim is to mobilize all relevant agencies, instrumentalities and resources which will ensure that all citizens have access to these types of activities.
IV. QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES
1. Specifying QLIP indicators at family level for all citizens.
2. Identifying GOs and NGOs involved in activities related to QLIP and promoting co-ordination between them.
3. Identifying essential knowledge, attitudes, values and skills to promote QLIPs.
4. Formulating guidelines for planning and implementating relevant QLIPs for different target groups with special emphasis on women and other disadvantaged groups.
5. Identifying and assessing existing programmes addressing QLIP needs and concerns.
6. Designing a training plan for QLIP personnel.
7. Utilizing multi-media for advocacy and delivery of QLIP programmes
8. Devising a mechanisms for mobilizing resources, e.g. youth groups, business institutions, industry, and so on.
9. Monitoring and evaluating all phases of the programmes.
1. Adapting national strategies and plans to meet provincial needs and programme requirements.
2. Setting up or utilising existing institutional mechanisms.
3. Mobilizing NGOs and community organisations to offer QLIPs.
4. Selecting and training QLIP personnel.
5. Encouraging community involvement and volunteerism, including youth groups in QLIPs.
1. Encouraging and motivating clientele groups to participate in QLIPs.
2. Assessing local needs through a participatory processes.
3. Utilizing maximum local resources for QLIPs.
4. Devising programmes to meet local needs.
5. Establishing a mechanism to ensure local participation in programme planning, implementation and evaluation.
F. Strategies for Individual Interest Programmes (IIP)
Individual Interest Promotion Programmes provide opportunity for individuals to participate in and learn about their chosen social, cultural, spiritual, health, physical and artistic interests.
In contrast to Quality of Life Programmes which aim to establish a common base line of effective living for all citizens, individual interest activities within continuing education cater for each persons special concerns and personal objectives. They may be leisure time interests such as sports or hobbies; they may be related to cognitive growth, (study of a particular subject for example) or they may cater for social needs and so on. They promote personal growth in areas of specialized interest. The main thrust in the administration of such programmes is to encourage the provision of as wide a range of activities as possible reflecting the highly diverse interests of the community. Because many agencies may provide special interest activities an important administrative role is to make sure such agencies are known to potential clientele.
V. INDIVIDUAL INTEREST PROGRAMMES
1. Preparing and maintaining an inventory of agencies offering special interest CE programmes.
2. Disseminating information through mass media.
3. Encouraging creation of special interest groups and other self-initiated programmes and activities.
4. Providing technical support to GOs and NGOs involved in IIPs.
5. Publicizing benefits gained from participation in special interest CE programmes, e.g., case studies, testimonials and so on.
1. Adapting the national IIP plans and strategies to provincial and local needs.
2. Advocating participation in IIP.
3. Encouraging GOs and NGOs to undertake IIP.
4. Creating learning centres or utilizing existing infrastructures, especially formal school facilities, for IIP activities.
1. Creating a favorable conducive atmosphere for individuals to participate in activities in pursuit of their personal interests.
2. Developing advanced reading skills and inculcating a reading habit through provision of appropriate and well written reading materials relevant to the interests of individuals.
3. Making available national and provincial resources for local programmes.
4. Encouraging people to utilize leisure time constructively.
G. Strategies for Future Oriented Programmes (FOs)
Future Oriented Programmes give workers, professionals, regional and national community leaders, villagers, businessmen and planners new skill, knowledge and techniques to adapt themselves and their organizations to growing social and technological changes.
While all types of continuing education have national, societal or personal development aspects, some programmes are needed which directly assist individuals and organizations adapt and respond to social and technological change. In administering such programmes the main focus is to see that continuing education is in line with overall plans for national socio-economic development; to identify and support agencies and individuals with forward looking ideas, and to help organizations and individuals who perceive the need for change or who are involved in change.
VI. FUTURE ORIENTED PROGRAMMES
1. Integrating future-oriented CE programmes into the socio-economic development plan of the country.
2. Instituting research and development for the expansion of future-oriented CE.
3. Formulating policy in regard to future oriented Continuing Education.
4. Strengthening the Continuing Education network especially by anticipating future growth points and identifying and supporting effective change agencies.
5. Encouraging development of appropriate technology.
6. Encouraging technology transfer by fostering inter-country linkages.
7. Assessing and upgrading human, institutional and financial resources.
8. Fostering R & D in technological development as input into FO Continuing Education.
9. Preparing guidelines for generating wider involvement of business, industries, entrepreneurs and labour organisations in FO Continuing Education.
10. Promoting systematic organisational change and renewal and linking this to the FO Continuing Education system.
11. Developing «think-tanks» for future social and economic growth in relation to FO Continuing Education.
1. Adapting and integrating all national policies, strategies and plans relevant to FO CE at the provincial level.
2. Establishing provincial implementing and co-ordinating bodies/committees.
3. Ensuring access to new information by all FO Continuing Education providers in the province.
4. Providing future-oriented training for FO Continuing Education personnel.
5. Developing relevant instructional materials for FO Continuing Education personnel.
6. Strengthening vertical and horizontal co-ordination.
7. Receiving and coordinating data from local levels about social and technological trends and about the effectiveness of future oriented CE.
1. Preparing guidelines for local growth and development for implementing FO Continuing Education.
2. Identifying local change agents and encouraging their involvement in FO Continuing Education.
3. Encouraging self-initiated learning and local management of initiatives in FO Continuing Education.
4. Providing regular training and re-training of local FO Continuing Education personnel.
5. Developing/adapting learning materials which reflect latest ideas and future developments.
6. Monitoring and evaluating future oriented FO Continuing Education at the local level.
The administrative strategies and policies as outlined in this chapter provide only very broad guidelines which would need to be interpreted and adapted according to the needs and circumstances of each Member State. A most important aspect which all countries need to keep in mind, however, is that in planning and administering programmes of continuing education national socio-economic development plans should provide a general framework. Since continuing education is, by definition, the opportunity for adults to engage in life-long education after they have completed primary schooling or its equivalent, it is important that the learning accumulated in the society as a whole, will directly contribute to its planned growth and development.
A second important aspect is that administrators should also view continuing education as a mechanism for human resource development and not merely as an agency for economic and material growth. This implies that strategies and policies should be humanistic in orientation. A careful balance needs to be maintained between the needs and aspirations of individuals and the needs and aspirations of the nation as a whole.
A further point is that administration of continuing education is both from the top-down and from the bottom-up. General national policies and strategies must be reflected downward at all levels. These policies should be supportive and catalytic not coercive or authoritarian. At the same time the needs, wants and concerns of local organizations and individuals need to be catered for. In particular the devolution of management should be promoted. Organizations and individuals should be encouraged to establish agencies and activities for continuing education, to set their own learning objectives and to accept responsibility for their own learning. Continuing Education is for the people and it should be managed by them.