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close this bookLivestock and Poultry Production (IIRR, 1992, 106 p.)
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View the documentWorkshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK)
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Open this folder and view contentsCurrent program thrusts in upland development
View the documentSimple agro-livestock technology (SALT-2)
View the documentIntensive feed garden
View the documentCharacteristics of forage grasses for IFG
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View the documentForced-feeding technology (including Batangas cattle-fattening system)
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View the documentImproving the native chicken
View the documentFamily Backyard Poultry project
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View the documentOff-farm fodder sources in agroforestry (trees and grasses)

Characteristics of forage grasses for IFG

TABLE 1. Growth habit, leaf pattern and adaptability.

Grass

GROWTH HABIT

LEAVES

TOLERANCE TO

Adaptability






D

WL

LFS

Soil

Rainfall (annual)

Napier grass
Pennisetum purpureum

Robust cane-like species reaching a height of 2-5. m with short, stout under ground stems

Broad and tapering with a strong midrib

G

F

P

Wide range but deep loams are ideal.

1015 mm and over

Guinea grass Panicum mmum

A course, leafy and deep-rooted perennial with a typical stool- forming habit

Long and bread and well-distributed along the stems

VG

F

P

Wide range but suited to well- drained soils of medium to high fertility

1015 mm and over

Para grass Brachiaria mutica

Creeping and trailing with stout and stolons above the ground runners

Broad, erect and hairy

F

VG

P

Fiat lands and areas with poor drainage

1015 mm and over

Kennedy ruzi Brachiaria ruziziensis

Creeping and trailing reaching a height of 90 cm or 3 ft

10.2 to 25.3 or 4-10 in long, soft, sharply pointed and covered with fine hairs

F

F

P

Wide range but grows best on well-drained soil of high fertility

1525 mm and over

Signal grass Brachiaria decumbens

Creeping and trailing which is very similar to Para grass

Short and dark green leaf blades

F

F

G

Quick drying, shallow, hillside soils

1525 mm

African Star grass Cynodon plectos- tachyus

Spreading with stout rapidly growing solomons

Smooth, narrow and 3.8 cm long

G

F

F

Wide range from coarse to fine soils

500 mm and over

Centro

Trailing twinning and

Shiny bright green

F

G

F

Wide range

1525 mm

Centrosema

climbing

wKh sparse hairs,




including those

and over

pubesceos


ovate-elliptical




with low pH and




leaflets




poor drainage


Ipil-ipil

Tree

Smooth, bipinnate

VG

P

G

Well-drained

760 mm

Leucaena leucoce-phala


leaf stalk, 15-25 cm long




soils, slightly acidic to slightly

and over

Stylo Stylosanthes guyanensis cv. Cook

Vigorous, bushy perennial 0.5-1.5 m high which muy become troiling under grazing pressure

Trifoliate leaves, with elliptical leaflets and iong hairs on the mid-vein of the lower surface

G

F

VG

Many soil types including those w/low pH; grows well on sandy soils as well

1525 mm

Siratro Macroptilium atropurpureum

A perennial with deeply penetrating roots and trailing stems which may root anywhere along its length

Pinnately trifolate dark green and hairy on the upper surface; lateral leaflets indented

VG

F

G

Wide range but does not per- form well on poorly drained soils

760-1780 mm

Calliandra Calliandra calothyrsus

Tree

Smooth, bipinnate leaf stalk 10-15 cm

VG

P

G

Well-drained soil

750 mm and over

Flemingia
Flemingia macrophylla

Shrub

Simple, private to oblong with pointer tip and round base

G

F

G

Wide range of soil but well- drained soils

800 mm and over

Madre de Cacao Gliricida sepium.

Tree

Smooth, odd, bipinnate leaves, green and shining on upper surface 15-25 cm Long

G

F

G

Weli-drained soil

750 mm and over

Acid ipil-ipil Leucaena diversifolia

Tree

Small bipinnate small leaflet

G

F

G

Well-drained soil

750 mm and above

Rensoni Desmodium rensonii

Shrub

Pinnately trifoliate hairy beneath terminal one oblong

F

F

G

Well-drained soil

1000 mm and over

Table 2. Propagation method, seeding rate, herbage yield, seed yield, cp and row distance

HERBAGE SEED

GRASS

PROPAGATION

SEEDING RATE

DM YIELD

YIELD

CP

Row distance

REMARKS



(kg/ha)

(t/ha)

(kg/ha)

(%)



Napier grass

Vegetative

35,000-

15-40


1.13-2.16

1 m

Cut 15-20

Pennisetum purpureum


40,000 seed species





cm from the ground

Guinea grass

Vegetative

35,000-

5-20

150-200

1.15-1.66

1 m

Cut 20-25

Panicum maximum

and seed

40,000 rootstock pc. or 3-8 kg seeds





cm from the ground

Para grass Brachiaria ruziziensis

Vegetative and seed

5 t of cuttings materials or 3-6 kg seeds

2.5-8

100-150


0.50 m

Spread slowly; should be allowed to develop before cutting

Signa grass Brachiaria decumbens

Vegetative and seed

5 t of cutting materials or 3-4 kg seeds

5-12

150-200

1.95

0.50 m

Cut; they recover very slowly

African star grass Cynodon plectostachysus

Vegetative

5 t of cutting materials

5-9

1.61-6.05

1 m


Cut close to the ground or old stem will get rough.

Centro Centnosema pubesceos

Seed

1-8

3-10

500-700

3.8-5.01

1 m

Climb other grasses well, thus when cut as combined with grass

Ipi-ipil Leucaena leucocephala

Seed/cutting

4-30

7-24

150-500

12.56-

1 m

Need to cut






17.52


1 m from the ground; psyllid and water logged

Stylo Stylosanthes guyenensis cv. Cook

Seed

2.5-5

6-12

300

5.12

0.5 cm

Cut 10 cm from the ground and allow to grow

Siratro

Seed

2-5

3-10

700-1000

3.09

0.5

Could be

Macroptilium atropurpureum







mixed with grasses

Calliandra Calliandra calothyrsus

Seeds

4-10

3.7

-

22-24

1-2 m

Cut 50-65 cm from the ground

Flemingia Flemingia macrophylia

Seed

2-6

2.65

-

22

1-2 m

Cut 0.5-1.0 m from the ground

Madre do cacao Gliricida sepium

Seed and vegetative

4-6

2.6

5.7

19.13

1-2 m

Cut 1 m from the ground; fast regrowth

Acid ¡pil-ipil Leucaena diversifolia

Seeds

44

6-9

600

21

1-2 m

Cut 1 m from the ground; fast regrowth

Rensoni Desmodium rensonii

Seeds and cuttings

2-3

2.5 -4

400

22-23

0.5-1.0 m

Cut 0.5 m from the ground; fast regrowth

Sources: PCARRD Technical Bulletin No. 12. MBRLC Data.