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close this bookInvestigating Bilingual Literacy: Evidence from Malawi and Zambia - Education research paper No. 24 (DFID, 1998, 99 p.)
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View the documentDepartment for International Development - Education Papers
View the documentList of other DFID education papers available in this series
View the documentOther DFID education studies also available
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contents1 Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2 Background: Malawi and Zambia
Open this folder and view contents3 Teaching reading in Malawi and Zambia
Open this folder and view contents4 Reading research: 1992
Open this folder and view contents5 The 1994 research
Open this folder and view contents6 Individual reading sessions
Open this folder and view contents7 Individual reading sessions
Open this folder and view contents8 Discussion
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix A - Approaches to teaching initial reading
View the documentAppendix B - Transcript of two lessons
View the documentAppendix C - Texts for two lessons
View the documentAppendix D - Extracts from English ''word find'' reading test, 1992
View the documentAppendix E - Extracts from Chichewa and Nyanja reading tests 1992
View the documentAppendix F - Extracts from English reading test, 1994
View the documentAppendix G - Extracts from Chichewa and Nyanja tests, 1994
View the documentAppendix H - Histograms of 1994 test results
View the documentAppendix I - Text for Chichewa/Nyanja individual reading


A large number of people have helped in the research described here. To specify their contributions would exhaust the reader, and my stock of verbs. Suffice to say that the following people between them have organised transport, booked accommodation, taken over teaching, checked tests, translated texts, found schools in compounds and countryside, helped to administer and mark tests, encouraged writing up, and provided insightful comments.

In the DFID and BHC in the UK and Africa: Terry Allsop, Myra Harrison, Cecilia Cruz, Steve Packer, Mike Reilly, Malcolm Seath.

In Malawi: Dr Moira Chimombo, S Chimaliro, James Kennedy, Hannock Mateche, Hartford Mchazime, Rosemary Ulemu Mkumba, Christon Moyo, Wales Mwanza, Charles Nuttall, W K Sichinga, Benson Zigona.

In the University of Reading, UK: Bobby Davis, Don Porter, Pauline Robinson, Paul Weller, Ron White, Professor David Wilkins, Dr Ann Williams.

In Zambia: Dr Israel Chikalanga, Bridget Chipimo, Dr Catherine Chatham, Dr Armand Hughes D'Aeth, Professor Michael Kelly, Dr John Luangala, Malcolm Molloy, R Mulenga, Leo O'Keefe, Terence Humphreys, Catherine Nakaanga, Martin Phiri, Graham Ness.

Needless to say, I owe a huge debt to the headteachers, teachers and pupils of the 22 schools in Malawi and Zambia who agreed to be tested, observed, questioned and otherwise inconvenienced during my visits. They have remained anonymous, but are not forgotten.

Finally, I should like to express my appreciation to two men who were my companions and friends on field trips in Zambia, the late Dylan Aspinwall and the late Matthew Miti. Both made signal contributions to education in Zambia, and enhanced the lives of those who worked with them. Both are both sorely missed.