|APPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 5: Income-Generating Programmes (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 127 p.)|
Income-generating programmes (IGPs) may only be implemented successfully if the organization and delivery systems are attuned to national development plans and policies. The organization and delivery should ensure two types of communication, i.e. vertical and horizontal and in both, two-way processes should be instituted.
In this Region, most if not all Member States have their organization system at different levels where government agencies and non-government agencies are already involved in the implementation of IGPs through formal and non-formal education programmes.
B. Organization of IGPs
In most cases in the Region, efforts from the government are playing the major role in IGP implementation through different departments or ministries such as Education, Human Resource Development, Labour, Agriculture, Trade and Industry and others from central to local levels. Some non-government groups and organisation such as labour associations, business communities and employer associations are being harnessed for planning and implementing IGPs.
From the management point of view, so many agencies and organisations are involved in the implementation of IGPs that considerable and unnecessary overlapping occurs. Most countries of the Region have limited financial resources for IGPs, yet because of lack of coordination some of these resources go to waste due to ineffective implementation.
Considering this situation, it is desirable to have a single body at the national level to coordinate IGP implementation .
It was stated in ATLP-CE Volume I that each country may wish to develop a National Coordination Committee or Council for Continuing Education (NCCCE), and in each province, region, or state, there could be a Provincial Coordination Committee or Council for Continuing Education (PCCCE). Detailed tasks for an NCCCE and PCCCE were also proposed (ATLP-CE Volume I). Coordination of IGP implementation may be conducted by these organizations or their executive and professional bodies.
An overall coordination scheme is illustrated in Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1: Organization of IGPs at three levels
NCCCE = National Coordinating Committee for Continuing Education
PCCCE = Provincial Coordinating Committee for Continuing Education
LCCCE = Local Coordinating Committee for Continuing Education
The following practical procedures may be undertaken to facilitate coordination between organizations.
a) Ensuring that all members of NCCCE and PCCCE are aware of the objectives and nature of IGP by providing sufficient information and arranging field observations.
b) Requesting PCCCEs to establish executive and professional sub-groups to monitor local IGPs implementation. Such groups should include civil servants and experts from relevant local government departments, industries and businesses.
c) The functions of the proposed executive and professional sub-groups could include:-
- To direct all local IGPs towards the vision of local socio-economic development;
- To provide local labour market forecast data;
- To review, approve, and evaluate existing and future IGPs;
- To allocate and distribute, in a coordinated manner, financial resources for IGPs;
- To facilitate linkages between educational institutions (formal and non-formal) with funding agencies, industries and the business community;
- To coordinate training by various agencies;
- To promote selling the goods produced by IGPs.
There is now a trend in the Region to decentralize education management systems. The purpose is to stimulate individual initiative, and to foster institutional and community participation. Therefore, any coordinating body should encourage development of a working network among the various agencies and organizations rather than controlling them.
It is frequently observed that coordination at the national level may be more difficult because of multiple responsibilities of ministries and other national bodies. Some Member States however find that strong coordination at the local level is most effective. This is probably due to common local interests and a clear perception of problems to be solved. This practice should be encouraged. Hence the need for delegation of authority to facilitate bottom-up and top-down communication.
C. Delivery of IGPs
Delivery systems for IGP are very varied and can be provided through formal and non-formal education. At the grassroots level, the delivery is usually handled by motivated institutions and their personnel both in the field of education and training and those normally seen to be outside of it (industry, agriculture, business communities, etc.). This is shown in the following diagram (Figure 4.2)
Figure 4.2: Delivery System for Income-Generating Programmes
Any delivery system, however, should be skills-oriented and must be attuned to: (i) the need of the target groups either for self-employment, wage employment or for personal use and (ii) to the needs of the community (market). The delivery system must also take into consideration the economic level of the localities in each country so that participants can be moved from stage one (low economic level) to middle stage and eventually up to high levels of development (see Figure 2.1 Chapter Two).
(a) Forms of Delivery
IGPs can be delivered in the form of (i) face-to-face or contact session; (ii) independent or self-learning; (iii) distance learning; and (iv) a combination of any of those. All of these delivery systems should be practically oriented. Refer to figure 4.2.
i) Face to Face or Contact Sessions
The delivery mechanism mostly used nowadays for IGPs is the face-to-face or contact session where working and learning are closely integrated.
· Workshops - This is a delivery system where theory and practice are balanced. The learning groups have an extensive practicum under the guidance of a facilitator.
· On-the-job Training - Participants, especially those from educational and training institutions, are given an opportunity to apply in practice what they team in school in the factories, shops and other establishment. In some cases the training schools are actually located in the factory or other place of employment. Participants learn a trade while earning credit for their experiences, and probably also earn a little money.
· Project-based learning - This is a delivery system where training is based on specific requirement for a development project. Focus on project requirement is emphasized in this training under the supervision of a technically expert trainer.
· Apprenticeship - This is the most popular face-to-face delivery system in institutions where trainees have their practicum in industries/factories/establishments. There is an agreement between the institution and the industry manager or proprietor that apprentices are trained in a specific trade competently managed by an expert in the factory or business. Several conditions are adhered to by the institution and the employer such as the following:
- The apprentices use the facilities of the factory or business for the specific trade under the supervision of the expert from the factory or business.
- The factory or business provides the appropriate training, evaluates performance and reports to the institution the result of the training. Likewise, since the employer uses the labour of apprentice groups for production, it is possible under an agreement that the trainees are given subsistence allowances or some other form of incentive commensurate with their services. Thus both the employer and the apprentices enjoy mutual benefits.
- Through the apprenticeship delivery system, the training institution concerned has the opportunity to upgrade its facilities for instruction in cooperation and consultation with employers.
- The apprentices while undergoing training and specializing in a given trade may become expert enough to be credited for employment. It is also possible that with adequate training they may establish their own business and so develop from a learning group to a producer group.
- Apprentices are not the only beneficiaries. Upon the completion of the apprenticeship programme, the employer may select and employ the best trainees. This employment procedure would certainly strengthen productive capacity.
- Apprenticeship as a delivery system is also applicable in agriculture, food services, management, office work and other vocational training programmes.
Self-learning can occur in both formal and non-formal education. Self-learning through modules or do-it-yourself kits, facilitates learning.
Since a possible outcome of IGPs is to foster self-employment, wage employment or the personal use of skills, self-learning delivery systems may contribute to better productivity since they promote self-reliance. Therefore, any of the following procedures can be adopted for IGPs through self-learning.
· Interest Group. A group of learners with a common interest learns by means of teaching modules and self learning kits. The training is relevant to their needs, to the available community resources and the demands of the market. The group learns by themselves using the modules and any other relevant materials they can obtain either through mass media or trade manuals. Their interest in a particular trade binds them together and this ultimately contributes to their productivity.
· Hobby Group. A hobby is generally an activity performed by individuals from their own choice and self-commitment. After gaining some skills in vocational training it is possible that some individuals may develop interest in pursuing a project on their own such as gardening, paintings computer programming, or cooking. Due to self-motivation, better products emerge which give satisfaction to the learner. This encourages individuals to go on further producing and the products continue to improve with practice. When the products command good prices in the locality the hobby group may convert themselves into a producer group giving rise to an IGP. Thus hobby activities will ultimately be of benefit not only to the individuals, and the family, but to the community as a whole.
· Sandwich Course. This is a delivery system where an individual intersperses training with periods of employment. After certain periods of practice, the individual goes back for a further period of learning. The periods of training and employment are interspersed, with improvement in skills and increases in wages occurring as an individual progresses in both training and employment.
· Study Tour. Trainees observe different IGPs in a variety of settings. They study trades in a range of areas in industry, agriculture and commerce and individuals can select trades which interest them. If successful IGP projects are presented comprehensively and analytically they can inspire trainees to emulate good practice.
· Exhibitions and Fairs. These are sometimes held at the end of a project or training programme. They may also be held in association with multi-media delivery systems. Products are shown to the public through a fair. The fair may be promoted and strengthened through TV and radio broadcasts, demonstrations, leaflets, handouts, manuals and sample products. Fairs have a built-in potential for enhancing income generation in the longer term because if properly planned with social and market needs in mind, they can stimulate demand for products emerging from IGPs. An advantage for the learners is the concrete experience provided to undertake market analysis, promote products, consolidate skills, improve quality of production, and raise funds for larger scale production
iii) Distance Learning
In situations such as remote rural areas, face-to-face training is not always possible and distance learning systems are required. Mass media such as broadcast TV and radio are frequently utilized. Serialized lessons can be provided supported by leaflets and other printed materials. Opportunities can be provided through local factories, farms or elsewhere for the practice of skills. Another type of distance learning involves the use of training modules with a focus on the development of practical skill. Feedback is provided between learners and facilitators. The system depends on the availability of local resources for practical work. Modular training is effective only if there is a high rate of literacy amongst the target group.
iv) Combination Delivery Systems
The three main types of delivery system - face-to-face, self learning and distance learning may be combined in various ways for the delivery of IGP activities. Training people to form co-operations provides a good example.
In some Member States in the Region, cooperative programmes are gaining headway. This delivery system is adopted for empowering the people to organize themselves through a common goal of improving the quality of life. Such types of programme usually have the following aims:-
· to develop leadership and capability of a given community group organizing themselves for achieving a common goal;
· to establish linkage between the learning group, business groups and funding agencies for the development of self-sustaining income generating activities;
· to harness the maximum utilization of community resources for economic productivity.
In order to organize this approach the following steps are necessary.
Provide information through mass media, brochures, leaflets and by others means (distance mode);
Organize meetings of potential learning groups and education and training personnel on cooperative programmes (face-to-face mode);
Identify those learning groups with common entrepreneurial interests (learning group mode);
Identify resources within the community for specific learning programmes;
Establish a communication network between the teaming groups and funding agencies.
Organize a specific cooperative programme selected by each teaming group;
Institute linkage between each cooperative programme and funding agencies and credit organizations.
Cooperative programmes as a delivery system if properly managed and implemented will provide equity and social justice because of its built-in income-generating focus.
D. Importance of Entrepreneurship Training
Entrepreneurship training aims to empower individuals to be creative, innovative, productive and self-reliant in their approach to all kinds of endeavour. Thus, it is a key part of continuing and lifelong education. Entrepreneurship is increasingly recognized as one of the most vital approaches to help Member States in their economic development through IGP activities. The increasingly competitive and changing global economy demands that economic gaps between developing and highly industrialized countries should be considerably reduced in order to improve quality of life. As we live in changing times, where the pace of change seems to be continuously accelerating, individuals will need entrepreneurial skills and competencies to cope with this change. Families and communities can be strengthened and made more effective in dealing with changing life, societal needs and market demands. In order to facilitate this, trained, dedicated and effective teachers with entrepreneurial competencies are needed. The following can be cited as examples of why entrepreneurship training is needed for income-generating activities:
· Provides opportunities for building self-confidence and self-esteem.
· Focuses on development of knowledge, attitudes and skills in a wide range of general competencies (for example, creativity, goal setting, team building, productivity, achievement orientation and cost effectiveness).
· Leads to new income generating ventures, new jobs and new employment opportunities.
· Helps people adjust and respond to opportunities generated by the shift from agriculture towards service industries and an information-based society.
Entrepreneurship training should be included in all types of IGP and in all forms of delivery. (figure 4.2)
E. Importance of Guidance and Counselling
Guidance and counselling are essential components of any delivery system for IGPs. (See Figure 4.2). At the national level institutions and agencies involved in IGPs should promote guidance and counselling systems congruent with national development plans. At provincial and local levels guidance and counselling is needed to facilitate delivery and to ensure effective implementation .
Appropriate guidance and counselling should be linked in to all types of delivery to provide adequate information on the labour market, market demands, career opportunities, placement in employment and the status of agencies such as training institutions and employer organisations such as factories, farms and businesses.
In the formal system of education, guidance and counselling is well established for vocational guidance and so can provide resources for activities outside the formal system.
Guidance and counselling is also needed in IGPs provided by non-formal education systems to link training to the employment market.
Effective guidance and counselling, however, depends on adequate access to information. A Management Information System (MIS) based on a strong communication network is needed. In addition information needs to be widely disseminated. Leaflets, brochures, pamphlets and other materials should be available to specific groups and to the community as a whole.