Cover Image
close this bookIdeas for Action : Save, Recycle and Do Not Pollute (IIRR, 1992, 146 p.)
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsConserving resources
Open this folder and view contentsWildlife and habitat conservation
Open this folder and view contentsConsumer guides
Open this folder and view contentsEnvironmental action
Open this folder and view contentsRecycling/waste disposal
Open this folder and view contentsPesticides

Workshop to produce an information kit on the ideas for action

(November 23-28, 1992)

Many environmental issues involve complex and technical information and processes which are difficult to understand. Majority of the people do not yet understand the very basic issues related to, for example, ozone depletion or global warming or the loss of biodiversity.

The difficult process of simplifying such kinds of information for specific audiences is no/systematically implemented on a large scale in the Philippines.

The International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) believes that there is currently a great need for quality educational printed materials which can be used by teachers, trainors, educators, policymakers, key sector leaders and others throughout the Philippines in the area of environmental education. These printed materials will convey the difficult-to-understand concepts into more appropriate information kits for wider dissemination.

IIRR is aware that there are government and non-government organizations (GOs/NGOs) that are currently producing environmental education materials. Therefore, the primary step the Institute took was to network with these GOs and NGOs to establish the state-of-the-art for environmental education materials within the Philippines.

The information kit on the Ideas for Action was produced through the use of a workshop involving technical and communication experts. The workshop approach has been successfully implemented by IIRR to speed up and improve the production of various technology-focused kits, such as the Biointensive Gardening, Regenerative Agriculture Technologies, Agroforestry, Low-input Rice Production and Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Technologies.

The workshop was held on November 23-28, 1992, at the IIRR Campus in Silang, Cavite, Philippines. The participants came from key organizations involved in environmental work, such as the Bureau of Soil and Water Management, Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), Department of Health, Earth Station, Green Alert, Haribon Foundation, Philippine Wetland and Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Inc. (PWWCFI), International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), International Resource Recovery and Recycling Network (IRREN), Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM), SEAFDEC, University of the Philippines at Los Ba(UPLB) and Wildlife Biology Laboratory of UPLB. Because these participants consisted primarily of the practitioner-types, reflective of the intended user-audience, the potential relevance of the kit was improved. In addition, the papers underwent instant critical peer review and revision, a process which normally takes several days or even weeks. Finally, the presence of communication specialists (writers, editors, artists) facilitated the appropriate presentation and design of materials.

This technology information kit focuses on Philippine situation, is designed for learning about basic concepts, issues and problems related to environment and natural resource use and degradation and is intended for nationwide use by students, trainors and GO/NGO policymakers.

Workshop to Produce an Information Kit on the Ideas for Action

(November 23-28, 1992)


1. Mr. Joselito Baril, Assistant Professor, Wildlife Biology Laboratory, UPLB, College, Laguna

2. Ms. Maribeth Reyes-Baril, Haribon Foundation, 340 Villamor Street, San Juan, Metro Manila

3. Dr. Teodora Bagarinao, Scientist II, SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Tigbauan, lloilo

4. Mr. Emmanuel Carmona, Broad Initiatives for Negros, Development, Green Alert Negros, Environmental, Network, 2nd Floor, Door 1, Silos Building, Rosario St., Bacolod City 6100

5. Engr. Samuel Contreras, Supervising Agriculturist, Bureau of Soil and Water Management, SRDC Bldg., Elliptical Road con Visayas Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City

6. Ms. Dolores Ariadne Diamante, Appropriate Technology Unit, IIRR, Silang, Cavite

7. Dr. Sandy Fortuna, Field Operational Research Division, IIRR, Silang, Cavite

8. Dr. Julian F. Gonsalves, Vice-President for Program, IIRR, Silang, Cavite

9. Engr. Antonino Hormillosa, Chief, Policies, Standards and Regulations, Environmental Health, Service, Department of Health, Rizal Avenue, Sta. Cruz, Manila

10. Mr. Greg Ira, Appropriate Technology Unit, IIRR, Silang, Cavite

11. Mr. Scott Killough, Director, Appropriate Technology Unit, IIRR, Silang, Cavite

12. Ms. Ma. Lourdes Lauzon-Manrique, Member, Earth Station Writers and, Artists' Collective, Inc., #2-B Masinsinan St., Teachers' Village, Quezon City

13. Ms. Manolita Morales, Philippine Wetland and Wildlife, Conservation Foundation, Inc., (PWWCFI), Unit 2, A. Sing Building, 295 Duterte St., Banawa, Cebu City 6000

14. Dr. Emma Abanes-Pujalte, International Resource Recovery and, Recycling Network, IRRREN), 117 Soliven Avenue con Copenhagen, Green Park Village, Manggahan, Pasig, Metro, Manila

15. Ms. Dolores Rubio Health and Nutrition Center Department of Education, Culture; Sports (DECS) University of Life Complex Meralco Avenue, Pasig Metro Manila

16. Mr. Hector Soliman Tanggol Kalikasan Haribon Foundation Suite 901, Richbelt Tower 17 Annapolis St., Greenhills San Juan, Metro Manila

17. Mr. Manuel Velasco, Branch Manager/Program Manager, Philippine Reconstruction Movement, (Negros Branch), #28, Ochoa-17 St., Capitol Subdivision, Bacolod City

18. Ms. Meng Yaun, Field Operational Research Division, IIRR, Silang, Cavite

Support Staff


Dr. Julian Gonsalves, Mr. Greg Ira, Mr. Scott Killough and Specialists Mr. Jaime Ronquillo


Ms. Lyn Doren, Mr. Greg Ira, Mr. Scott Killough, Ms. Mamet Magno and Mr. Jaime Ronquillo


Mr. Albert Ba Mr. Boy Belardo, Mr. Ric Cantada, Mr. Henry Cruz, Mr. Mitchell Doren and Mr. Bernie Remoquillo

Logistics/Administrative/Secretarial Staff

Ms. Lhai Kasala, Ms. Angie Poblete, Ms. Jel Montoya, Ms. Gigi Naval, Ms. Mamet Magno, Mr. Ariel Madlangsacay, Ms. Ely Paredes, Ms. Violy Alvez, Ms. Gemma Boado, Ms. Tess Aquino, Ms. Girlie Belen, Ms. Hilda Amon and Mr. Gerry Medina

Save, recycle and do not polute: basic principles of ideas for action


Saving can be applied to almost everything, including energy, electricity, water, gasoline, food and resources. Saving does not mean hoarding, but instead means lessening consumption to a minimum. Maximizing efficiency and doing without the unnecessary are two ways to save so that there will be less need to exploit existing natural resources. The main idea is to maximize consumption rather than to save goods or money. Some actions that reduce consumption may save you pesos but some will not. Some of them will cost time or effort.


Recycling is an extension of saving and has many benefits. Instead of throwing an item in the trash, reuse it as much as possible or try to turn it into something useful. By recycling or reusing paper, for example, trees can be saved. Also, recycling a product consumes less energy and resources than producing a new product, so the savings is twofold. Recycling reduces the amount of refuse that goes into the dump, taking up space for decades and leaching harmful substances into the soil and water. Be warned, however, that some things are easier to recycle than others. Some Filipinos may say that we should not recycle since many scavengers derive their livelihood from the garbage. However, most people agree that scavenging is not a practice to be encouraged and that it is not the most efficient way to recycle refuse. If it were, Smokey Mountain would not be so mountainous.

Do not pollute

Minimize the pollution you produce, because some items cannot be recycled and must be disposed of. Avoid plastics and other materials that do not degrade rapidly. Even if properly disposed in a garbage dump, these materials will not degrade and will take up space for years. Eventually, the dump will be filled and another new dump site will have to be found. More importantly, avoid producing toxic refuse or emitting pollutants which are harmful to human health and to the environment. The effects of automobile emissions, pesticides and factory waste are obvious. However, seemingly harmless products can also be very damaging to human health and to the environment. For example, detergents and cleaning fluids poured down a household drain can end up in the water supply. These toxic substances can enter the human body, directly through drinking contaminated water, or through eating animal meats or seafoods that have absorbed these poisons into their system. Also, aerosol sprays contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), substances that deplete or destroy the ozone layer of the atmosphere. This results in increasing amounts of harmful solar radiation passing through the atmosphere and increasing the likelihood of human health problems, especially skin cancer. The easiest way to avoid these harmful pollutants is not to use products which contain these substances. However, this may prove to be harder than one might think.


Adapted from: Mynardo Macaraig. How Green is Your Home. Earth Station Writers and Artists Collective, Inc.

Quezon City. 1991

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit November 23 - 28, 1992

Environment-friendly and energy-saving tips in the office

Recycling, waste reduction and energy conservation require a strength-in-numbers strategy in order to bring about effective change at your office or school. If more people are involved, positive changes in daily habits can be quickly seen. Organized, as well as individual, efforts can channel an enormous amount of garbage toward the recyclables market, can reduce the amount of wastes produced and can translate energy conservation efforts into savings.

· Recycle aluminum, glass, newspapers and valuable office paper. Also, some printer and copier ink cartridges can be reused.

· Use your own mug and eating utensils to minimize the use of plastics or disposable materials. Encourage your canteen to provide washable materials or eating utensils instead of disposables.

· Place a special box for recycled paper next to each printer and copy machine. Do not put non-paper items into the box.

· Reduce paper use. Photocopy documents on both sides of the paper. Circulate end rouse memos rather than produce copies for everybody. Post memos on common bulletin boards. Reuse used envelopes (especially for use within the office).

· Talk to the person who buys paper for your office or school. Urge him to purchase recycled paper for business cards, letterheads and for the use in the photocopier.

· Encourage the purchasing department to buy durable office equipment. If equipment breaks, repair it rather than replace it. Take advantage of service contracts.

· If an office equipment or furniture is to be disposed of, donate it to charity which will do the repair, reconditioning or recycling.

Recycling paper

Office products

· As a substitute for toxic glues, use paper clips, staples or string.

· Use traditional carbon paper actually made from paper rather than glossy paper made from film.

· Avoid glues and cements that contain solvents (for example, hobby glue, rubber cement). Use instead a stick-type glue or basic white glue.

· Use china markers (wax pencils), colored pencils or crayons, instead of solvent-based markers.

· Use correction tape that covers errors or lifts them off the paper without the use of solvents. If you use correction fluid, use the water-based type made for photocopies.

Energy conservation

Generating electricity usually involves burning fossil fuels which pollute the environment. Therefore, lowering electrical consumption through conservation measures minimizes pollution as well as saving money.

· Maintain a well-ventilated office or work space. Open windows and use electric fans where possible. However, during the hottest time of the day, keep windows and outer doors closed or shaded to prevent heat from entering.

· If an air-conditioner is used, start it at the lowest setting, then raise it after a few minutes. Immediately setting an air conditioner to the highest setting will not cool a room any faster.

· If you leave an air-conditioned room for a few hours, turn the air conditioner off.

· Keep the air-conditioner filter clean and replace it when it becomes too ragged. Maintain the machine so it will perform at peak efficiency, thus consuming less electricity.

· Keep indoor plants to cool the room.

· Switch off unnecessary lights. Ask yourself and others which lights are really necessary. Use sunlight for illumination as much as possible.

· Use flourescent (daylight) lamps, instead of incandescent bulbs. They last longer, produce more light and do not strain the eves.

· Keep bulbs and electrical fixtures clean so they can produce the maximum amount of light.

· Replace two low-wattage fixtures with one high-wattage-fixture. For example: A single 100-watt bulb gives off 20 percent more light than two 60-watt bulbs. Replace high-wattage bulbs with low wattage bulbs in places where bright light is not needed.

· Turn off all appliances or equipment before leaving the office. Close all windows and doors.

· Use the elevator only when climbing more than three floors; other wise use the stairs to improve your health.




Ruth Caplan. Our Earth, Ourselves. Bantam Books, 1990.

Mynardo Macaraig. How.Green is Your Home? A Filipino Primer on Home Ecology. Earth Station, 1991.

The Recycler's Handbook. Earth Works Press, 1990.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit November 23 - 28, 1992

Energy-saving actions for the home

Energy-saving actions for the home

Electricity is the primary source of power in most homes, especially those in cities. Minimizing electrical consumption should be a regular practice in our lives and not an emergency measure to be adopted during power shortages. Here is a list of energy-saving actions for a household with electrical power:


· Place lights close to the area where light is needed the most.

· Use light reflectors which make the most of available light.

· Turn off unnecessary lights. Ask yourself which lights are really necessary.

· As much as possible, use sunlight for illumination.

· Before going to sleep, check the house to ensure that all lights are turned off.

· Keep bulbs and electrical fixtures clean so they can produce the maximum amount of light.

· For bright lights, especially spot lights or outside lights usually left on for long periods, use higher wattage bulbs.

· Use flourescent lighting, instead of incandescent bulbs. They last longer and produce more light at a lower cost. These energy-saving lights are now available in the Philippines, but they are still costly to purchase.

· Replace two low-wattage fixtures with one high-wattage fixture. A single 100-watt bulb gives off 20 percent more light than two 60-watt bulbs.

· Replace high-wattage bulbs with low-wattage bulbs in places where bright light is not needed.

· Avoid use of light diffusers which tend to disperse and reduce available light.


Air conditioners

· Reduce the use of the air conditioner to lower electrical consumption and to save energy.

· Ventilate your house properly to minimize heat that enters the house and reduces the efficiency of the air conditioner.

· When using the air conditioner, start it at the lowest setting, then raise it after a few minutes. Immediately setting the air conditioner to its highest setting will not cool a room any faster.

· When leaving the room for a few hours, turn off the air conditioner.

· Place fans at least one to two feet above the floor to circulate cool air sitting on the floor.

· Use proper home insulation to keep the house cool and minimize air conditioner use.

· Check filters at least once a month. Keep them clean and replace them when they become too ragged so they will perform at peak efficiency.

· Plant trees and other plants around the house to keep it cool.

· Install air conditioner in a shaded area by a tree or an awning. Locate the unit in the coolest side of the room. The best is usually at the northern side, away from the morning and afternoon sun. This consumes less electricity. Also, install it at least one meter above the ground to ensure proper ventilation and operation of the machine.

· Open windows and use electric fans, where possible. However, during the hottest time of the day, keep windows and outer doors closed or shaded to prevent too much heat from entering.

· Install ceiling fans which help to circulate air in a room.

· Place lamps or TV set away from your air-conditioning thermostat. Heat from these appliances is sensed by the thermostat and can cause the unit to run longer than necessary to maintain coolness.

Air conditioners

Electrical or gas stoves and ranges

· When cooking, match the size of the pot to the size of the burner. Consider which cooking ware to use when cooking a certain type of dish.

· Thaw frozen food at room temperature before cooking.

· Use the proper amount of water to cover the food being cooked.

· Use a tight-fitting lid to conserve moisture.

· Do not open the oven when something is cooking. Heat escapes every time an oven door is opened, extending the cooking time and wasting energy.

· Turn off the oven a few minutes before cooking is done; the remaining heat will finish the cooking.

· Use microwave ovens, oven toasters and pressure cookers when cooking small or medium-sized portions. They cook faster than conventional ovens so they consume less electricity.

· Cook and iron clothes early in the morning and late in the evening as much as possible. This helps to keep the house cool during the hot time.

· When using charcoal or fuelwood for cooking, cook the first dish on the first stove. A few minutes before cooking is done, transfer it to a stove with lesser heat. Then, cook the second dish on the stove with high heat. Always plan what dish to cook, so charcoal and fuelwood use can be regulated.

Electrical or gas stoves and range

Refrigerators and freezers

· Avoid repeated opening and closing of the refrigerator door. Close the door quickly to keep heat from entering.

· Defrost regularly. Thick frost on the walls of the freezer acts as an insulating blanket which causes the motor to work overtime, resulting in increased power consumption.

· Keep refrigerator and freezer settings at appropriate temperatures. Set refrigerators at 4°C and freezers at about minus 15°C.

· Remove dust from the compressor units and condenser coils at the back of the refrigerator every three to four months. Clean condenser coils allow for proper cooling.

· Cool foods to room temperature before storing in the refrigerator. Placing warm food in the refrigerator increases the temperature inside, thereby increasing power consumption.

· Place the refrigerator far enough from the stove or range so that it will not be affected by the heat generated. Install it where air can circulate freely around it.

· If you are buying a new refrigerator or freezer, choose energy-efficient models. Manual-defrost freezers consume less energy than automatic-defrost models. Chest freezers save more energy than upright freezers. They are better insulated and the cold air does not escape when the doors are opened.

Refrigeration and freezers

Other electrical appliances or gadgets

· Turn off electric fans when not in use. Never leave an electric fan on when there is nobody around.

· Maximize the use of a fan timer. This helps regulate the time a fan is needed to cool the area/room.

· Clean fan blades and motor regularly to make it more efficient.

· Unplug electrical appliances when not in use.

· Use the electric iron efficiently. A hand iron consumes more power than a colored TV set.

Other electrical appliances or gadgets


Ruth Caplan. Our Earth, Ourselves. Bantam Books, 1990.

Mynard Macaraig. How Green is Your Home? A Filipino Primer on Home Ecology. Earth Station, 1991.

Home Greenhouse Saver. Greenhouse Unit, Office of the Environment, Victoria, Australia.
Surviving the Coming Summer' Metrognome.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Car care for the environment


Using cars, instead of walking, obviously consumes gasoline, aside from the fact that motor vehicles spew pollution on the air. It also takes up more space in an already congested city and distracts government attention from mass transit systems. Minimizing the use of private cars will shore up the economy, conserve fuel, lessen pollution and traffic and encourage the government to develop public transportation.

But, for those who own cars, here are the important things to do:

· Keep the car in good running condition. Have regular tune-ups and check-ups, such as changing oil, wheel-balancing and spark plug checks.

· Check with the local car dealer for any energy-efficiency and environment-friendly car gadgets to be availed of.

· Lessen the burden that the car has to carry. Take all unnecessary junks out of the trunk.

· Instead of warming up the car in the morning by letting the engine idle, warm it up by driving slowly and gently (as though bottles are balanced on the hood) for the first 15 minutes of the trip. This way, every bit of gasoline consumption will be used in actual travel.

· Use car air conditioner only when needed. Air conditioners increase fuel consumption and make the engine work harder, causing it to produce more pollution.

· Keep the car cooler by parking it in shaded areas or even painting it a lighter color so it won't absorb too much heat.

· Drive at a steady pace. Minimize braking by anticipating changes in speed and taking your foot off the gas as soon as you see a red light or slowed traffic. This lessens gasoline consumption and saves wear-and tear on the engine, brakes and tires.

· If you are going to stop the car for more than a minute, turn the engine off. The gas consumed by one minute of idling is more than that consumed by restarting a car.

· Don't fill the tank to the brim. Even with a gasoline cap on, some fuel can spill out. Leave some space for heat expansion.

· Join or form a car pool with well-planned schedules and practical routes to follow. This is a better way to eliminate unnecessary trips, to save fuel consumption and prolong life service of your car.


How Green is Your Home? A Filipino Primer on Home Ecology. 1991.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Alternative transportation

Perhaps, it would be best for the environment and for the country if private cars were not used at all. This helps in a way to conserve fuel, lessen pollution and traffic. Minimizing the use of private cars will encourage the government to develop and improve the public transportation system.

Take public transportation for commuting; this keeps at least one car off the road.

Public transportation

If possible, organize and join a car pool in your neighborhood, school or workplace.

Car pool

Choose vehicles that produce the least pollution, such as better-maintained buses, light rail (LRTs) and railroad transits (Metro Train).

LRTS and metro train

If advisable, ride a scooter or a bike. Scooters consume less fuel than a motorcycle and bicycles consume none at all.

Scooters and bicycles

Short trips to the nearby grocery can easily be done on a bicycle. Mount a basket on the bicycle to make things easier.

Basket on the bicycle

For longer trips across the city, try to plot a safe and proper route through less busy side streets and minimize passing through congested intersections

Safe route


How Green is your Home? A Filipino Primer on Home Ecology. 1991.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Water power

What is water power?

Waterpower or hydropower is the energy contained in moving water as it falls downhill towards the sea. This energy can be traced to the water cycle lowered by the sun, which causes water to evaporate from lakes and oceans, carries it as clouds over land masses and deposits it as rains.

The pulling force of gravity gives water above sea level stored or potential energy. As the water rushes downhill towards the sea, this potential energy is converted into moving or kinetic energy. The tremendous power of moving water pushes against anything in its path, displacing huge boulders and tree trunks and, over the course of centuries, carving valleys between mountains. This power can be harnessed to do useful work.

Moving water can be used to spin a wheel or turbine by falling from an intake or head pond to a lower reservoir or tail water. The resulting movement can either provide direct mechanical energy or drive an electrical generator. The vertical height between the upper reservoir and the tailwater is known as the head and can be used with water flow rate to calculate the expected power output.

Water in the nature

Parts of a Hydropower Installation

Parts of a Hydropower Installation

There are three elements in a hydroelectric scheme:

· the dam;
· the penstock or channel down which the water flows to the hydropower machine; and,
· the hydropower machine.


In any hydropower scheme, water must be diverted from a river or stream to the hydropower device. One way to do this is to completely dam the stream and feed the water to the hydropower device via a penstock. This is called a regulated system. Building a dam across a large river is a major construction job. Another way, called a run-of-the-river method, is to divert only part of the stream with a small dam or weir, conveying the water to the hydropower machine by flumes, canals and/or penstocks. This method is often the best choice for small-scale hydro installations.

Dams fulfill several functions:

1. By storing power behind them, they ensure the regular flow of water to the turbine or waterwheel even during times when the flow of water is low. Stored water in a dam is stored (potential) energy. Stored water in a dam can also be used for fish farming, irrigation and recreational purposes.

2. Dams raise the head of a stream, thereby increasing the easily obtained power. In a small stream, the head can be raised several meters by choosing an appropriate site for building a dam.

3. Dams enable easy diversion of water to the turbine or waterwheel. In a run- of-the-river system, a partial dam simply diverts some of the flow into a canal (called a headrace) or flume which carries it to the hydropower device. In a regulated installation, the water flow is completely blocked and fed directly into the hydropower machine located below the dam.

Depending upon the size of the hydropower installation, dams are built of concrete, stone, wood or even earth. Partial dams are usually easier to build than full dams. Because a dam burst will cause considerable damage downstream, structures called spillways are always part of the scheme, allowing excess water to escape from the dam. The smaller the dam, the safer it is and the easier and cheaper it is to build.

Flumes, headrace canals and penstocks

Every hydropower installation requires some means of conveying water from the dammed stream to the hydropower device. The water should be conveyed with as little head loss and expense as possible.

Headrace canals and flumes are open channels built with very slight gradient so that little energy is lost from the water as it travels through them. Penstocks are pipes used to carry water from the dam or forebay to turbines.

Long penstocks are quite expensive. Often, the penstock is anchored into the ground to prevent it from shifting position. Water rubbing against the inside of the pipe and against bends in the penstock cause head loss which reduces available power.

Control and screening of water flow

Water flowing into a hydropower installation should be controlled to prevent damage to the hydropower device during floods and to allow for occasional maintenance. Penstocks have control valves and/or gates in the forebay which can limit flow. Waterwheel installations have sluice gates (wood or metal panels which can be closed or opened) for controlling water flow.

Water entering hydropower installations must be free from foreign matters, such as leaves and sand.

Trashracks (grates or screens which prevent the passage of solids) are used in turbine and waterwheel installations. Trashracks must be cleaned on a regular basis to prevent materials from clogging the screen or grates.

Types of hydropower devices

1. Waterwheels are large, slow-spinning wheels with attached paddles or buckets which are turned by the force of moying water. They are mainly used for mechanical work such as grinding.

2. Turbines have fast-spinning blades (called runners) that are turned by the pressure or impact forces of moving water. The most common application of turbines is electrical generation, though they can be used for mechanical work.

3. Hydraulic rams use the momentum of water moving through an inclined drive pipe to push part of that water uphill through a delivery pipe to a place where it is required.

Large and small hydropower schemes

Developments in hydropower are taking place at the two extremes of project size.

Dam costs

Huge dams can make a substantial contribution to economic development. On the face of it, hydroelectricity is cheap, renewable and nonpolluting and, thus, is seen es a major source of energy. (In 1987, almost 20 percept of the world's electricity was supplied by hydropower.) Dams are also seen es haying an important pert to play in the battle against world hunger, by providing water for irrigation projects. Large dams also provide water storage and flood control. But they are not unreservedly good:

· Reservoirs inundate forests, farmland and wildlife habitats and uproot entire communities of indigenous peoples. If China proceeds with its Three Gorges project -- the world's largest at 13,000 megawatts -several million people will be displaced.

· Impounding a river severely disrupts the surrounding ecosystems. Dams permanently change the flow of rivers and streams. They cause the water table to be raised upstream and lowered downstream, the altered flow and lowered downstream and the altered flow of water affect the downstream inhabitants and ecosystems. A dam traps silt and, thus, valuable nutrients are neither deposited on floodplain farmland nor provide food for downstream fish. Before the Aswan Dam was built, sardine catches in the eastern Mediterranean totalled 18,000 tonnes a year: by 1969, the catch was down to 500 tonnes a year. The 100 million tonnes of sediments deposited on farmland fell to just a few tonnes and to compensate for the loss, Egypt must apply artificial fertilizer at a cost of about $100 million a year.

· Reservoirs in tropical environments expand the breeding grounds for the carriers of malaria, bilharzia (schistosomiasis) and river blindness. In Ghana, before the Volta Dam was built, the rate of infection for bilharzia was 2 percent; now, it is 80 percent.

· The reservoirs behind many large dams, especially those downstream from deforested watersheds, have silted up much faster than anticipated. This shortens the working life of the projects, sometimes by decades.

Micro-hydroelectric power: its strengths and weaknesses


· Micro-hydro power provides a renewable, non-polluting energy source.

· Micro-hydro power can meet the needs of many small industrial processes, such as the milling of flour. rice hulling, coffee processing, sugar cane crushing, sawmills, bakeries and other small workshops.

· Micro-hydro power creates employment through encouraging the creation of small-scale industries.

· A low-cost alternative to diesel, micro-hydro power can serve areas where national electric supplies cannot reach.

· Most of the needed equipment, such as turbines, can be manufactured locally.

· Micro-hydro power provides power for domestic use, such as lighting and cooking, thereby reducing the burden on dwindling forest cover.


· The initial cost for installing a micro-hydro plant may be too expensive for a community.

· A wide range of technical skills is required to survey, design, manufacture and install micro-hydro systems and also, where applicable, to identity and adapt equipment for industrial activities that can be powered by the plant. In many developing countries, the skills required for such a project are not generally available at a local level.

· Micro-hydro power requires land areas of adequate annual rainfall and hilly terrain to work efficiently.


The Earth Report: The Essential Guide to Global Ecological Issues ed. Edward Goldsmith and Nicholas Hildyard, Mitchell Beazley Publishers, London, 1988.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Coastal resources conservation

Coastal resources conservation

The Philippines faces immense challenges. The urgent need for economic progress comes under conditions of a booming population, insufficient development resources and overexploited natural resources. Being an archipelago with an extensive coast line (17,000 km²) and territorial waters more then seven times its total land area, the country's coasts are characterized by mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, seaweed beds, beaches and coral reefs. However, due to pressures from an increasing population and the drive towards industrial development, these coastal resources have been exploited such that conservation and protection have been overlooked.

From an original mangrove vegetation of approximately 500,000 ha in the 1920s, about 130,000 ha are left today, with only about a third representing old growths or mature trees. Most of these forests have already been converted to aquaculture ponds. Potential yields from coral reefs have been found at a range of 0.8 to 5 t/km²/year, yet it has been observed that intensively exploited reefs in the Philippines yield as much as 14-20 t/km²/year. Regretably, this cannot be sustained. Fish yields are not only a function of how much fishing but also of the kind of fishing. Fish production can be reduced immensely by habitat destruction. This includes destructive fishing practices such as the use of dynamite, poisons and gears like seines and trawls which scrape across the bottom and disrupt the production of fish food or spawning of fish. Also, coastal areas functionally serve as the receptacle of most, if not all, waste materials that are generated by land-based activities such as agriculture, aquaculture and mining. Indiscriminate logging, on the other hand, promotes erosion that leads to sedimentation of rivers and eventually the coastal waters. This effectively suffocates marine organisms. At present, live coral cover stands at 33,036 km² with only an estimated five percent classified to be in excellent condition. This lamentable situation must be changed.

Below are various ways by which sustainable use can be effected.

Conservation measures

1. Individual Level

· Conservation is not the sole responsibility of the authorities. Each person should do his or her share in ensuring that the environment is adequately protected.

· Be aware of pertinent laws and follow them (e.g., use non-destructive fishing methods).

· Reuse materials (e.g., paper, plastic) to lessen the garbage produced.

· Use recycled paper. This means that less trees will be cut in the process.

· Throw rubbish in trash cans and avoid littering the beaches. Not only is this aesthetically pleasing and sanitary but this would also prevent polluting the water. Likewise, plastics which find their way into the sea could suffocate fishes. These plastics could also be accidentally swallowed by other organisms which could then prove fatal for them.

· Avoid stepping on corals. An inch of its branch, for example, actually took one year to grow.

· Do not catch endangered species (e.g., green turtles, dugongs).

· Do not patronize/buy products derived from endangered species (e.g., turtle shell).

· Avoid gathering live corals and shells for purposes of displaying them later.

· Report observed anomalies or violations of environmental and fisheries laws.

· Participate actively in productive community endeavours (e.g., being deputized to help law enforcers).


2. Community Level

· Indeed, there is strength in numbers. An organized and environmentally aware community (especially one with a strong fishermen's organization/cooperative) has the power to achieve more, in terms of number and scale. conservation and other related efforts.

· Seek advise from appropriate government agencies and/or tap nongovernment organizations for desired community organizing, financial and technical information and technologies.

· Establish marine protected areas, mangrove revegetation/seagrass transplantation sites and artificial reefs to rehabilitate degraded areas.

· Establish set-back lines (area from the waterline up to a designated distance) to ensure public access and to serve as protection against erosion.

· Designate areas for anchoring boats to minimize damage to seagrasses and corals.

· Advocate non-destructive fishing methods (e.g., use of net in aquarium fishing).

· Assist law enforcers in patrolling fishing areas.

· Engage in ecologically sound tourism activities and appropriate livelihood projects to augment income or a different source of living from capture fisheries while implementing long-term projects such as mangrove reforestation.

· Establish support facilities (e.g., cooperatives) to ensure greater returns. This should further motivate fisherfolks to continue with their conservation efforts.

· Support health programs with special emphasis on discouraging undue population growth and promotion of proper industrial and domestic waste disposal.

· Share experiences through fisherfolk-to-fisherfolk technology development dissemination and promotion activities. In the process, stronger links can be established among fishermen's organizations.

Protected area

3. National Level

The adoption of policies supportive of conservation would ensure complementary national activities.

Policies on environmental education, the implementation of zoning in appropriate areas, strengthening institutional capabilities and consultation with the people should be given serious consideration. It is also important to note that pollution problems may very well increase as industrialization increases in the tropics, particularly under impetus from some of the more developed countries to transfer the most polluting industries to developing countries.

If necessary, legislation should be given more teeth or incentives be provided in order to improve law enforcement practices. This includes effective control of the availability of blasting caps that are sometimes used in blast fishing.

In summary, the rate of exploitation can be checked through the concerted efforts of all sectors.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit November 23 - 28, 1992

Environment-friendly aquaculture

Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic animals (fishes, shrimps, crabs, shells) and plants. It may involve seed production (hatchery-nursery) and grow-out production phases. It may be undertaken in land-based or water-based enclosures, either in fresh, brackish and marine waters.

In the Philippines, aquaculture has steadily increased its contribution to total fisheries production from only 13.7 percent in 1978 to 25.3 percent in 1987. Milkfish and tilapia farming has contributed significantly to the domestic fish supply and shrimp farming to export earnings.

While aquaculture can have considerable economic benefits, it can also have adverse environmental (socioeconomic and ecological) effects:

· Poor farming communities become poorer, with more of the benefits accruing to those already with money.

· Former natural habitats become fragmented.

· Soil, water and landscape qualities deteriorate.

· Animal and plant diversities decline.

· Harmful chemicals and microbes get into common waters.

However, this needs not be the case if aquaculture facilities are properly planned, operated, managed and monitored. Some actions aquaculture practitioners and the general public (through advocacy) can take for environment-friendly aquaculture are as follows:

· Go for sustainable, low-input, high-yield aquaculture systems.

Integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems (fish-rice, fish-livestock, etc.).

Semi-intensive farming (with less feed, fertilizer and pesticides inputs) rather than intensive farming.

Seafarming (seaweed farms, oyster/mussel culture, fish cages in open marine waters) rather than in inland waters and mangrove swamps.

Polyculture (milk-fish with shrimp, crab with seabass), rather than single-species culture.

· Select native species that feed low on the food chain (plant feeders), grow fast, breed naturally, are disease-resistant and hardy. This obviates the need for feeds and chemicals, such as fertilizers, pesticides, antibiotics and hormones. Exotic species (which may carry diseases and pests or displace local populations) must not be farmed unless they have gone through a very stringent quarantine.

· Select proper sites for aquaculture facilities to minimize the environmental impact. Consider other uses and users of the sites. Go for sustainable and equitable development.

· Conduct a thorough, honest socioeconomic and ecological impact assessment before proceeding with the implementation. Ask who benefits or profits and who loses in terms of jobs and income; how much land, energy, water, labor and other resources are diverted from other uses; how the wastes will affect the surrounding community.

· Practice and promote proper pond/cage/tank preparation and management. Keep buffer strips of mangroves or other trees around the ponds to minimize erosion. Minimize pond tillage that exposes acid soils. If feeds are necessary, use the appropriate kind and amount.

· Oppose the clearing of mangrove forests, wetlands and other virgin areas for new ponds. Replant mangroves or other trees along the dikes of ponds.

· Oppose stream modification and massive ground water extraction for aquaculture. They can lead to flooding, land subsidence (sinking) and reduced water supply.

· Keep freshwater fishponds weed-free and well-stocked to control mosquitoes. Be aware of the waterborne diseases present in the locality and assess whether ponds significantly add to the risks of contraction by farm workers, fish handlers and consumers. Seek professional advice from public health workers.

· Support the ban of the production, sale and use of antibiotics, hormones and pesticides in food production.

· Clean (properly treat) the waste water from aquaculture facilities to prevent adverse effects on other water users. In shrimp farms, set aside some filter ponds stocked with filter-feeding mussels and nutrient consuming seaweeds. Route the waste water (with the excess feeds and other wastes) through the filter pond before disposal into coastal waters. Since antibiotics, pesticides and hormones cannot be removed from waste waters, do not use these chemicals.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit November 23 - 28, 1992

Soil and water conservation in upland farms

Soil and water conservation in upland farms

· Construct small water impounding projects (SWIPs), small farm reservoirs and small dugout ponds to catch rainwater and runoff. Fish species, such as tilapia, can be raised for food, income, mosquito control or other benefits.

· Construct terraces (broadbase or bench terrace) along the contour of upland slopes to conserve soil moisture and facilitate efficient distribution of water, especially in rough terrain. Contour canals, which are part of terrace systems, can help to channel water into farm ponds and reservoirs.

· Spread chopped grasses or rice straw over the soil surface to completely cover the soil and minimize evaporation. Collect grasses and weeds during farm weeding and trimming of plants. For sloping and rolling lands planted to close-growing crops (e.g., pasture crop), adapt contour ditch irrigation to allow water flow down the slope between adjacent field ditches. The field ditches should be spaced fairly close to each other in order that the irrigation water can be applied uniformly.

· Protect watersheds and support reforestation efforts in the country. A well-vegetated watershed can store more water and will minimize silting of reservoirs.

· Practice contour tillage which is the practice of conducting farming operations (e.g., plowing, harrowing) along the contour rather than up and down the slope.

· Plant trees on the farm or in the home lot. Trees help to improve microclimates and can enhance the water storage capacity of a farm.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Water conservation in lowland farms

Water conservation in lowland farms

Use water efficiently, minimize conveyance and distribution losses, percolation and seepage and wasteful use on the farm.

Irrigation canal

· Check canal and canal structures regularly for any leaks or structures which are not functioning properly. Repair damaged parts or structures immediately.

· Install water monitoring devices (e.g., weir, cut-throat flume, etc.) to ensure efficient water use.

· Control the amount of water applied, based on determined water demand and normal irrigation schedule.

· Cut grasses on irrigation canals. Remove debris which obstructs the flow of water.

· Remove silt which deposits along canal bottoms. Silt lessens the water capacity and flow of irrigation canals.

· If a canal passes through highly porous soils, provide a canal lining using impermeable materials (e.g., concrete).

Paddy field

· Level paddy fields properly for an even distribution of water which is applied to the paddy.

· Maintain a paddy dike height of not less than 20 cm. This will prevent water from flowing over the top of the paddy and spillage during paddy to paddy irrigation. This also allows more room for storage of rainfall water as it is accumulated, especially during the rainy season.

· Compact and plaster paddy dikes thoroughly to eliminate excessive water loss due to seepage.

· During lowland irrigation, be sure to close all spillways used in upland irrigation to reduce water loss.

· Practice crop diversification after wet season rice crop. This helps to minimize the excessive use of water in rice monocropping system and to maximize the utilization of residual soil moisture throughout the dry season.

Upland crops

· Use mulch (cut rice straw and grasses) to minimize evaporation from the soil surface and to conserve water stored in the root zone.

· Apply terminal irrigation (last application) when the standing crop is about to be harvested. This helps to maintain soil moisture at optimum levels for tillage and land preparation for the next crop.

· Synchronize fertilizer application to be applied immediately before normal irrigation schedule in order to optimize the nutrients available in the fertilizer which are soluble (released) in water.

· If furrow irrigation is adapted, avoid overly long furrows to prevent excessive water losses which will occur from deep percolation or water entering the soil.

· The use of portable plastic tubing or pressurized irrigation system (e.g., drip irrigation, microsprinkler, etc.) has shown to be cost-effective and water-efficient for areas which are not currently served by existing irrigation services. However, these systems require a relatively high initial capital investment.

Water conservation in farm households

Water conservation in farm households

Ensure that the right amount of water is used in a proper manner and at the right time.

· Place water storage tanks that collect and store rainwater from roof of the houses and other buildings.

· If the water source is a spring, build an enclosed reservoir where water from the spring can be collected. Make it a community project rather than an individual household project.

· Where possible, excess water from the spring can be diverted to communal fish ponds where fish can be cultured.

· If a ground well with a hand pump is used, provide an adjustable downspout located close to the ground to minimize splashes.

· Excess run-off water from a ground well can be drained into small ditches leading to the irrigation of vegetable gardens.

· Soak dirty farm implements and tools for easier cleaning.

· Water backyard gardens during the cool part of the day (early morning or late afternoon) and avoid too frequent watering.

· When watering plants, use a pail and small can with tiny holes at the bottom.

· Provide drinking trough for animals.

· Use mulch (cut straw or grasses) to minimize surface evaporation from your garden and reduce weed problems.

· Soak heavily soiled clothes before washing to remove large stains.

· Save rinse water from home for use in cleaning animal pens/houses.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Water conservation at home and in the workplace

Deforestation, pollution and periodic droughts in the Philippines give urgency to the need for water conservation. Today, drinking water is a precious commodity; everyone must do his/her share in water conservation, so that more water is available for all.



· Conduct periodic checks of faucets in your home (especially before retiring for the night), in the office or in the workplace. (This will also help to reduce your water bill.) To check if there are leaks in the internal plumbing and fixtures, shut off all faucets. If the water meter continues to run, the fixtures need repair or there is a leak in the water supply system.

· Replacing washers of dripping faucets will help save water. One drip per second can waste 700 gallons of water each year. If it is hot water, fuel, as well as water, is wasted.

· Look out for faucets which leak at the base. The whole faucet may have to be replaced, not just the washer.


· Avoid unnecessary flushing.

· Check the toilet for leaks, not just the leaks from the bathroom pipes and faucets but leaks from the water closet. A normal toilet should not leak water from the water tank into the bowl until the flush is pulled. To check, put food coloring in the water tank. If the coloring shows up in the bowl a few minutes later, your tank may be slowly and invisibly leaking gallons of water away. Repairs are urgently needed.

· Place a brick or a larger plastic bottle filled with water or adjust the floater to reduce the amount of water entering the tank. This lessens the amount of water used to flush a toilet.

· Recycled water from other chores can be saved in a bucket and used to flush the toilet.



· Taking a shower instead of bathing in a tub consumes less water. If done correctly, the balde at tabo system consumes even less water. When taking a shower, turn off the water while shampooing and soaping; turn it on when you are ready to rinse.

· Recycle soapy water (except those with strong detergents) for flushing toilets and cleaning drive ways. During dry spells, recycled water may even be used to water plants.


· If you have a bath tub, shut the drain, allow the water to accumulate during the shower and then scoop it into a bucket for recycling.

· Another way is to bathe within a wash basin so the water is automatically collected in the basin and can then be saved for later use.

Antoher way

Washing and shaving

· Shut off the faucet when not in use. Do not leave the tap running while brushing your teeth. Instead, use a glass filled with water.

· When washing hands or face, use a basin to catch splashing water which can be recycled.

· Just as in bathing, you can save the water used in washing your hands and face or even brushing your teeth by placing a small bucket in the basin.

Washing and shaving

Saving rainwater

· Accumulate a large amount of water swiftly by using wide containers. A shallow plastic basin is preferable to a deep bucket.

· Catch the water that comes down from rain gutters on the roof of the house. You can fill an entire barrel just by catching the water that would normally go down the drain.

· Use collected water for bathing, cleaning and watering the plants. Between rains, empty the barrel to keep mosquitoes from breeding.

Households with a non-pipe water system can still follow the tips given above. They have greater advantages in water conservation provided they adapt the following suggestions:

· Fill containers with water and place where they are needed, as in the kitchen, bathroom and laundry area.

· Provide a tabo to scoop the water from containers to be used and a basin to catch used water.

· Save recycled water for later use.

Saving rainwater

Use rainwater


· Water the garden early in the morning or after sunset. This minimizes the water that is lost due to evaporation.

· Use soaker hoses instead of sprinklers which let the water soak into the soil.

· Use mulch. Mulch is any big-degradable material, such as nut shells, straws, pine needles, clipped leaves and grass which is used to cover the soil. It reduces evaporation and keeps the roots cool, lessening the need for water.

· Select and use plants that need less water.


Doing the dishes

· Do not keep the water running while washing dishes.

· Minimize the use of water first by rinsing the dishes in warm water to remove grease. Then, fill a bowl with a mixture of washing liquid and hot water. Dip a brush or scrubber into this mixture and use it to scrub the dishes. Start with glassware, then cutlery and plates and, lastly, pots and pans. Set all the scrubbed but unrinsed dishes aside until they are all done. Then, rinse them all at once in cold running water and allow them to dry in a dish rack.

· Another way: First, wipe the greasy dishes with crumpled newspapers. Prepare a basin half-full of tap water. Dip the cutlery first, then plates and, lastly, pots and pans to easily remove food residues. Transfer the used water into a bucket. In a bowl, prepare a mixture of dissolved detergent and a tablespoon of vinegar. Soap the dishes and kitchen utensills, starting with the nongreasy ones (e.g., glassware are first, then utensils starting with the nongreasy ones (e.g. glassware first then cutlery and plates and, lastly, pots and pans). Put clean water into the basin and rinse the dishes accordingly. Save the used water and rinse the dishes again until thoroughly clean. Always save used water for future use.

Doing the dishes

Doing the laundry

· Soak very dirty clothes first to easily remove the dirt.

· Use a basin or washtub.

· Do not let the basin overflow under a running tap.

· Use the right amount of detergent so that less rinsing is required.

· Save the rinse water for flushing the toilet or for cleaning the garage.


How Green is Your Home? A Filipino Primer on Home Ecology. 1991.
Water Saving Tips (MWSS).

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Save trees for our survival

Save trees for our survival

Trees have a major contribution to the existence of human society and are important for our survival. Trees offer food, shelter, clothing, medicine and other household, industrial and commercial material requirements. Trees provide a natural ecological balance which helps to reduce floods and droughts and prevent soil erosion. More trees also mean the production of more biomass which enhances soil fertility and soil structure. Trees are very essential in minimizing air pollution by converting carbon dioxide into life-giving oxygen and preventing the earth from warming. Lastly, trees balance the ecology, playing a critical role in global biodiversity.

How to save trees

· Minimize the use of all kinds of paper and paper by-products; when possible, reuse or recycle all paper products.

· Support a total log ban in all protected forested areas.

· Support the search for alternative live lihood activities for people living in the upland and in other protected areas. Kaingin practices, which are dependent upon new forested areas, are not sustainable and can lead to the depletion of tree resources.

· Avoid wood-cutting in the lowland and upland areas.

· Collect tree seeds and establish tree nurseries. Use tree seedlings in tree-planting campaigns.

· Organize and mobilize groups to faciIitate the protection, conservation and monitoring of forests and other protected areas. This requires continuous education and advocacy campaigns.

· Establish environmental networks among people's organizations, nongovernmental organizations, academe, business groups, religious organizations and churches, individuals and concerned government agencies.

· Enhance the political will of government agencies which have a mandate to enforce existing environmental laws. Lobby congress and other policymakers for the establishment and enforcement of environmental policies.

How to propagate and maintain trees

· Whenever possible, select and use locally available and adaptable seeds for lowland and midland areas. Plant medicinal and fruit trees and other trees that could generate immediate economic returns.

· For a higher survival rate, plant seeds in a tree nursery. Use black plastic bag, when available.

· Transplant seedlings in suitable soil type and appropriate locations. Be careful not to touch or damage the roots when transplanting.

· Water the trees regularly. (Most soil indicates proper watering practices.)

· Plant replacement trees of at least three years prior to cutting down the mature trees. Also plant trees after strong winds, typhoon, landslides, etc.

· Visit your trees regularly. Ensure proper fertilization and weed control. Nurture the trees to ensure proper growth.

· Fence off the trees to keep out animals and children.

· Learn and observe special propagation and maintenance requirements of trees that you plant.


Green Alert-Negros Environmental Network Leaflets. M.A. Velasco, 1992.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23-28, 1992

Environment-friendly use of firewood

Environment-friendly use of firewood

Wood is the most widely used source of renewable biomass energy, with over half the wood cut each year being burned as home fuel (directly or as charcoal). Utilization of fuelwood or firewood contributes to deforestation, especially of mangroves/swamp and rural areas. Burning wood also adds to the build-up of greenhouse gases.

To be renewable, firewood must be regrown faster than it is harvested. Many developing countries are already experiencing severe wood shortages. To make firewood a sustainable energy source, it must be properly planted, managed and harvested. Firewood must also be properly prepared and dried for use.

Remember: Dry wood makes a difference in:

- lighting the fire;
- the amount of smoke produced;
- the time taken to boil water and cook food; and,
- the amount of wood use.

The drier the wood, the better it burns.
The better it burns, the less wood we need.
The less wood we need, the more trees we save.

Ways to utilize firewood with minimum environmental damage

· Gather fallen branches, twigs or dead trees, when possible, rather than cutting or felling live trees for firewood.

· Carefully harvest firewood from live trees. Cut correctly.

- Lopping is cutting the side branch off the trunk of a tree. Make two cuts, one from the top and one from the bottom of the branch to prevent tearing.

- Coppicing is cutting certain species of trees (e.g., ipil-ipil, acacia) down to a stump of 10-30 cm above ground. Make the cut clean and angled so new shoots can regrow. Coppicing should be done only on trees three to four meters high, with good root systems and only during the wet season.

- Pollarding is cutting the branches at the top of trees (only certain species like acacia). This method stimulates the growth of new, better-formed and more productive crown and reduces shade, allowing intercropping with short plants.

· Prepare firewood properly. Cut the log into equal short pieces (20-25 cm long). Split the logs into smaller, thinner pieces to increase the exposed surface area for faster drying. Dry firewood burns better.

- To prevent back injury: Cut big logs with a saw on an elevated stool. Split logs with an axe on a block.

· Dry cut firewood thoroughly, i.e., allow enough time for drying before using.

Stack them neatly to dry under a shed.

- It helps to have an elevated wood pile with three sections. Wet firewoods go into the first section, are transferred to the next as they get drier and are used up in last section. A layer of wood ash on the ground prevents insects from attacking the firewood.

· Use efficient wood stoves. Practice efficient cooking habits (e.g., cook in large rather than small amounts, several rather than single items).

· Plant firewood species preferably on lands also used for food production or lands not suitable for other uses.

· Try local alternatives to fuelwood: charcoal and DRY coconut husks, rice straws, corn stalks and driftwood.

· Do not clear forests for firewood. Firewood is renewable, but forests are not.

Utilize firewood with minimum environmental damage


Cooking to Conserve: Energy Conservation Lessons for Upper Primary School Home Science Classes. Bellerive Foundation, P.O. Box 42994, Nairobi, Kenya.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Making a haybasket cooker

What you will need

· a basket at least 35 cms deep and 35 cms in diameter
· a piece of cloth
· a needle
· thread
· scissors
· 1 sack of insulating material (very dry hay or grass, wood shavings or newspapers)
· cooking pan 30 cms in diameter with a well-fitting lid
· a flat stone approximately the same diameter as the pan

Measuring from the top, make a mark on the inside of the basket at 25 cms. Fill the basket of this line with the insulating material.

Place your pan in the center of the piece of cloth. Collect the corners of the cloth above the centre of pan, making a bag.

Place this bag containing the pan on top of the insulating material in the basket. Firmly pack more insulating material inside the basket, around the bag and up to the top of the basket.

Open out the bag and tuck the edges of the cloth down between the insulating material and the inside of the basket. Stitch the cloth to the top rim of the basket.

Make a cushion which is slightly larger than the lid of the pan, filling it with the same insulating material. This will be placed on top of the pan as extra insulation.

Turn the lid upside down and fill it with insulating material. Then cover it with a piece of cloth.

Tuck the edges of the cloth between the insulating material and the inside of the lid. Stitch the cloth all the way around, along the inside corner of the basket lid.,

Advantages of fireless cooking

· It produces tasty food that keeps its shape and colour.
· It is almost impossible to burn or overcook food as the temperature decreases gradually.
· It makes even tough meat quite tender.
· Food is more nutritious. As food only boils briefly, nutrients are not destroyed.
· It requires much less fuel; energy consumption is reduced by 3 to 20 times.
· It is safe for children as they cannot get burned.
· It is easy to use. It takes less of the cook's time: there is no fire to be watched.
· During hot weather, the kitchen stays cool.
· Food can be kept warm for a long time for family or friends who arrive late.

Advantages of fireless cooking

Using a haybasket cooker

Now, that we have made a haybasket cooker, let's look at how to use it. When a hot pan of food is placed on top of the hot stone inside the basket, all the heat is trapped inside. This heat will continue to cook the food and keep it hot.

1. Bring to a boil the food in a pot covered well with a lid. Let the food simmer for a short time. At the same time, get a flat stone very hot. Remember to use a stone approximately the same diameter as the pan.

2. Put the heated stone in the bottom of the haybasket. Position the covered pan of hot food on top of it.

3. Place the cushion, then the insulated lid on top of the pan and leave the food to cook slowly.

Haybasket cooker


Outreach No. 83.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

What not to do with wildlife

Do not hunt, kill or trap. You may be driving an important species to extinction.

Do not destroy/disturb the habitat. Remember habitats are where wildlife live.

Do not feed the animals in the mini-zoos. This may be dangerous for you and the animal.

Do not cultivate a taste for dishes made of wildlife, their eggs or their nests.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Stop wildlife trade

Wildlife trade must be controlled because it is one major cause of the depletion and loss of our country's biodiversity. Adapt appropriate techniques in organizing, information/education and networking in doing the following activities:

Weaken wildlife demand/markets.
(For cities)

· Investigate the markets of live wildlife, materials and finished products from them. Possible places to investigate:

- pet shops;
- animal collectors and pet raisers;
- restaurants and other food outlets;
-businesses involved in fashion accessories, guitar-making; and,
- manufacturers of shoes, bags, belts, etc.

· Trace sources/souppliers of wildlife.

- Ingredients to exotic dishes, e.g., Neal Bird's Nest Soup is made from the nest of Swifts.
- Decorations on guitars come from tortoise shell.
- Bags, shoes, belts may come from reptile and snake skins, animal pelts.
- Fashion jewelry can come from corals, horns and teeth of deers, crocodiles, etc.
- Tortoise shell is also made into jewelry and combs.
- Some ingredients of cosmetics like perfume and lipsticks come from whales, cruets, etc.

· Wildlife demand/markets can be further weakened by the following:

- Campaign against buying live animals or materials made of animal horns, teeth, carapace and corals as gifts. Examples are combs and jewelry from tortoise shells and earrings, pendants, necklaces, brooches and hair clips made of corals, bird feathers, ivory, etc. Pillows may also be stuffed with down.

- Boycott circuses and animal acts. Observe animals in their natural habitats.

- Never buy a caged bird and other wildlife peddled as pets.

- Campaign against/boycott restaurants serving exotic dishes from wildlife as well as those exhibiting wildlife, like talking mynas as added restaurant attraction.

· Make your opposition known. Write, visit, call, take advantage of suggestion boxes and pre-printed consumer complaint cards. Always explain your suggestions and complaints.

Weaken wildlife demand

Stop trade at its source.
(For communities near resource)

· Identify species being traded, their status (rare, endangered, threatened, endemic, migratory); laws and ordinances protecting wildlife; community values which favor or deter conservation actions.

· Create an environment hostile to wildlife collection, hunting, poaching, trapping, etc. Some ways of doing this are:

- Deny hunters access to land to hunt on (educate and organize private land owners).
- Make noise, dismantle traps, alert forest guards (in public lands).

· Explore and promote alternative livelihood -- conservation schemes for wildlife gatherers. Example: beekeeping projects.

Huntins prohibited

Controlling transport/trafficking

· Collaborate with transport companies on the denial of carriage of wild animals.

· Collaborate with Philippine Coast Guard assigned in your locality for the strict enforcement of laws protecting wildlife.

· Publicly commend support extended to wildlife conservation. On the other hand, be cautious and sparing with criticisms, except when there is no action after several appeals, petitions and dialogues

· Report exportation and importation of rare and endangered wildlife. The Philippines is a signatory to the CITES Treaty.

Controlling transport/trafficking

List of agencies to contact for reporting wildlife trade:

· Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB, DENR)

· Philippine Coast Guard

· Haribon Foundation

· Philippine Wetlands and Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Inc.


Goodman, Billy. A Kid's Guide to How to Save the Planet. USA: Byro Press Visual Publications, Inc. 1990.

Newkirk, Ingrid. Save the Animals! 101 Easy Things You Can Do. USA: Warner Backs, Inc. 1990.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Monitoring for the protection of wildlife

Setting up nets during a bird-banding activity and taking biometrics during a bird banding activity

Wildlife provide ecological benefits and contribute to the development of medical science. There is an abundance of wildlife and wildlife resources in the Philippines but these are rapidly vanishing due to habitat destruction, uncontrolled hunting and over-harvesting. Thus, monitoring is important. Monitoring yields data needed to formulate policies, enact laws and regulations and trigger research directed towards wildlife protection and management. Likewise, through monitoring, ecotourism opportunities are identified. Local and international support for conservation efforts are also encouraged.

How to monitor

· Know the wildlife in your locality through observations and interviews.

· Check their status with existing literature (e.g., migratory endemic, rare, endangered) and indicate their numbers. Bird-banding, including biometrics, can be conducted when technical assistance of a wildlife expert is available.

· Describe their habitats. Draw a map. If possible, observe and record habitat changes and the effects of such changes to specific species.

· Find out the attitude of people towards them (e.g., Are these considered pets or are these considered sacred?).

· Find out whether or not these wildlife are protected by laws, by community norms.

· Deposit field reports and records, including documentation materials like photographs or slides, with the wildlife expert in your community. Here are some GOs and NGOs you can contact for assistance.

Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Nature Center, Diliman, Quezon City

Ecosystem Research and Development Bureau (ERDB), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), College, Laguna 4031

Philippine Wetland and Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Inc. (PWWCFI), 295 B. R. Duterte Street, Banawa, Cebu City 6000, Tel. Nos. 210-604/216-729, Fax No. (032) 210-604,

Haribon Foundation, 340 Villamor Street, San Juan, Metro Manila, Tel. Nos. 704316/784179

· Collaborate with media practitioners/wildlife experts in publishing or broadcasting your verified report for the information of community.

· Organize interested parties into a broad alliance to formulate plans. Mobilize the alliance and involve the greatest number of people in the implementation. Evaluate plans, programs and projects regularly.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Special conservation campaigns for selected wildlife species

In some instances, the protection of wildlife is so urgent that special actions are mounted. Examples are the conservation programs for the Philippine Eagle, Black Shama, Marine Turtles, Philippine Crocodile, Spotted Deer and Wild Boar.

Habitat restoration or rehabilitation

You can assist in habitat restoration or rehabilitation by:

· participation in reforestation projects, mangrove replanting and in the establishment of artificial reefs.

Habitat restoration or rehabilitation

Zoo modification and improvement programs

Ideally, wildlife should not be kept in zoos, where these are caged, out of their natural habitats and isolated from their kind. However, some zoos are operated for educational, scientific and tourism purposes. A zoo can be modified by a larger space and by-inclusion of endemic species. You can help in any of the following ways:

· Check zoo conditions and report animal cruelty and poor conditions.

· Promote visits to a good zoo. (i.e., Animals are properly cared for and their living places are clean.)

· Raise funds for animal feeds.

· Volunteer your time/services for simple but necessary chores.

· Conduct information/education campaigns, especially about endangered species inside the zoo.

Zoo modification and improvement programs

Comanagement or the management of specific projects in protected areas

Protected areas are under the responsibility and authority of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. However, the government needs support of people and organizations to properly operate them. Some organizations assist by comanaging these areas while others do by managing a project. There may be something you can also do, like any of the following:

· Volunteer as Park guard, guide, first aider and for other necessary services within your capacity.

· Donate or raise funds for garbage cans, trail signs, water buckets and other materials.

· Suggest improvements in the park site which enhances its ecological balance.

· Promote bird watching and other educational, wholesome activities.

· Conduct information/education campaigns about the wildlife found in the area

Comanagement or the management of specific projects in protected areas

Acquiring property rights of wildlife habitat to preserve an endangered species

Usually, the environmental group opts for this action when the habitat of a wildlife it seeks to preserve is located in private lands. Donations of such lands can be solicited; however, when such is not feasible, there is a need to purchase. You can do any of the following to help the lead/coordinating agency or institution:

· Raise funds.

· Conduct information and education campaigns about the project and its importance.

Acquiring property rights of wildlife habitat to preserve an endangered species

Captive breeding programs

This action is resorted to when the propagation of a race and endangered species-cannot just be left to natural processes in the wilds. Technical resources, sophisticated laboratory equipment and substantial funding may be demanded. Some of the present captive breeding programs in the country are those of the Philippine Eagle conducted by the Philippine Eagle Conservation Foundation in Davao, the Spotted

Deer by the Silliman University in Dumaguete City and the Philippine Crocodile by the DENR in Palawan. You can help in any of the following ways:

· Locate individuals of species in the wilds which are endangered due to habitat destruction, hunting, poaching or are in the custody of pet-raisers and other private individuals. Facilitate their donation to the captive breeding program.

· Conduct information/education campaigns to rehabilitate natural habitats and to protect individuals in the wilds.

· Raise funds for additional research equipment and laboratory facilities.

Captive breeding programs

You can further contribute your time and effort to the support activities of these special conservation campaigns, like community organizing, information/education activities, resource mobilization, etc.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit November 23 - 28, 1992

Saving an endangered endemic bird: the case of the black shama (copysychus cebuensis)

The Black Shama is a small bird endemic to Cebu, which can only be found on this island. Once, it was believed to be extinct; but patient and careful monitoring by Ms. Perla Magsalay revealed that some very small populations exist in several towns. This discovery was significant in the ornithological world.

Black Shama

Bird description

The male Black Shama is entirely black, with a blue gloss at the back and a wattle around the eye. The female has a duller color. Immature birds are brown and spotted. It has a long tail. The bill and feet are black. This bird, known for its melodious calls, breeds between February and September.


With the forest cover of Cebu now reduced to almost nil, the remaining scarce and scattered populations survive in the undergrowth of the patches of secondary forest growth tracts, in bamboo groves and thickets. These populations are highly endangered due to habitat loss caused by deforestation and by real estate development projects.

Saving the Black Shama

Saving the Black Shama includes the following activities:

· Research. The Black Shama Project is a pilot project of the Philippine Wetlands and Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Inc. (PWWCFI) on endemic terrestrial birds. The project site is Casili -- part of which belongs to Mandaue City and the other part belongs to Consolacion, Cebu -- which is one of the known habitats of this bird. This consists of private lands. A real estate development project had acquired a substantial portion of these lands. The further enlargement of developed areas led to a corresponding constriction of the Black Shama habitat. Monitoring activities which were conducted daily revealed the necessity for translocation. Possible translocation sites in the province were identified and assessed. The two most probable sites are Buhisan and the Central Cebu National Park.

· Information Activties. Information was disseminated through special lectures, fore and symposia and broadcast and print media. The media exposure led to a dialogue among concerned sectors and a recommendation that the DENR would require the realty corporation to submit an Environmental Impact Assessment, especially in areas affecting their habitat. This was not followed. PWWCFI is making posters and brochures to generate greater awareness and concerns for the Black Shama.

· Lobbying for Legislation. The information dissemination campaigns and networking activities were not able to whip up sufficient mess support. But they were able to influence the municipality of Consolacion, Cebu, to pass an ordinance banning the killing and hunting of the Black Shama Congresswoman Nerissa Soon has also recently filed a bill seeking protection for this bird throughout Cebu.

· Ecotourism. Several ornithologists and bird enthusiasts in the country and abroad have visited Cebu just to see the Black Shama. Guide services and other forms of assistance were provided by PWWCFI personnel.

· Networking. PWWCFI developed linkages with local organizations and concerned individuals. Efforts along this line led to the formation of the Black Shama Foundation. Likewise, the PWWCFI linkages include international organizations like the New York Zoological Society, Wild Bird Society of Japan, International Council on Bird Preservation, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and other ornithological organizations and institutions.


Dickenson, E.,R. Kennedy and K. Parks. The Birds of the Philippines. BOU Checklist No.2, British Ornithologists Union, Henry Ltd., Dorset Press, Dorchester, Great Britain. 1991.

DuPont, J.E. Philippine Birds. Monograph Series 2, Delaware Museum of Natural History, Greenville, Delaware, U.S.A. 1971

Gonzales, P. and C. Rees. Birds of the Philippines. The Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources, Inc., Kyodo Printing Co., Manila, Philippines. 1988.

Magsalay, P. The Ecology and Population Status of the Black Shama Copsychus cebuensis, Steer, From Cebu Philippines. (An unpublished thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School, University of San Carlos, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science in Biology). 1983

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

The making of a sanctuary: the case of the olango wildlife sanctuary (lapu-lapu city, cebu)

The Olango Wildlife Sanctuary lies on the southern shore of Olango Island, an island six miles off the east coast of mainland Cebu. It was declared a protected area by virtue of Presidential Proclamation No.903, signed by former President Corazon C. Aquino on May 14, 1992. The sanctuary has a total land area of 920 hectares. This wetland is internationally significant because it supports the largest concentration of migratory waders found in the country. These migratory birds include endangered species like the Asiatic Dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatus) and the Chinese Egret (Egretta eulophotes). Like most wetlands, Olango is a nursery and breeding ground of commercially important fishes. Forthe local residents, it is a source of food and livelihood.

The Olango Wildlife Sanctuary

Lessons learned

· There is power in research-based data.

The PWWCFI's discovery of the presence of 40,000 to 60,000 migratory birds in the area had great impact on bird studies on the East Asian Flyway. The East Asian Flyway, which includes the Philippines, is one of the most important shorebird and water-bird migration pathways in the world. A total of 77 species of migratory birds use this flyway. The Philippines hosts over half of this number of species. So far, Olango Island supports the largest concentration of migratory waders in the country. Up to today, PWWCFI regularly conducts bird counts, bird-banding and habitat monitoring. Data gathered from these activities supported the recommendation for the granting of protected area status to Olango.

· A broad multisectoral alliance is indispensable in moving government machinery towards the protection of the environment.

To move the government agencies in the region into endorsing favorably the recommendations of PWWCFI, a number of NGOs and concerned individuals in the region and in the nation issued statements of support and position papers. These supporters either used their resources or provided such resources to PWWCFI in convincing government officials of the importance of protecting Olango. The support of conservation organizations and individuals from other rations was another factor in the success. This alliance was gained through information and networking activities.

· The trust of the local people is gained through integration with the local residents.

The presence of PWWCFI personnel in the area was a factor in reversing the initial opposition of the local people to the declaration of Olango as protected area. PWWCFI identified the misconceptions that had to be eliminated and the socioeconomic needs of the people which had to be responded to.

There is a lot of potential for ecotourism which will add to the coffers of the local treasury and contribute to a better quality of life for the local residents. To be erected soon are boardwalks, which will facilitate passage through but will limit disturbance in the sanctuary; and, a Nature Center, which is envisioned to house research and information facilities. Technical assistance for alternative conservation livelihood schemes, like fish culture in cages, shall also be extended to the marginalized sectors like the fishermen.


PWCF Olango Brochure. (in process), Magsalay, P. The Philippine Wetland Conservation Programme. 1991. Paper presented during the Fourth World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, held in Caracas, Venezuela, February 10-21,1992.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Creation of habitat for birds in urban and rural areas

· A small grassland with few numbers of fruiting trees can encourage the presence of various kinds of birds in cities.

· Domesticated birds like pigeons can be taught to feed in one particular city area.

· Establishing nesting and nesting areas like heavily canopied trees along the sidewalks.

· Putting up nesting boxes in the roofs.

· Planting more flowering and fruiting trees in the backyards can definitely invite birds.

· Construct a mini-house-like shelters to be placed in the midpart of the tree.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Bird-watching tips

Bird-watching is fun!

You can do this as a hobby or pastime. This can also be educational. Moreover, bird-watching can train you for careers requiring field research or activities. Many of those who are now ornithologists and conservationists started as bird-watchers.

What to wear

· Clothes with colors that blend with the surroundings; earth colors are preferable like brown shirts and pants. Bright colors will disturb birds.

· Hat or cap (with fasteners for greater convenience)

· Comfortable footwear (for watching shore birds wear wading shoes or rubber shoes and socks)

What to bring

· Food

· Small record notebook and pencil

· Binoculars, preferably 10 x 50 (though you can still do without)

· Bird pictures or bird guidebook like:

Dupont, J. E. Philippine Birds Monograph. Series 2. Delaware Museum of Natural History, Greenville, Delaware, USA. 1971.

Gonzales, P. and C. Rees. Birds of the Philippines. The Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources, Inc. Kyodo Printing Co., Manila, Philippines. 1988.

When to watch

· Forest birds and other bird-early morning (5:30 -9:00 a.m.) or late afternoon (4:00 - 8:00 p.m.)

· Shore bird-low tide, immediately following a high tide (refer to tide table/calendars with tide notations)

Where to watch

· Near creeks, rivers, lakes, shoreline areas

· Mudflats and other coastal areas

· Mangrove forests

· Open areas near forests

· Trees with fruits, plants with flowers

· Forests and jungles

Techniques in bird-watching

· Sun must be at your back.

· Watch birds in small groups.

· Listen to bird calls.

· Estimate body size, measurement of bill, wings, legs.

· Note colors and bill shapes.

· Do activities in the area quietly.

Some bird-watching groups for information exchange

The Haribon Foundation for Conservation of Natural Resources, Inc., 340 Villamor Street, San Juan, Metro Manila, Tel. Nos. 704316/784179, Fax No.: 631-2061

Philippine Wetland and Wildlife Conservation Foundation, Inc., 295 B. R. Duterte St., Banawa
Cebu City 6000, Tel. Nos. 210-604/216-729, Fax No.: (032) 210604

Haribon Chapters
Haribon CLSO
Haribon Palawan
Haribon Cebu
Haribon Davao
Haribon Pagadian
Haribon Iligan
Haribon UPLB

At all times abide by: The fieldman's credo:

Take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but footprints, kill nothing but time.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Ways and reasons for documenting wildlife species and habitats


· Field Notes Recording. All observations (which include time, day and place/area of observations), like number of animals food items, foot tracts, behavior and many others, should be recorded in a small field notebook. All field notes will then be transferred to a larger but organized data notebook (also known as journal).

· Print Film Documentation. As the saying goes: "A picture paints a thousand words." Pictures depicting wildlife species and habitats can clearly catch the past, the present and the possible future scenario of the wildlife species.

· Bird calls, songs or lizard sounds, cries and howling sounds can be tape-recorded. A simple Walkman-type of sound recording can be produced.

· If available, a documentary film can be made particularly for the natural history of endangered and unique species.


· can be a good audio-visual aid for conservation campaigns;

· would allow and facilitate easier review of the behavior and biology of wildlife;

· can be instrumental in assessing the environmental make-up or conditions of a particular place or ecosystem; and,

· can depict cultural, aesthetic and historical values to local people.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Developing awareness programs for youth on wildlife conservation

· Identify sources of wildlife species where students/youth can easily travel/conduct field trip.

· Make a three-day ecology camp program for both elementary and high school students.

· Incorporate biodiversity conservation practices into management of forests and protected areas.

· Use flagship species to increase support for conservation.

· Encourage youth to develop natural botanical garden to strengthen and widen perspectives of natural environment of wildlife species.

· Ask students or youth to support specific wildlife species for both off-site and on-site conservation methods.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Guide to environment-friendly shopping

Every Filipino citizen who purchases products can make a choice about what he does or does not buy. A citizen who makes a conscious decision to buy products which have a positive impact on the environment and not to buy products which are harmful to the environment is commonly called a GREEN CONSUMER.

It is important to remember that, as a consumer, an individual has the power to bring about change. The adage, the customer is always right, takes on a new meaning as related to the idea of purchasing environment-friendly products. Most commercial advertisings on TV and radio and in magazines and newspapers do not always promote environment friendly shopping. Business is business and business people will provide products if shoppers ask for it. Filipino shoppers must begin to create a demand for environment-friendly products so that more of these products are teeing 'offered for sale by businesses.

Guide to environment-friendly shopping

One important consideration for green consumers is to reduce the number of wasteful products you buy. Here are some tips to consider

· RECYCLE! Recycling is an energy-saving, cost-saving and waste-saving strategy that - anyone can do. Recycle, whenever possible.

· Buy products such as aluminum and glass that you can recycle in your own community. Buy products which contain recycled materials. For example, many products such as aluminum cans, writing paper', etc., contain recycled materials. Recycling is not new to the Filipino citizenry, but this habit must be strengthened and enhanced. '

· Buy only what you need. Buying products which you will not use is not only wasteful, but costly.

· Do not buy or use products that endanger your health or the health of others, such as aerosol cans which emit CFCs that deplete or destroy the atmospheric ozone.

· Find or create ecologically sound alternatives to petroleum-based packaging and household products. Do not- use chemical pesticides to control pests in the home; prepare alternative pesticides for the home. (See topics on Alternatives to Pesticides and Pesticide Management in the Home.)

Do not use products which emit CFCs

· A void purchasing products which are teased on materials taken from threatened environment or endangered species (for example: mahogany, teak, sea turtles).

· A void unnecessary packaging. Buy in bulk, whenever possible, to minimize packaging and save money. Buy liquid products such as juices in concentrates.

· Take your own reusable shopping basket to the grocery store. Consolidate purchases in one bag rather than several. Avoid using plastic bags which YOU will just throw away.

· Invest in reusable plastic containers for storing food rather than wrapping them in disposable plastic wraps.

· Avoid buying disposable products. Reduce the use of plastic plates, utensils and polystyrene cups. Use cloth towels and napkins instead of paper napkins and towels. Consider switching from disposable diapers to cloth diapers Avoid buying disposable cameras, flashlights end other new products. Replace daily-use items such as lighters, pens and razors with better-quality, refillable models.

· Minimize the use of products with- toxic ingredients. If you do have to buy them, make sure they are disposed of properly. Do not throw them out with the trash! (See related topic: Commonly Used Household Products Which Are Dangerous and Safer Alternatives.)

· Read the label to know the contents of a product. However, use caution -- Not all labels provide accurate and sufficient information.

No plastic bags

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit November 23 - 28, 1992

Commonly used household-products which are dangerous and safer alternatives

Over 55,000 chemicals are contained in commonly used convenience products and over 1,000 more come on the market each year. Most are untested and unregulated. Many present serious health threats and leave their mark on the environment for several generations. The use of household or garden pesticides, for example, can increase the chance of childhood leukemia sevenfold, according to research studies.

Many cleaning products commonly used in our homes may be hazardous to our health and to the environment.

Some common home toxics are: ammonia-based cleaners, disinfectants, window cleaners, floor cleaners, shoe polish, furniture polish, metal polish with solvent, car wax with solvent, paint brush cleaner, wood preservative, varnish.

Look at labels for key word, like poison, danger, warning and caution.

Luckily, with home products, we can choose to reduce our exposure to many hazards. Making your own cleaners is the best and often cheapest alternative to hazardous cleaning products. Here is a list of some recipes for home cleaners that would not harm the earth.

Safe household products

Here are a few inexpensive common household basics that are effective and safe for many cleaning needs. They can replace most formulated brand items that are hazardous and overpriced:

Baking Soda: Common baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) is an all-purpose cleaner that removes odors and can be used as a polish, for cleaning teeth, even as an antacid. It is mildly abrasive, noncorrosive and safe to ingest. Baking soda is a strong cleaner that can be used on the oven, greasy clothes, car engine and as a foot bath.

Beeswax: You-can add melted beeswax to mineral oil to make a natural and durable furniture polish.

Borax: Ordinary powdered borax is effective as a light cleaner and for removing odors and preventing the growth of mold. You can find it in the supermarket laundry section. It is harmful if swallowed, however; keep it out of the reach of children.

Calamansi juice: At full strength or sometimes diluted, calamansi juice is an excellent cleaner and grease cutter-used by itself or in combination with other ingredients.

Mineral oil: A safe and odor-free petroleum oil, it works well as a wood and furniture polish. Mildly laxative c if ingested in small quantities, it can also be used to clean greasy hands. It is available in pharmacies.

Puresoap (Perla): blade without additives, bar or flake soap is gentle, effective cleaner for many -uses.

Vinegar: Common white vinegar is excellent at cutting grease, removing odors and preventing the growth of mold. Vinegar acts as an antiseptic: cleans mildew (add salt), toilet, windows, floors and kills ants.

Dishsoap: is a mild cleaner, can be used for: dishes, woolens, bathroom tub, tiles and toilet, windows, floors and-your car.

Cooking oil can be used to polish leather, wood, floors and furniture (add vinegar for furniture).


The Problem: Replace ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), anew generation of propellants which contain butane, isobutane and propane that laboratory studies show to be harmful to the heart and central nervous system.

The Solution: Do not buy aerosol cans.. If a spray is necessary, get a pump dispenser. (And you can save old pump dispensers to use when mixing your own cleaners.)

All purpose cleaners

The Problem: Many contain ammonia (which attacks your lungs? and chlorine (which forms cancer-causing compounds). Mixed together, they form a deadly chloramine gas.

The Solution: You can make your own light-duty cleaner by mixing 1/4 cup of liquid soap (such as Murphy's Oil Soap) or borax in a quart of hot water and adding a tablespoon of white vinegar or lemon juice to cut grease. Mix two teaspoons of borax and one teaspoon of soap in one quart of water for a cleaner you can store in a spray bottle.

Air fresheners

Commercial fresheners work by masking smells, coating nasal passages and deadening nerves to diminish the sense of smell;

· Find sources of odors and eliminate them; keep house and closets clean and well-ventilated; grow lots of house plants.

· To absorb odors, place two to four tablespoons of baking soda or vinegar in small bowls in the refrigerator and around the house and pour 1/2 cup of baking soda in the bottom of trash cans.

· For natural fragrance, boil sweet herbs and spices and allow the aroma to fill the air.

· Use ammonia only when other cleaners would not do the trick. Ammonia cuts heavy grease and grime,, but can be dangerous. Fumes irritate eyes and lungs and can be harmful to people with respiratory problems. Always provide good ventilation. Never mix ammonia with bleach or commercial cleansers; deadly fumes may form.


The Problem: Most contain highly toxic chemicals-such as ammonia, chlorine, cresol and phenol, whose fumes can even leak through the container.:

The Solution: Baking soda on a damp sponge will clean most surfaces, nooks, and crannies; an open box in a refrigerator deodorizes the air inside for up to three months. Use white vinegar or fresh lemon juice either full strength or diluted half and half with water. Another effective disinfectant is 1/2 cup borax mixed in one gallon hot water.

· For a hospital-quality disinfectant, use 1/4 cup of borax dissolved in 1/2 gallon of hot water. Keeping surfaces clean and dry reduces the need for disinfectants.

Scouring powder

The Problem: They contain chlorine, detergents and tale.

The Solution: Buy a chlorine-free brand such as Bon Ami (made of feldspar and soap) or make your own mix of table salt (or baking soda) -sprinkled on a sponge that has been moistened with equal parts of water and vinegar. You can also apply liquid soap to a surface and sprinkle with dolomite powder. Scour with steel wool. For safe bleaching add a pinch of sodium perborate.

· If available, buy powder without chlorine, colors, detergents, or talc; or scrub with a sponge or fine bristled brush, soap and one of the following: baking soda, borax or table salt.


The Problem: It contains chlorine, detergents, synthetic dyes and fragrance and hydrogen peroxide; Particularly dangerous if you mix it with ammonia.

The Solution: There's no single "magic" product. In some cases (such as cleaning wood surfaces), you can use lemon juice or vinegar. In other cases, washing with natural soap and drying clothes in sunlight make bleaching unnecessary.

- Substitute 1/2 cup of borax per washload to whiten whites and brighten colors. If needed, occasionally use powdered, nonchlorine bleach.


Add 1/3 cup of washing soda to water before placing clothes in machine and substitute soap flakes or- powder for detergent. Detergents are made from artificial chemicals and are not biodegradable.- When-making the initial switch from a detergent to a soap laundry cleaner, wash items once with washing soda only. This will eliminate detergent residues that might otherwise react with -soap to cause yellowing of fabrics. Add 1/2 cup of borax for additional cleaning powder. If you have hard water, use a phosphate-free detergent.

Dry cleaning

· Buy items you can wash or clean on your own. Most dry cleaning solvents, such as perchlorethylene, are toxic. If you must dry clean, air out clothing thoroughly before bringing indoors.


- Soak heavily soiled items in warm wafer with 1/2 cup of washing soda for 30 minutes. Rub soiled areas with liquid soap.

Spray starch

· Dissolve two tablespoons of cornstarch in one pint of cold water in a spray bottle. Shake before each use For delicate fabrics, dissolve one package of unflavored gelatine; or add two tablespoons of granulated sugar to two cups of hot water. Dip corner of fabric into solution to test if fabric becomes sticky when dry add more water:

Silver polish

· Submerge silver in water containing aluminum (foil) and salt. Wait a few minutes, remove and wipe dry. Tarnish should be gone.

Copper and brass polish

· Rub with tomato juice.

· Make a paste of calamansi juice and cream of tartar. Apply, leave on for five minutes and then rinse;

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit November 23 - 28, 1992


Ecotourism is nature tourism. It is traveling to a relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural area with the specific objective of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery and its wildlife as well as any existing cultural manifestations found in the area.

Ecotourism is an exciting new adventure that combines the pleasures of discovering and understanding the diversity of both flora and fauna with the opportunity to contribute to their protection and to provide an economic justification for conservation of areas that might not receive any protection.

Ecotourism or nature tourism aims to educate both local and foreign tourists on the environment and to promote conservation strategies. The education component consists of an orientation of the place-its origins and features, threats and problems encountered, current efforts to manage the resources and a tour to the designated area. The tour provides a first hand experience of communing with nature even for a short period of time.

Ecotourism is a response that seeks to reduce the negative environmental and cultural impacts of mass or traditional tourism.

Nature tourism combines the elements of science recreation, adventure and sports. It has three dimensions -the hard, soft end hard-soft tourism. Hard tourism refers to the interest in natural history or research travel. Soft tourism is nature-oriented with interest in beaches, nightlife, deep sea fishing, shopping, culinary pursuits and other attractions. Hard-soft tourism deals with physical rigors, walking miles into the forest, sleeping in tents or in crude shelters and tolerating primitive sanitary conditions.


Potential sites for ecotourism

· The site must have unique natural features, such as landscapes, seascapes, caves, etc.

· The site must have a rich and diverse flora and fauna or biological diversity.

· The site can be an ancient burial ground or a historical site.

· The site must be seldom visited but must have a high ecological value.

Code of ethics for action

1. Observe but do not disturb natural systems.

· Move quietly and carefully m natural areas so as not to disturb the plants and animals.

· Respect wildlife and nature. Never pick, gather, write on or destroy plants and animals and/or rocks, etc. Leave them clean and undisturbed.

· Avoid using recordings or loud noises.

· Do not disturb wildlife during sensitive periods, e.g., mating season. spaces

· Follow only existing trails.

· Use gas stoves in areas where fuelwood is scarce.

· Observe all rules and regulations established for the area.

· Always coordinate spaces for cooking, eating, camping, washing, bathing and other activities with the community or area.

· The highest compliment you can pay mother nature is to leave no evidence of your visit.

2. Minimize your impact on the environment.

· Leave no litter, plastic, charcoal, etc. Always carry a trash bag for your litter. Deposit trash in duly designated places.

· Use provided toilet facilities. If no toilets are available, carry a trowel to bury waste and a lighter/match to burn toilet paper. Never dispose of human waste within 25 meters of water source.

· Use biodegradable, coco-based soaps.

· Leave at home extra packaging for food, film, toiletries, etc.

· Do not consume or purchase plant or animal products that are endangered, overexploited and/or harvested - from unmanaged wild populations.

· Do not build campfires where wood is scarce.

· Only use the resources necessary; avoid over consumption, such as water.

3. Act directly to accomplish conservation of natural resources.

· Pick up trash left behind by other people.

· Join conservation organizations.

· Support local resource management efforts.

· Donate/support environmental conservation efforts.

· Organize lectures/seminars and exposure trips on the environment for schools, offices and communities. Schools can incorporate ecotourism in their curriculum -- students can conduct activities outdoors such as bird-watching, snorkling, etc.

· Write letters to government officials -- Be a personal witness against negative environmental trends with which you have experienced.

· Do not patronize individuals, groups, organizations, etc., which consciously violate environmental regulations and principles.

4. Respect local cultures.

· Employ local residents as tour guides.

· Research and learn about the customs, habits, history, concern, as well as the dialect of the place you are going to.

· Learn and observe proper local etiquette for greeting, eating and dealing with people of the community.

· Take photographs within the guidelines of the area you are visiting -- Respect privacy requests.

· Do not wear loud/bold colored clothing or jewelry if you do not fully understand its cultural and/or ritual significance. Dress conservatively and neatly as possible.

· Do not criticize or make unnecessary comments on the cultural practices of the people in the area.

Suggested guidelines

· The ecotour or nature tour must be well-guided. A knowledgeable tour guide is necessary to provide utmost education to tourists about culture, topography, special attractions of the area, protection of the environment, restricted and danger zones as well as the peace and order situation of the area and the necessary precautions.

The tour guide is responsible for an enjoyable, safe and nondestructive nature tour.

· Involve local residents in the planning and implementation of activities. The presence of tourists in the community may not be well-appreciated and may not benefit the local people. The local people must be part of the management of the activities. If there is not enough involvement, an antagonistic relationship may happen.

· Limit participation of the group to a minimum of four to a maximum of 20 people. This is to ensure that the needs of every individual are met. It is easier to manage a small group. Too many people may disturb or destroy natural habitats.

· Ecotourism organizers should provide an adequate and continuous program for resource management. Tour organizers should play a lead role in managing natural resources in the forms of trail maintenance and signs, information on the endemic' endangered and extinct species, research and education, trainings and provision of basic facilities.

· Tour destination should be appropriate for the needs of the tourists. The destination must be first assessed for a better itinerary of the trip and be equipped with the necessary logistical requirements, e.g, map, compass, etc.

Current efforts toward the conservation/preservation of natural resources are hampered by conflicting uses that are justified because they produce economic benefits (e.g., agriculture and logging). Recently, tourism has been suggested as a means of linking environmental conservation with income and livelihood generation for local communities. Unfortunately, tourism has a number of negative side affects. Ecotourism is a response that seeks to reduce the negative environmental and cultural impacts of mass tourism.


Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls. Vol. I by Elizabeth Boo.

Code of Ethics for Nature and Culture Travelers by Earth Preservation Fund Journeys International, Inc.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Getting to know chlorofluorocarbons- (CFC) and their alternatives

The ozone layer in the earth's upper atmosphere acts as a natural filter which absorbs the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) deplete the ozone layer. Slight reductions (by as little as a few percent) in the ozone level allow more ultraviolet radiation to reach the earth's surface: This can lead to increasing number of health problems, including sunburn, skin cancer, cataract, ageing, etc. Natural processes slow down, including the plant photosynthesis and plant germination. Algae and larvae can get killed and upset marine ecology, affecting fish population.

CFCs are laboratory products that have become widely. used throughout the world. These compound -chemicals are nontoxic and would not ignite. As refrigerants, they help cool our homes, workplaces, recreation centers and vehicles. They clean computer chips and are used in the production of plastic foams as insulation materials. CFCs are commonly used in aerosol propellants and solvents, as well as in modern sterilization processes of medical equipment and instruments. CFCs are also found in fire extinguishers.


How to reduce CFC's.

· Prevent and repair leaks from air conditioners, refrigerators and freezers.

· Enhance skills of technicians in the proper handling and maintenance of junked and serviceable refrigerators and air conditioners.

· Encourage hospitals to refrain from using CFC sterilants

· Do not burn or puncture aerosol cans.

· Avoid using fire extinguishers which contain Halon- 1301 or Halon- 1211. (Read the label.)

· Do not burn styrofoam and plastics. Reduce dependence on materials made from plastic and styrofoam. Re-use existing materials instead of buying new ones.

· Use caution and handle solvents properly.

Alternatives to CFC's

· Use recycled paper products instead of styrofoam for insulating air-conditioned rooms.

· Use fire extinguishers which do not contain Halon active ingredients. Better still, use other means for fire fighting, where possible.

· Use traditional practices of using steam or autoclave in the sterilization of surgical equipment.

· Re-adopt commonly used materials for packaging or equipment and utensils for storing and handling foods. CFCs have only been recently introduced, so alternatives previously existed.

Actions we can do against CFC

· Avoid purchasing and making materials and equipment containing CFCs.

· Take part in active information and education campaigns against the use of CFCs.

· Lobby congress and other policymakers to ban materials and equipment made of or containing CFCs.


Naar, John. Design for a Liveable Planet. 1990.
Caplan, Ruth and Environmental Action. Our Planet, Ourselves. 1990.

Herbal medicines from nature (Department of Health-Approved)

The Philippine drug industry is foreign-dominated with 70 percent of the industry being controlled by transnational corporations (TNCs), 25 percent owned by Marcos cronies and the remaining: 5 percent by local industry. The compounded cost to importation of raw materials, as well as with the active advertising cost of drugs, contributes to the soaring price of drugstore medicine.

People are spending so much money on commercially-prepared medicine for pain relief, cough and cold preparations, for fever, skin treatment and other popular medications. Yet, all these have their equivalents in herbal medicine or medicinal 'plants. Herbal medicines are' much safer and cheaper alternative to drugstore medicine.

The government's Department of Health, with its proposed Traditional Medicine Service Unit, will be the one actively promoting clinically-proven herbal medicines The list and their uses include the following:


Table (continued)


5. Ulasimang bato (Peperomia pellucida) -- for anti-inflammatory:

· Eat the leaves as salad or boil 2 handful of leaves in 2 glasses of water for 15 minutes; cool, drain and divide the decoction in 3 parts and drink each part after meals.

Ulasimang bato (root)

Ulasimang bato (leaf)

Some general tips in the preparation and use of herbal medicines:

1. Use clay pot/enamel-layered pot/iron pot in preparing herbal medicine; never use aluminum pot because aluminum causes deterioration of the active components of the herbs.

2. Never apply pesticides nor commercial fertilizers in cultivating herbal/medicinal plants.

3. Take the necessary precaution in buying and using/processing medicinal plants especially in decoctions for its safety. (The possibility of contamination is highly considered.)

4. Single preparations are much better than multiple ones; other herbal medicines have shown little effects if prepared in multiple.

5. Not all known: medicinal plants are beneficial; others have doubtful or harmful effects, e.g.; makabuhay can possibly cause sterility; garlic, if taken raw, can possibly cause cancer.

6. If herbal medicine and its components are being used as food, then it is almost always safe for its medicinal value, e.g., malunggay leaves are good for skin infection and head lice; ginger is good for arthritic pain; guava leaves are good for wounds and as oral antiseptic.


Maramba, et al. Manwal sa Paggamit ng Halamang Gamot. 2nd Edition, NSTA. 1981.

Personal Communication with Dr. Romeo Quijano, Pharmacologist, UP College of Medicine, Manila.

Health Alert. Special Issue, 116-117.

Ideas for action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

How to organize the community for environmental action

Environmental action should involve many if not all members of the community, namely: farmers, women, youth, workers, fisherfolks, urban poor and upland settlers. These groups must tee organized in order to pursue environmentally sound and sustainable development.

Steps in community organizing

The process of organizing is not strictly chronological but continuous and flexible. One or more steps can be done at the same time.

· Conduct Research for Baseline Information-The process of gathering all relevant data about the community, such as physical characteristics (e.g., location, area, natural resources, climate, etc.), demographic features, economic and sociopolitical aspects of the community, environmental problems, etc. This could be done by checking local newspapers, municipal/city halls, planning boards, local libraries, public records and all local, provincial and national agencies. If the information is complex or scientific, consult experts. Contact universities, investigative reporters, local environmental groups, local environmental lawyers or sympathetic local scientists.

The purpose of this is to obtain first-hand information about environmental problems faced by the community (a basis for determining what specific information the people in the village need) and what can motivate them to take action on their environmental problems. This could be done through participatory rapid appraisal which includes spot mapping, ocular survey, transect mapping and individual interviews.

· Integrate (Go to the people, Live among them)-The process whereby the organizer establishes rapport and a constructive relationship with the people. Mutual respect and trusts are the key elements that characterize an effective integration.

· Feedback/Validate the Results of the Baseline Data Gathering-The purpose is to inform the people about the whole situation of the community and to fill in data gaps. This could be done through a village level talakayan or discussion.

· Identify Core Group-The process of selecting natural leaders or "progressive" members of the identified priority group(s) or tapping existing structure/organization in the community. The core group serves as catalyst or prime over in the implementation of identified environmental actions.

· Formalize/Strengthen Community Organization-The role and responsibility of each member vis-a-vis the environmental activities and tasks are identified and agreed upon. This is known as the "functional" organization. Provide skills improvement workshops and encourage links with other institutions.

· Conduct Education and Training Programmes-The purpose is to develop the capabilities and skills of the members and to raise environmental awareness among the entire community. This could be done through fore, symposia, discussion groups, production of environmental materials, on-the job trainings and cross-village exposure programme (experiential learning).

· Encourage Local Community Participation-Incorporate environmental activities into their community-based programmes, i.e., tree-planting, cleanliness drive, campaign for installation of toilets and garbage pits.

· Link with Other Organizations (Networking) -- This enables the organizations to tackle problems or issues that are too large or too complex for any single organization to address. By linking up with other organizations, i.e., academic, business, media, lawyers, government and nongovernment agencies, all of them can more effectively address their common problems or pursue their common aspirations.

· Undertake Resource Mobilization Activities-The purpose is to obtain materials and funds that the organization needs to carry out their environmental programmes. This will start with internal resource mobilization (e.g., members contributing materials or financial support) followed by external resource mobilization once they have exhausted all internal resources.

· Mobilize the Community-The people affected by an issue lobby and negotiate with the agency which is responsible for a particular service. They request assistance or demand their rights, depending on what institution they are negotiating with. This could be in the form of petition letters, dialogues, or a more complex one like a rally or demonstration.

· In some cases, the affected community meets with polluters. Once you have a sizable followers (50 to 500 members or sympathizers), hold a neighborhood or town meeting and be sure to invite the executives from the offending company, i.e., sugar central, open pit mine, coal-fired plant, logging company.

· Monitor and Evaluate Your Programmes -This is sometimes referred to as reflection or programme assessment, whereby the members of the group constantly reflect upon what they are doing in order to ensure that they are doing the correct thing or are on the right path. This is the process where the strengths and weaknesses of the programme are being culled out.

Taking action

All over the world, young people are already taking up their responsibilities for the environment but many of these activities undertaken in different parts Or the world could be replicated in other regions:

1. Organizing youth environmental groups, associations, corps, wildlife clubs, etc.

2. Networking subregionally, regionally and globally with other environmental youth groups through exchanging newsletters and other publications and holding seminars, training courses and exchange programmes on specific environmental issues. (Names of environmental nongovernmental organizations can be obtained from the Environment Liaison Centre, P. O. Box 72461, Nairobi, Kenya.)

3. Holding training camps for student conservation leaders and senior members of school conservation clubs, community youth clubs and other interested students to give them a better understanding of conservation principles and management practices and help them become efficient leaders in volunteer conservation work.

4. Developing environmental education packs and distributing them to other environmental youth groups and organizations.

5. Putting youth organizations on the mailing lists of organizations concerned with the environment such as UNEP (for the bimonthly UNEP News and CONNECTT, a quarterly environmental education newsletter).

6. Informing the media, particularly UNEP News, about successful conservation and resource management activities so they can be publicized.

7. Organizing national essay contests on environmental themes. Prizes could include trips to international or national environment projects.

8. Writing to people in government and industry who are making decisions that affect the environment.

9. Informing the media of local environmental problems.

10. Organizing group discussions on issues such as population growth, management of natural resources, development, poverty and environmental degradation.

11. Campaigning to properly adjust inappropriate development, such as ill-planned irrigation schemes, dams, etc.

12. Asking national governments to include young people in their delegations to national, regional and global environmental meetings (UNEP made a formal request to national governments to include young people in delegations to the 13th Session of its Governing Council in 1985).

13. Raising funds -- at schools, churches, mosques, temples, etc. -- to sponsor positive environmental activities.

14. Preparing surveys of and assessing existing environmental legislation.

15. Publishing manuals explaining environmental legislation to young people so they can lobby for change.

16. Campaigning for the formulation of additional environmental laws and conventions and the upgrading of the existing ones.

17. Producing and sharing ideas -- including new inventions -- on how to alleviate the burdens that degraded environments lay on women as the main drawers of water and hewers of wood in the third world.

18. Involving young women in youth organizations to crease a link with women's groups also concerned with environmental problems.

19. Forming pressure groups to lobby for action on such major environmental problems as water pollution, desertification, drought and famine. Other issues of environmental dimensions which should interest youth today include noise and exhaust smoke abatement (trucks, buses, motorcycles, etc.).

20. Organizing practical demonstrations and pilot activities on specific environmental problems.

21. Establishing tree nurseries, including those of indigenous species.

22. Running training courses in nursery management as part of income-generating schemes for youth organizations.

23. Setting up seedling distribution projects.

24. Planting and caring for trees in school compounds, business centres, etc.

25. Holding forestry work camps to provide young people with education in country side conservation.

26. Running school forest projects under which a school adopts a small area of woodland as its "school forest" which it then manages under the auspices of, say, the national forestry department. Schoolchildren would prepare the site by clearing vegetation; plant tree seedlings; care for the young trees by replacing dead seedlings, weeding, fertilizing, constructing and maintaining fire breaks; and, manage the established forest by pruning branches and thinning overcrowded trees.

27. Mobilizing community and individual efforts to preserve national forests.

28. Encouraging the appreciation of forest products and research on their uses.

29. Monitoring the local environment -- the health of rivers and lakes and of the air and the soil.

30.-Conducting surveys of the local environment to pinpoint sources of environmental pollution, such as sewage systems and factories and monitoring the effects of the widespread use of plastic packaging. Alerting local and national authorities to these findings and suggesting solutions.

31. Creating awareness of the negative impacts of various products and services on the environment and suggesting alternative products and services which do less environmental damage.

32. Encouraging young people to join groups working on how to increase food production without depleting the soil.

33. Promoting the cultivation of indigenous crops and wild plants as sources of food and learning to fully utilize such plants, their flowers, seeds, etc.

34. Discussing the pros and cons of using inorganic fertilizers.

35. Promoting wasteland development programmes.

36. Controlling vectors of water-borne diseases.

37. Running public health education programs to promote community action to control environmental diseases.

38. Running campaigns to clear litter.

39. Constructing and maintaining footpaths and picnic facilities.

40. Creating and maintaining nature trails and sites.

41. Clearing fire breaks and cutting tall grass in areas of potential fire danger.

42. Promoting those aspects of indigenous cultures which promote conservation and enhancement of the environment.

43. Promoting family life education programmes relating to increasing population and sustainable development.

44. Promoting the use of alternative sources of energy, such as the sun, the wind and gas from decaying vegetation and other organic matter.

45. Promoting the use of energy-conserving stoves.

46. Collecting wastes, such as paper, glass and tins, for delivery to recycling facilities.

47. Campaigning for wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species.

48. Promoting activities that control the damage done by marine pollution and the mismanagement of coasts, such as cleaning up beaches and campaigning against the sale of coral, shells, starfish, etc.

49. Protesting against the huge sums of money spent by developed and developing countries on armaments.

Taking action

Ideas for action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Community vigilance for environmental protection

Here are some sustainable efforts you and your community can do to protect and preserve the environment:


· Have full information about the problem you are organizing around. Whether it is information on polluters or environmental problems that affect your community -- get the facts. Know who owns, or is responsible for, the resulting pollution or industrial wastes being emitted by a certain corporation or which government agency has given the go-signal for its establishment.

- Access all available information sources. Check local newspapers, city hall, planning boards, local libraries, public records and all local, -provincial and national agencies.

- If the information is complex or scientific, con suit experts. Contact universities, investigative reporters (who may have contacted experts), local environmental groups, local environmental attorneys or sympathetic local government scientists.

· Write a simple fact sheet. Have available for organizing and the media a simple fact sheet describing your problem and the sources of your information. This increases credibility with the public, the media and the elected officials.

Fact sheet

· Establish goals. After obtaining and analyzing information, establish goals. These can include stopping a government project or taking legal action, or simply drawing attention to a local polluter. Remember: in practicing environmental democracy, your group must together plan corrective campaigns; carry out or execute the planned actions; evaluate; and, take the next best steps. DIRECT ACTION GETS RESULTS.

Establish goals

· Find an appropriate name for your organization. Try to make it positive (i.e., not Citizen's against the Chico Dam but rather Citizen's for the Chico River).

Name for your organization

· Build your local organization. Go from door to door to get more activists for your group. Use the media to publicize your efforts. Your core group should build a community group with large numbers of members. Examples of initial activities may include public meetings, demonstrations, petition drives, letter writing campaigns, etc.

Activities of your local organization

· Network with other organizations with similar goals. The more diverse a coalition, the more powerful a constituency. Also, experience (and expenditures) can be shared.

Network with other organization

· Meet with targetted polluter(s) or elected official(s). Once you have a sizable following (50-500 members) and some working communities, hold a neighborhood or town meeting and be sure to invite executives or officials from the offending company, sugar central, open pit mine, coal-fired plant or alcohol plant. The same applies to local officials.

Meet with targetted polluter(s) or elected official(s)

· For corporate targetting, negotiate and implement a Good Neighbor Agreement --Having officials at a neighborhood accountability session can get them to begin a course of action resulting in a Good Neighbor Agreement.

A Good Neighbor Agreement, in its simplest form, is a contract between a corporation and a citizens' group where the corporation agrees to change a product or a process. These agreements result in pollution-prevention measures more stringent than those required under environmental laws.

A Good Neighbor Agreement

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Environmentally-friendly school kids

School kids can make a difference in the maintenance of a healthy surrounding. Their habits and practices at home, in school and in the community count a lot, hence, the need to develop in them the desirable health values. Activities can be done well as individuals or as a group.

Not these

1. Pack lunch in plastic bag, tin foil or styrofoam.

2. Drop/throw candy wrappers, etc., anywhere.

3. Buy foods packed in plastic or styrofoam.


1. Pack lunch in clean banana leaves, wax paper or lunch box.

2. Put trash in a paper bag or keep inside the school bag or pocket and then throw in a garbage receptacle.

3. Buy fruits with peeling, home-made cakes and other indigenous foods like corn in a cob.

Not these

4. Sweep the school yard and put the waste in a garbage receptacle.

5. Water and care for plants.

6. Write only on one side of the paper. Do not reuse old notebooks.

7. Never mind cleaning. Just play.

8. Buy street food.


4. Sweep the yard and throw the waste over the fence.

5. Never mind the plants.

6. Write on both sides of paper and use all the pages of notebooks.

7. Follow a regular schedule for cleaning.

8. Buy food from the school canteen.

Go green... Plant the big-intensive way!

Layout for a small-scale, household level, vegetable production plot

Total area: 400-500 sq ft. (37 - 46 sq m.)
Output: 3-6 lbs. (1.3 - 2 7 kg) per day for 300 days

Technological Profile

1. Plot size: Only 200-300 sq. feet of growing bed area.

2. Bed preparation

· Raised, narrow, deep dug (12"-24") beds.

· Use of compost or other alternatives such as mudpress (8-27 cubic feet/100 sq. feet bed).

· High-labor usage initially (2-6 hours/100 sq. feet bed).

· In humid-tropics: possibility of eliminating subsequent digging of beds.

· The use of narrow beds restricts compaction to the pathways only.

· Continuous crop cover and mulch compaction (within beds) from rain fall.

3. Bed fertilization

· 8 cubic of compost or mudpress (by-product of sugar mills) egg shells, bone-meal, wood or cane trash, ash, ipil-ipil leaves/fish meal.

· Use of liquid manures or manure teas (fermented water-manure mixtures).

· Inclusion of nitrogen-fixing crops into the annual crop cycle.

4. Crop planning

· Crop rotation (root, leaf, legume and fruit crops) at regenerating soils and breaking pest life cycles.

· Intercropping (long and short-duration crops).

· Conservation of genetic resources through the promotion of local varieties (backyard curators).

· Inclusion of culturally acceptable nutritionally important vegetables (amaranth, rice bean, winged bean, etc.)

· Diversification of diet through cultivation of a wide range of vegetables or through use of plants with multipurpose uses.

· Inclusion of short-duration crops to deal with wet-season and/or dry-season food deficiencies.

· Cultivation of trellis-crops along side the growing beds.

· Perennial, polycultural, multistoried fence crops (edible fences).

5. Water conservation

· Close spacing of crops reduces evaporation from the soil.

· Mulching lowers soil temperature and reduces evaporation..

· Deep tillage and organic matter in the soil encourage water entry and conservation within bed (reduces runoff).

· Overall, a 30-50 percent reduction of water needs can be expected.

6. Weeding

· Significant reduction of weeding time (70 percent of weeding time is eliminated.)

· Significant reduction in the growth of weeds due to deep tillage, mulching and close spacing of crops.

7. Pest control

· Soil improvement, good drainage, balanced soil nutritional status, presence of beneficial fungi (mychorrhiza) are the basis for pest reduction.

· Growing a diversity of crops reduces insects.

· Inclusion of acclimatized, hardy, pest-tolerant indigenous varieties.

· Use of medicinal plants that also have insect-repellent properties (as intercrops).

· Use of botanical formulations as pest control sprays.

· Encouragement of predatory species of insects.

8. Outputs

Current Output

Village Level

0.6 kgs./100. sq. ft./day

Campus Plot

0.75 kgs./100 sq. ft./day

Potential Output

200 sq. feet of growing bed area

1.3 - 2.7 kgs.per day

Perennial, fence crops

(90 feet 1.5 - 2.5 kgs. long) per day


The use of compost, based on animal manure, is an essential component in the big-intensive approach. Equally important is the use of liquid manures on plants less than two months old.

Yes, you can!
Help clean the environment!

· Recycle at home and at school.

· Use paper scraps for notes and drafts.

· Buy products packaged in glass, paper or metal containers.

· Reuse glass containers for storing sugar, coffee, nuts, grains, holders for pens and pencils, clips, pushpens, screws and other household, school and office items.

· Bring a basket when you go marketing.

· Avoid using styrofoam.

· Compost your organic wastes (leaves, grass clippings, kitchen waste) for your garden.

· Reuse materials to make things you need.

· Use scrap paper, cardboard, dry twigs and coconut leaves as fire kindlers and sticks, wood cuttings for cooking (firewood).

· Give away your extra clothes and toys to your relatives or to the poor.

Grow with a tree!


· Sow a seed in a plastic bag.


· The seed becomes a small plant.


· Transplant the seedling in the garden.

· Care for the plant by putting a tree guard.

· Weed and mulch around the plant.

· Water the growing tree.

· See the blooming tree with bees and butterflies, sipping nectar from its flowers.


· Enjoy the fruits of the tree.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Creation of a marine protected area

What is a marine protected area?

A marine protected area is a portion of coastal land and water identified and set aside by the government for reasons of their physical and biological significance, managed end protected against destruction by human exploitation. A protected area may include a sanctuary for strict preservation (i.e.,- no fishing, no gathering, no use, no disturbance) and a surrounding buffer zone or reserve where non-destructive forms of utilization are allowed, including some or all of the following:

- Limited fishing-sustained yield harvest; restricted gears and methods; seasonal fishing; catch and size limits.

- Recreation/ecotourism

- Habitat restoration/rehabilitation

- Research/education

Why are marine protected areas necessary?

Overfishing, destruction of marine habitats and the resulting decline in fish catches plague small-scale fishermen throughout the Philippines. The establishment of marine protected areas is along-recognized strategy for resource conservation and management. Protection and management of marine areas result in marked increases in fish abundances and fish yields. Sanctuaries/reserves protect breeding populations of corals, mollusks, fishes, shrimps, mangroves and seagrasses from which neighboring depleted areas can be recolonized.

What coastal habitats can be turned into a marine protected area?

Mangrove swamps/lagoons, estuaries and river mouths, coral reefs, seagrass beds and near-shore soft bottom habitats, each by itself or together where contiguous, can be turned into a protected area. The economic and ecological importance of these habitats and the destruction they have suffered are well known.

Coastal habitats

Why should coastal communities get involved?

Coastal (basically fishing) communities benefit from marine resource conservation and management. Resources cannot be protected or enhanced unless those who exploit the resources are committed to this goal. Education and community organization are the means to marine resource management.

How to create a marine sanctuary/reserve for small communities?

Site selection. Select a target coastal community that is relatively discrete and that has coral reefs, seagrass beds or mangrove swamps under exploitation (based on prior research). Small islands provide a geographical advantage to marine resource management because of decreased access to non-residents. Island communities can more easily identify with their marine resources as territories over which they have some control.

Community assessment. Talk to the community elders, youth, women, men and determine how they perceive their socioeconomic conditions and the natural resources. Pay attention to community needs. Development and conservation projects must include components with bearing to daily people's lives, such as medical assistance, water supply, education, etc.

Project proposition. Introduce or reinforce the idea of marine resources management, the immediate need for habitat conservation and rehabilitation and the idea of marine sanctuary/reserve.

Community organizing. Identify community groups that have experience or interest in (marine) management. Facilitate the formation of the specific groups in charge of the establishment, management and protection of the marine sanctuary/reserve.

Community education and training. Start an education program to raise environmental awareness among the entire community. Local residents must understand and see the link between degraded marine habitats and reduced fish catches, so they will take action to improve habitat quality. Include community-wide presentations, using slides, posters and lectures and participatory classes, such as coral reef monitoring by snorkeling or observation of plankton through microscopes. Classes must be informal, in small groups or one-on-one contact, with focus on marine ecology and resource management.

Networking. Establish linkages with all potential participants and obtain moral and financial support for plans to start a community-based marine sanctuary. Share resources. Include the local governments, Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Department of Agriculture (DA), schools, police and Coast Guard, nongovernment organizations and sectors that impact on the coastal environment and affect the success of the marine protected area-agriculture, fisheries, aquaculture, logging, tourism, mining, oil drilling, etc.

Community education and training

Participatory research. Obtain baseline data on the marine resources around the community, with the help of the community, nearby schools, DA and DENR. Map the coastal area in terms of the physico-chemical characteristics, the state of the resources and the fishing practices, intensity and yields. Complete environmental and resource-use surveys and analyses are a prerequisite to helping a community decide on a feasible management plan which can offer tangible results.

Participatory research

Formulation of sanctuary/reserve guidelines and regulations. Define the various use zones, boundaries and management options based on community needs and preferences, the remaining habitat cover, accessibility to monitoring and patrolling, etc. Clearly set regulatory provisions and the corresponding penalties for violations. Identify responsibilities and decide who does what.

Legalization and declaration. Refine the guidelines and regulations into a legal document for adoption by the municipal and national governments through DENR. Officially declare and inaugurate the marine sanctuary/reserve. Write the municipal ordinance in the local language, post it prominently in public and publish in the local papers. Demark the sanctuary/reserve by buoys and signs. Register the new protected area in the UN List of National Parks and Equivalent Reserves, as security against declassification and allocation to other uses.

Legalization and declaration

Management and enforcement. Manage the various use zones of the protected area according to the principles of sustainability of ecosystem and resources and equitability of benefits. Actively patrol the area for violations by local residents or outsiders and enforce penalties with support from the police/Coast Guard. Stock depleted species in the reserve, replant seagrass and mangroves, install artificial reefs and initiate sea ranching activities. Employ residents (not outsiders) in research and ecotourism projects.

Review and monitoring. Assess regularly the progress and status of the sanctuary/reserve. Invite observers (other communities, students, government, NGOs, etc.).

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23-28, 1992

Know the laws: report crimes against the environment!

Forestry law

PD 705 or the Revised Forestry Code of the Philippipes states that all lands with slope that is 18 percent or above is considered government-owned land.

The following activities are considered crimes or administrative violations:

· Clearcutting (PD 705, Sec. 22a).

· Cutting, gathering or trading of forest products, e.g., timber, rattan, orchids, etc., without a permit (PD 705, Sec. 633.

· Cutting trees with permit but failing subsequently to reforest or replant (PD 705, Sec. 37).

· Harvesting and trading of undersized logs and seed trees (PD 805, Sec. 25).

· Exportation of flitches and squared logs (AO No. 7 Series 1987).

· Hunting of animals or cutting and destroying of trees or plants within national parks, watershed areas and similar reservations (PD 705 Secs. 71 and 72).

· Use of forest lands, grazing lands and alienable and disposable lands that have not yet been disposed by the government (PD 705 Sec. 70).

· Cutting, injuring or destroying plants, shrubs or trees along public roads, in plazas, parks, schools and other public grdunds, except as demanded by public safety and when the pruning enhances its beauty (RA 3571)

· Harvesting of banned tree species like almaciga (AO No. 74 Series 1987), tindalo, akle or molave (ACT No. 3572).

· Collection and trade of endangered species such as the pawikan, Philippine Crocodile, etc., without proper permit from the DENR or DA.

RA 3571 aims to:

· promote and conserve the beauty of objects of scenic and ornamental values along public places; and,

· help preserve cool, fresh and healthful climate.

The cutting, injuring, destroying or pruning shall only be legal when approved by the Director of Parks and Wildlife.

Fisheries law

The governing law is PD 704 or the Fisheries Decree of 1975. Violations include the following:

· Use of destructive fishing methods like hand-made or manufactured dynamite fishing (PD 704, Sec.3 1); cyanide fishing or the use of other poisonous chemicals (PD 704, Sec. 33); muro-ami and kayakas (Fishery Administrative Order or FAO 163); hulbot-hulbot (FAO 164); pantakos (FAO 122) and trawl fishing (PD 704, Sec.35) and the sale or possession of fish or any aquatic product that has been illegally caught. (PD 705 and PD 1053).

· Trawl-fishing by commercial boats or vessels of more than three gross tons in waters within a distance of seven kms from the shoreline or waters of seven fathoms or 42 ft deep. (PD 1015 Sec. 2; LOI 1328; FAO 156 Series of 1986).

· Exportation of any corals in raw form; gathering of precious or semi-precious corals without permit; or of ordinary corals (reef-builders) even with a permit. (PD 1219; PD 1698).

· Taking, selling, transporting of mollusks and marine turtles (CITES).

· Use of fine mesh nets with size of less than three cm. measured between two separate knots of a full mesh when stretched (PD 704 Sec. 34 and FAO 155 Series of 1986).

· Exportation of bangus fry (PD 704, Sec. 36).

· Exportation of live prawns of any size (FAO 143).

· Catching, selling, possessing and transporting of sabalo or bangus measuring 60 cms or more (FAO 129, 129-1, 129-2).

· Discharge of any factory refuse or any substance or material that is harmful to aquatic or marine life (PD 704, Sec. 37, 1975).

· Clear cutting of mangrove swamps bordering islands and used to protect the shoreline, roads and coastal communities (PD 705, Sec. 43).

Presidential Decree No. 1219, as amended by PD 1698, states that it is illegal to:

· Gather, harvest, collect, or export ordinary corals.

· Export precious and semi-precious corals, unless these corals are processed and manufactured into finished products in the Philippines.

The above mentioned kinds of corals are defined by PD 1219, as follows:

· Precious corals are represented by red, pink and white corals.

Sec. 3b[i]. Precious corals-skeleton of Anthozoan coelenterate characterized as having a rigid axis of compact alcareous or horny spicules, belonging to the genus corralium as represented by the red, pink and white corals.

· Semi-precious corals are represented by black corals.

Sec. 3b[ii] Semi-precious coral - skeleton of Anthozoan coelenterate characterized by a thorny, horny axis, such as the Antipartharians as represented by the black corals.

· Ordinary corals are those corals which are neither precious nor semi-precious.

Reasons for the law

· Precious and semi-precious corals are allowed to be exported so long as they are processed within the Philippines because the exploitation of these corals can help generate employment and more revenues for the country.

· Ordinary corals are not to be touched because coral reefs serve as haven for fishes and other marine life forms. Coral reefs provide, among others, protection and food to said animals. It is also in coral reefs where fishes lay. their eggs. On the tourism side, coral reefs enhance the beauty of the Philippine underwater; thus, enabling the country to lure a number of tourist, particularly divers.

Pollution law

Presidential Decree No. 1152 (Philippine Environment Code) provides in Sec. 49, that the dumping or disposal of solid wastes into the sea and any body of water in the Philippines, including shorelines and river banks, where the wastes are likely to be washed into the water, is prohibited. Wastes pose immediate or imminent danger to life and property.

According to Sec. 45 of the same PD, solid waste disposal shall be by sanitary landfill, incineration, composting and other methods as may be approved by competent government authority.

Reasons for the prohibition include the following:

· Garbage dirties the water, killing the life forms that thrive therein.

· Garbage causes the water to appear and smell obnoxious, like the Pasig River.

· The garbage you throw will ultimately affect you.

Actions considered violations of the pollution law:

· Emission by industrial establishments (factories, poultry farms, piggeries, power plants, manufacturing firms, etc.) of substances containing dusts, chemicals, smoke and other toxic materials in harmful quantities as defined by law (PD 984, Sec. 3).

· Dumping of untreated mine tailings in critical areas, e.g., navigable rivers and waterways (PD 1067 Art, 91)

· Dumping of untreated domestic waste and garbage along any shore and banks of rivers, streams and lakes in violation of existing zoning, housing and pollution-control regulations (PD 1152, Sec. 46-43)..

· Sale, use and disposal of toxic and hazardous chemicals as well as banned fertilizers, fungicides and pesticides (PD 1144, Sec. 7).

· Smoke belching by motor vehicles (PD I 131, Sec. 3,4 and 5) and operating without an environmental compliance certificate (ECC) by industries (PD I 151 Sec. 4; PD 1536, Sec. 2 and 43 are administrative violations where the liability of the violatoris an administrative fine or cancellation of license or closure of establishment.

Reporting crimes against the environment

Reporting crimes against the environment

Where to report violations of environmental laws

· Barangay-through the chairman or other officers

· Municipality-through the mayor, any member of the Sangguniang Bayan or Panglunsod, as the case may be, or any other concerned local government officer

· Field offices of government agencies tasked to enforce the violated environmental laws

· Nongovernment organizations (NGOs) concerned with the protection and conservation of the environment

· Other nonconventional ways of reporting:

- through school principals and/or teachers;
- through parents and/or elders; and,
- through the media-television, radio, newspaper.

Important reminders for everyone

· Know the proper government agencies.


Department of Agriculture and its field offices for violation of fisheries laws.

Bureau of Forest Development (BFD) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) for violation of forestry laws.

Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau of the DENR for violation in the collection, utilization and management of wild flora and fauna.

· Know the specific persons in the community, school or organizations who are active and dedicated supporters of environmental protection and conservation to ensure that their reporting would not be futile.

· Be encouraged to report and act as witnesses. Request government and nongovernment officers to brief the people on their different environmental protection programs. Be aware that everyone must work hand-in-hand with the government to achieve a full-proof effort.

· Learn to follow up with the persons/offices the violations that have been reported to. Each agency has different processes of follow-up.

Earthquake. preparedness

Earthquakes can occur without warning, either from volcanic eruptions or tectonic fault movements. After a major earthquake, secondary shocks may occur.

Pre-earthquake activities

· The community should organize a Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council, headed by the Barangay Captain. Any responsible person could be a member or could assist in the disaster preparedness program. Nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and people's organizations can actively organize, coordinate and implement.

· Hold disaster preparedness workshops and training such as drills (maneuvers, operations and exercises). Regular and repeated practices enable people to acquire discipline and skills in the face of disasters.

· NGOs can initiate disaster preparedness. GOs and NGOs should build rapport at the barangay levels and with building occupants in population centers to facilitate drills to mitigate the effects of earthquakes (or any natural disaster). As an old adage goes: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Prepareoness through drills saves millions of pesos and thousands of lives during disasters.

Pre-earthquake activities

During an earthquake

· The first rule is Do not Panic. Many deaths occur when people panic and are killed by the stampede. In public places (theaters, auditoriums and other enclosed places where people congregate), casualties are usually high among the old, the weak and the children.

· When the earthquake occurs at night while sleeping, get under the bed or under the table. Remain stationary until the tremor subsides. Lights automatically go out and it will be very dangerous trying to run.

· In buildings, occupants should hide under a table, away from cabinets, walls and electrical fixtures. When the building shows signs of collapsing, run upstairs instead of downstairs. Do not push through your way. Do not use the elevator/escalator. If trapped, do not move until the arrival of rescuers.

During an earthquake

· In the street, stay away from buildings and high tension wires. Going to the middle of the street after all the moving vehicles have stopped is the most logical action that should be done. Remain in your location until after the secondary shock. Traffic will be stalled, including the LRT. Therefore, better proceed on foot to your home or to an area where you can avail of transport.

· For people living near the shorelines, see discussion on tsunami in the Volcanic Eruption Prenaredness paper

· For people living in the hills, near high walls, banks of rivers, fishponds and the like, immediately move away from the area after the initial shock. Landslides, collapsing of walls, cave-ins, erosion may happen and could endanger your life. Do not bring your belongings because they hamper your escape. Take-account of the members of the family.

· Several aftershocks may still occur. Avoid walking near buildings, sign boards, trees, power lines, gas stations, etc. Assist victims of the calamity.

After the earthquake

Refer to relevant discussions in the paper Volcanic Eruption Preparedness.

After the earthquake

Typhoon preparedness

To save lives and properties, do the following:

Before the typhoon

· Prepare for the coming typhoons. Starting the month of June, make sure that your house is structurally sound. Close, secure and reinforce weak parts of the house Inspect the roof attachments. Re-nail/re-tie all loose nails/ties of the roof and other parts of the building. If necessary, use fish nets and some weight in the roofing to prevent it from being carried by the wind.

· Close windows or nail them with a piece of wood. Test them for stability. Leave open a portion of the house in the leeward side, or vice versa if the wind direction changes to avoid destruction of the house due to wind pressure, inside as well as outside.

· Stock enough non-perishable food and potable water for the family good for one week. Cooking utensils and equipment, stove, LPG and emergency light should be secured in a safe place together with the water and food supplies.

· Remove breakable materials, wall decorations, contents of shelves and cabinets and clothes from clothesline and put them in safe places. Put all important documents in a water-proofed container. Transfer to the most secure room all important items and appliances.

Before the typhoon (1)

· If you have a motor vehicle, fill it with gas in case you would need it during emergency.

· For those with banca, relocate it to a high place. Invert and tie it to a stable foundation. You can also fill the banca with sand and submerge it in the water. Anchor a big banca in a well-protected place away from big waves.

· Open your radio, listen to the latest update on the typhoon and the alert signals that are being broadcast.

· Umbrella, raincoat, hard hat, boots, flash light and extra batteries will be very useful during the emergency. Have them on stand-by for immediate use.

· To avoid getting electrocuted, shut off the electric main switch before the house gets flooded.

· Know the nearest evacuation center (churches, schools, public buildings) and evacuate your family to this place, if necessary.

· When you have completed preparing for yourself and your family, try to help in the disaster preparedness effort for public structures like schools, churches, hospitals and other buildings.

Before the typhoon (2)

· Collect all debris in the yard so they would not be carried by strong winds and hurt people and destroy properties.

· If you have a dug well, cover it and remove the pail and/or the lift pump.

· Secure livestocks (chicken, cows, carabaos, goats, pigs) in cages, pens, or other enclosures, but do not tie them. You may also let them loose in the field to prevent them from being hurt.

· Clear coconut trees of dead leaves and dried branches of other trees.

Before the typhoon (3)

During the typhoon

· Stay inside the house/building. If you are outside, you may be hit by objects carried by the wind or flood, fall into open manhole or get electrocuted.

· Do not let children wade in the flood water. It is very risky. Even if children are held by the elders, they could still be carried away by flood or strong wind.

· Do not leave your location, not even to join your family. So many casualties have been reported of people who tried to run during the height of the storm.

· Hide in safe places. The safest place in your home is the smallest room located on the leeward side relative to the wind direction. You may hide under a table or any strong structure if your house is about to collapse.

· Cover your glass windows and appliances with cloth to avoid splinters.

· Wear additional clothing to avoid catching cold or other respiratory diseases.

During the typhoon

After the typhoon

· Stay in the house/building/evacuation center until a few hours after the typhoon has passed. Some residual rain and wind may still come.

· Survey the typhoon damage with great caution. Look out for fallen power lines, broken glasses, weakened structures and undermined trees.

· Disease outbreaks are always expected as an aftermath of a calamity. Cook your food adequately and boil your drinking water. Go to the health authorities for other health and sanitation assistance.

· Repair all damages in your house and premises and, upon completion, assist in the maintenance of the evacuation centers and in the rehabilitation of the disaster area.

After the typhoon

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Volcanic eruption preparedness

Active volcanoes are being monitored for possible activity and, there for, major eruptions can be predicted. Volcanic blast can destroy structures and the surrounding environment. It could cause fires, including forest fires. Lava and lahar flows as a result of volcanic eruption can bury buildings and crops and render land unusable.

Destruction of houses, buildings and trees as a result of ashfalls has been documented during the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Airborne ash can affect aircraft when ingested by the engines. Earthquakes are expected during the explosion. Heavy rainfall could worsen the situation and victimize residents far and near.

Volcanic eruption

Precautionary measures before the eruption

· Assist in community efforts such as constructing diversion ditches and placing sand bag baffles in possible lava or lahar pathways.

· Clear all debris and other flammable materials in the premises and nearby areas. The explosion carrying burning stones and the lava flow could trigger fire in your vicinity. Try to store water in containers for fire-fighting purposes.

· If possible, temporarily dismantle the storm water gutter in your roofs to allow the free flow of ash from the eruption. Reinforce the weak parts of your house.

Precautionary measures before the eruption (1)

· Plan your escape route in case there would be need to evacuate your family. If you have a motor vehicle, (land vehicle or banca), fill it with gas and have it conditioned to be used in these eventualities. Formulate several family evacuation plans. Include livestock safety in your plan. Synchronize your activities with the community disaster preparedness plan.

· Look out for other possible hazards that may happen. Earthquake, a component of volcanic eruption, may trigger landslides. Flooding could result from heavy rains.

· Stock enough non-perishable food and potable water for the family, good for one week, in the event that your community becomes isolated due to the disaster. Cooking fuel, emergency light, over-the-counter medicines, first-aid kit, water disinfectants, field tent, personal protective equipment (gas mask, hardhat, raincoat, umbrella, boots, lime, vermin, disinfectants and repellents, flashlights and extra batteries, whistle, life jackets, etc.) should be made part of your emergency paraphernalia.

· Underwater volcanic eruption may result to a tsunami or giant tidal wave. Observe the shoreline. Tsunamis are preceded by marked recession of normal water level prior to arrival of the wave, that is a massive outgoing tide followed by the incoming wave. In this event, climb to the highest hill or place. A tsunami wave can reach as high as 30 meters.

· Remove breakable materials in high places such as light bulbs, chandelier, wall and ceiling decorations, contents of shelves and cabinets and place them on the floor. The earth movement may break them and hurt the house occupants.

· Listen to the radio's latest PHILVOCS alerts on the volcanic eruption. Monitor lahar alert level and visually evaluate the volcano's activity. Timely and accurate evacuation decisions would save the lives of your family.

· Shut off the electric main switch of your house before you evacuate elsewhere. This will prevent fires due to short circuit of the lines.

· Proceed to the nearest evacuation center and remain there until the volcano has calmed down.

Precautionary measures before the eruption (2)

During the eruption

· If you are caught on the road or become stranded, do not panic. Execute the other evacuation plan that your family has decided.

· Do not go sightseeing. Stay inside the house/building/evacuation center. Your presence outside may-hamper the flow of evacuation traffic or you may get hurt by the effects of the explosion or earthquake.

· Take cover under a table similar strong structure and stay-away from glass windows and appliances.

· If you are not with your family during the eruption, do not leave your location to be with them. Wait until it is safe.

· Do not try to clean or shovel the ashfall during the eruptions. Ash may hamper your visibility or quakes may throw you down or lightning may strike you. Damaged properties could be repaired but not the lives lost.

· Wear gas mask or cover your face with clean wet towel or cloth to prevent ash from irritating the eyes and entering the respiratory tract.

· If the evacuation center is further threatened by the effects of the eruption, re-evacuate in accordance with the local disaster preparedness plan.

During the eruption

After the eruption

· Listen to the latest radio updates and the alert signals. Listen to relevant advice from authorities. Stay in the house/building/evacuation center until the volcanic eruption and after shocks have subsided.

· Survey with caution the damage from the volcanic impact with caution. Look out for road erosions, landslides, flooded areas, fallen power lines and trees, weakened structures, molten lava deposits, lahar mud flow movements. Children should not roam the damaged area. Temporarily confine them to the house/evacuation center. Residual effects of the explosion could still be a threat to lives and properties.

· Check sanitation facilities (water supply system, toilet, waste water drainage, dump site). Due to the earth's movement, all water sources are declared unsafe for drinking. Institute emergency treatment of drinking water (boiling, chlorination, etc.) Construct temporary pit latrines. Cover the human waste with lime or ash or earth after every defecation. Do the same to your garbage pit. Drain stagnant water in the vicinity to prevent insect infestation.

· Cook food thoroughly and always observe personal hygiene. Avoid overcrowding in the sleeping area. Request assistance from the health authorities for other health and sanitation services that you would need.

· Only the adult members of the family should be allowed to go home to inspect the house condition. The rest of the family should only return when it is safe. Otherwise, stay in the evacuation center.

· Be an active member in the maintenance of a peaceful and sanitary condition of the camp site. Assist in the clearing of damaged facilities and in the rehabilitation of the disaster area.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23-28, 1992

Where to go to recycle in and around metro manila

Where to go to recycle?

The importance of recycling household waste products is widely known throughout the Philippines. Many people now realize that one significant positive impact that they can personally have on the environment is to recycle products. However, as more people become interested to recycle materials, it is equally important that they know specifically where to go to recycle their waste products. Most recycling centers are located in cities and urban areas. However, recycling campaigns can also be successfully carried out in rural communities.

Below is a list of recycling centers in Manila. These centers will purchase from individuals or groups bulk materials for recycling. However, it is important to note that some of these recyclers will only purchase products in bulk, sometimes in quantities as large as a ton. The specific types of materials, the minimum amounts and purchase prices will vary. You can get specific information about each from the company.

· For all kinds of bottles - colored, broken, medicine, wine and liquor:

SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION, Bottle Division Parola Street, Tondo Manila

· For paper, cartons and newspapers (glossy paper from magazines usually not accepted):

Muntinlupa, Metro Manila

22 Baler Street,
San Francisco del Monte
Quezon City
Metro Manila

1000 Gov. E. Pascual Avenue
Malabon, Metro Manila

· All types of styrfoam:

Los Ba Laguna
(109-domestic calls, Tel.# 50006)

· All types of rubber; rubber slippers:

328 Quirino Highway
Novaliches, Quezon City
Metro Manila

· For plastics and tin cans, including paint cans and rusty galvanized iron sheets:

225 Gen. Luis Street,
Kaybiga, Kalookan City
Metro Manila

37 Gen. Luis-Capri
Novaliches, Quezon City
Metro Manila

Junk shops are recyclers

Since there are limited recycling centers, many households can recycle their products through neighborhood junk shops.

Did you know that...

· Through the Linis Ganada project in San Juan, junk shops provide pushcart boys (diyaryo bote boys) with start-upcapital to buy non-traditional materials which can be recycled. The junk shops then sell the materials in bulk directly to companies such as Rubberworld or San Miguel which purchase the recyclable wastes.

· A push cart boy can earn P70 - 100 per day by buying old newspapers, bottles, metals and other junks which can be recycled and then selling them to junk shop owners.

· These initiatives not only promote recycling, but also provide an alternative income source for out-of-school youth.

For further information: Balikatan Movement, 333 Santolan Road, San Juan, Metro Manila

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Proper solid waste management

Refuse produced by communities is called solid waste. It includes garbage from households, companies, schools, businesses, hospitals and laboratories. Tons of refuse which are collected in urban centers are brought to dumpsites, while the uncollected wastes thrown elsewhere. This waste clogs drainage canals and manholes and pollutes esteros and the natural water system.

Improper waste disposal causes diseases and pollution that pose great dangers to health. One way to help solve this problem is to be conscious of how you manage your waste.

· Classify garbage as wet and dry.

Classify garbage as wet and dry

Wet garbage are: animal feeds and organic compostibles.

- Animal feeds are household wastes such as vegetable leftovers or others that can be used as feeds for animals, especially swine.

- Organic compostibles are organic materials that can not be used a animal feeds but could be turned into compost, such as rotting fruits and vegetables, peelings, twigs, leaves, etc.

Dry garbage may either be organic or inorganic, as metals, rags, paper, cardboard, bottles, plastics, wood pieces, glass, etc. These may be subclassified as:

- Factory returnables. Items that factories can recycle, such as broken glass and bottles, plastics, paper cardboard, metals. etc.

- Arts and crafts materials. Items which can be used in handicrafts, such as paper mache, trinkets, etc.

- Combustible materials. Wastes from wood and tree branches and even leaves that can be used as fuel.

- Filling materials. Generally, all dry garbage can be used as filling for road ruts and holes and low ground. Construction throw-aways like concrete materials and slabs are called panambak and are good filling materials.

· Minimize wastes as follows:

- Buy things that are only necessary. Invest in durables. Take advantage of repairs, refills and rechargeables. For example, purchase rechargeable batteries (initial investment of P450-500) that have a life span of 3-5 years, rather than continually buying dry cell batteries.

- Bring a tote or shopping bag with you at all times.

- Avoid products with elaborate packaging.

- Reuse paper, cardboard and other paper producst. (Used paper can be made into charcoal balls.)

- Reuse glass, plastic or metal containers for storage and or wrapping purposes. (e.g., soft/flexible plastics can be made into ropes, pillow-cushions, doormat, etc.; empty tetrapacks can be used as seedling banks or planters.

· Donate recyclables to charitable groups or to those who need them most.

· Sell reusables and recyclables to pushcart boys (magbobote-dyaryo) or junk shops in your neighborhood.

· Store dry garbage in proper places for future use.

· Convert your kitchen into a mini-recycling center. Place animal feed items in plastic or metal containers that do not leak and have fitting covers.

· Compost organic materials. Build a backyard compost pit or install a home-composter.

· Share the recycling experience with your family members, classmates, neighbors and friends in the workplace or community.

· Organize a recycling or clean-up program in your community.

Junk shop

Waste disposal management can be done in different areas, in rural and in urban; and on two levels, namely the household and the community.

Waste disposal in the rural area is more environment-friendly, meaning you can easily classify and provide space for the garbage. Everything can be done at the right time and in the right places, like:

· A compost pit can be easily constructed.

· The consumption of junk food with elaborate packaging should be regulated.

· Household leftovers are used as animal feeds, provided to pigs or chickens.

· Biogas technology, even at the household level, can be installed. (It's important to note that biogas requires as much as 25 kg of waste material per day to be implemented.)

· Communities can be organized to undertake recycling projects. For example, a barrio can establish a central recycling center to collect all recycleable items from the households.

Compost pit and home composter

In contrast, solid waste management in the urban area requires a massive education campaign to enable people to act accordingly. Problems like lack of time and space may be a deterrent to pursue recycling in households.


Based on a workshop discussion with Dr. Emma A. Pujalte of IRRREN (International Resource Recovery and Recycling Network)

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Pesticide management in the home (In case you need to use these chemicals)

Pesticides are dangerous. Use them rationally and appropriately. Do not use the Dirty Dozen (Parathion, 2, 4, 5-T, Paraquat, DDT, Aldrin/Dieldrin/Endrin, Chlordimeform, Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), Chlordane/Heptachlor, HCH/Lindane, Ethylene dibromide, Camphechlor and Pentachlorophenyl (PCP).

Endosulfan (Thiodan) and Organotins (Brestan and Aquatin) were also banned from the market recently.

On selecting a pesticide

· Learn about the pesticide before use.

· Always read the label carefully and understand it before buying the pesticide.

· Do not buy pesticides in aerosol cans for they also contain CFCs.

· Do not just listen to the advise of others. Read the label.

· In case there's a need to use pesticide, use only pesticide marked with FPA approval

Select a pesticide

On transporting pesticides

· Do not buy cracked, ripped or leaky pesticide containers.

· Do not put pesticides in the bag or box where groceries or food are placed.

Transport a pesticide

Before opening the pesticide container

· Wear rubber or neoprene gloves. (Do not reuse these gloves for washing dishes.)

· Remove or cover food and dishes before spraying so they would not be contaminated.

· Clear all family and pets from areas that will be sprayed.

· Do not smoke, eat or drink anything while handling pesticides.

Before opening the pesticide container

Mixing the pesticide

· Follow the directions exactly as stated.

· Mix the pesticide outside the house in a well lighted and well-ventilated area.

· Do not use your bare hands to mix a pesticide. Use a stick.

· Never eat, drink or smoke while mixing pesticides.

· Do not mix several kinds of pesticides together.

Mixing the pesticide

Pesticide application

· Before application, re-read the label.

· Be sure members of the family and pets will not reenter until it is safe to do so. (At least two hours after the application with windows open.)

· Apply exactly as stated in the label (as aerosol, spray, poison bait etc.).

· Do not eat, drink or smoke while applying pesticides.

· Do not apply pesticides on windy or exceptionally hot days.

· Avoid exposing beneficial insects, desirable plants and animals.

· Be careful not to contaminate food.

· Clean up any spills.

Pesticide application

After pesticide application

· Clean equipment used to apply pesticides. Rinse the application equipment at least three times with clean water.

· Dispose any unwanted pesticides and empty containers properly for they will contaminate the environment and can cause seepage in the water table.

· Never reuse pesticide containers for any purpose.

· Do not burn containers or puncture aerosol cans.

· Store leftover pesticides in a dry, cool., locked and labelled cabinet out of reach of children, pets and livestock. Do not store near food, medicines, animal feed, beverages and clothings.

· Decontaminate clothings used with five percent calcium carbonate. Use alkaline soap. Wash twice and rinse well each time.

· Take a shower and wash thoroughly with lots of soap and water.

After pesticide application

In case of accidental or suicidal poisoning

· First Aid Measures

- Ensure adequate airway.

- Take off contaminated clothings.

- Wash skin with lots of soap and water.

- Do not touch the pesticide again or handle contaminated clothing.

- Induce vomiting by tickling with finger the patient's throat in case the patient is conscious.

- Place the patient into Iying position-turned towards the left, neck extended.

- If unconscious, pull chin forward to avoid tongue dropping back of throat; give artificial respiration and call for medical assistance.

Wash skin with lots of soap and water

· Be sure to know the name of the pesticides for appropriate application of antidote and general management.

The place of the patient

· If convulsion occurs, insert padded gag between the teeth to prevent the patient from biting his/her tongue.

Medical aid


Pesticides Terminologies and Classifications. Paper presented by Dr. Nelia Cortes-Maramba at the Updates on Pesticide Safety, IIRR, Silang, Cavite. 1990.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Alternatives to pesticides

Pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides end rodenticides are commonly used in Filipino households. Most of these are commercial brands which are highly toxic, especially when released in enclosed space. They pose a great hazard to health during application and from continued inhalation of residues. There are a lot of ways and means in eliminating the use of these hazardous pesticides.

The following are practices to prevent breeding of household pests:

· Put up a self-closing door and window screens and patch them if holes develop. Cover any holes through which insects may enter.

· Store food properly in safe and appropriate containers. For example, grains and cereals should be kept in air-tight containers. Separate storage of food from pesticides.

· Wash dishes thoroughly as soon as possible and do not leave crumbs lying around.

· Provide two garbage cans with covers at home -- one, for dry garbage, like paper and paper products, plastics which can be reused; the other for wet garbage, like fruit, vegetable peelings, soiled paper wrappers, etc. Clean these garbage cans every day.

· Keep moisture from building up inside the house by patching cracks, fixing leaking pipes and maintaining proper ventillation.

· Remove any standing water around your home. Empty tires, tin cans, bottles and even puddles in the gutter. These can serve as breeding places for mosquitoes.

· Keep your garbage and compost piles covered to avoid attracting rats and other pests.

· Locate and block the pests' points of entry. Remove clutter to eliminate nesting areas.

· Plug any holes through which roaches may enter.

· Keep a cat. This is one of the most effective nontoxic safeguards for rats and mice. Stutf up their entry holes with steel wool.

· To trap flying ants, the kind that come out during rainy days and fly around light bulbs, use 2 x 4 inches of plastic bags. Hang them near light bulbs to traps these flying ants.

· Maintain general cleanliness at home at all times to eliminate the pests' food supplies.

Covered garbage

Keep out

Keep a cat

Solutions to pests control

Avoid chemical pesticides for they are dangerous to you and your environment. Do not overreact; one or two insects are not an invasion. The presence of spiders helps keep other insects under control.

The following are lists of solutions to pest control and a chart of the good guys vs. bad guys in identifying insects and pests in keeping your environment pesticide-free.

For ants

Mint around the house

· Plant mint around the house.

· Sprinkle talcum powder, chalk or boric acid across the ants' trails.

· Sprinkle red chili powder, borax or dried peppermint where you see the ants coming in.

· Pulverize seeds of atis (Anona squamosa), mix with water and soak.

For flies

Leave orange or other citrus peelings

· Leave out some orange, lemon or other citrus fruits peelings in strategic places.

· Hang clusters of cloves around the room.

· Make your own flypaper: Boil sugar and corn syrup in water and paint the mixture on thick paper.

For cockroaches

· A light dusting of borax powder around the refrigerator, stove and in any of their haunts will also keep the roaches away.

· You can make an organic cockroach trap by doing the following:

- Put some stale beer or raw potato inside a bottle, lightly greasing the inside of the neck and then letting it stand. Roaches will enter the bottle but will not be able to come out.

- Prepare 3/4 measure of beer and 1/4 Seven Up or Sprite. Place in a can or bottle with wide mouth and use as a roach trap. Left-over ice cream or left-over pineapple juice with sugar can also be used to trap roaches

· Make cockroach balls as pesticide.

A Recipe for Cockroach Balls

Ingredients for cockroaches


1 pound boric acid powder
2 tablespoons sugar
1 cup flour one large onion, grated
1 can evaporated milk

Procedure: Mix all ingredients in a bowl until a pasty mixture is formed. (Lessen or increase quantity of milk to achieve desired mixture.) Roll into balls and place in areas frequented by cockroaches. You may also smear the paste on shelf bottoms. The mixture is pinkish and smells of onions. It is effective up to one year.

· Mix equal parts of baking soda and powdered sugar and spread the mixture around the infested area.

· Sprinkle boric acid powder around baseboards, under sinks and in other rinfested areas. Do not use in places accessible to children and pets.

For rats and mice

Mixture of sugar and plaster of Paris for rats

Try a mixture of sugar and plaster of parts. Also provide a container filled with water and place these in areas frequented by them.

For mosquitoes

· Burn dried twigs of kamarya (Artemisia vulgaris) and use like a mosquito coil.

· Burn dried lanzones (Lansium domesticum) peelings to produce smoke to drive away mosquitoes.

· Gather dried coconut fiber, place in a deep can and burn. This produces smoke to drive away mosquitoes in picnic areas.

· Burn citronella rings to produce smoke.

· For a nontoxic mosquito repellent, rub some white vinegar on your skin with a cotton ball.

Dried Lanzones peeling for mosquitoes

For fleas and ticks

· Routinely rub your pet's coat with brewer's yeast. Feed your pet brewer's yeast, 25 ma. per 10 pounds of the animal's weight or mix it with the pet's food.

· Spray repellents made from a mixture of water, cedar wood shavings, eucalyptus and bay leaves.

· Sprinkle two ounces of lavender oil extract over two or three quarts of rock salt. Let sit until oil is absorbed. Sprinkle salt under dressers, chairs or rugs.

· Extract juice from the leaves and stems of linga (Sesamum orientale) plant, mix with water and apply on pet's skin.

For moths

· Make sachets of crushed peppercorns, dried tobacco leaves or strong-smelling spices and hang inside closets or place inside drawers. Be sure to hang clothes outside the closets before using them.

· Make sachets of cotton cloth, fill them with cedar shavings, dried lavender or equal parts of dried rosemary and mint.

For silverfish

Make a trap using an empty lid-less cold cream jar. Put 1/2 cup flour inside for bait. Make a little bridge for the insects with an adhesive tape running from the floor of the shelf to the lip of the jar.

Other insect repellents

· Put bay leaves (laurel) in infested areas. Use this also to protect cereals or grains inside bins.

· Soak the midribs and stems of tobacco/tabako (Nicotina tabacum) in water for hours or days and use liquid extract as an all-purpose insecticide spray.

· Mix flakes of laundry or bath soap in water and spray against aphids, mealy bugs and thrips.

· Pulverize seeds of atis (Anona squamosa), mix with water and soak. Spray on plants affected by aphids or other insects.

· Blend two or three very hot peppers, 1/20nion and garlic clove in water. Boil. Steep for two days end drain through a cloth. Can be frozen for future use. Thaw and put in a spray bottle. Spray on affected plants.

· Mix two tablespoons of liquid soap with one quart of water. Use as insect repellent spray.

· Wash plant leaves with lukewarm soapy water to control spider mites, white flies, scale and mealy bugs or wipe the pests off with a cotton swab dipped in rubbing alcohol.

For an environment-friendly method of controlling pests in fields and gardens, try using helpful insects and spiders. The list below provides examples of nature's pesticides.

The good guys

The bad guys

black wasps


eggs of stem borers

blue-green wasps


eggs of leafhoppers and planthoppers, eggs of yellow and white stem borers



Ieafhoppers, eggs of stripped and dark-headed stem borers, leaf-folders, army worms and whorl maggots



Ieafhopper nymphs, flying insects

dwarf spiders


young leafhoppers/plan/hoppers

fire ants


wide variety of insects and small animals

ground beetle


Ieaf-folder larvae, planthoppers

jumping spiders


green leafhoppers

lady beetle


small planthoppers

lady bugs and praying mantis


aphids, mites, white flies, worm and caterpillars

long-jawed spiders


Ieafhoppers and moths

lynx spiders



meadow grasshoppers


eggs of rice bugs and stem borers, nymph planthopper and leafhopper

orb spiders


flies, leafhoppers and planthoppers

water bugs


leafhoppers, stem borer larvae

wolf spiders


stem borer moths, planthoppers and leafhoppers


Adapted from the Study of Dr. Jose Zerrudo of the University of the Philippines, Los Ba(UPLB).

How Green is Your Home? A Filipino Primer on Home Ecology.

Recipe for Cockroach Balls. Courtesy of MARIA F. MANGAHAS, EARTH STATION Writers and Artists Collective, Inc.

Design for a Liveable Plant. John Naar, 1990.

Friends of the Rice Farmer (Helpful Insects, Spiders and Pathogens). International Rice Research Institute pamphlet.

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Keeping chemicals out of your food

Some of the country's agricultural products (i.e., vegetables, fruits) that are being sold in the market have been found to have detectable level of pesticide residues. There is a lack of consensus on what safe levels are. Thus, concerned consumers must start taking matters into their own hands. As with all consumer actions, this has the double benefit of protecting individual health and creating broad-based-pressure for institutional change.

The goal is to purchase food that has been treated with as few dangerous artificial chemicals as possible. The first place to look into is the local grocery store or supermarket. Unfortunately, few of them disclose the origin or chemical history of the produce they sell. This situation must change if consumers are to make informed choices.

Tips on how to keep chemicals out of your food:

· Be smart in buying fruits and vegetables. Avoid those that are heavily sprayed with pesticides. Fruits and vegetables without any mark of even small insect infestation mean that artificial chemicals have been used on it.

Be smart in buying fruits and vegetables

· Buy fresh produce. You are more likely to find them in farmers' markets, food coops or natural food stores. Beware: The word organic, used by itself is not controlled and can be misused by farmers who apply dangerous pesticides.

Fresh produce

· Wash all produce. Thoroughly wash fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes. For vegetables, the best way is to use 1/2 baking soda with I liter of water. Soak the vegetables for 10-20 minutes in the mixture and wash with water afterwards.


· Rice sold in big supermarkets, especially rice sold by NFA, should tee washed thoroughly to remove pesticide residues and chemical preservatives.

· Look for agricultural products which useless chemicals, like traditional vegetables which command alower price in the market.

· Look for suppliers who are producing organically grown vegetables.

· Limit meat consumption. When you eat meat, be aware that most animals are raised on factory farms where they are fed large doses of growth hormones and antibiotics.

Limit meat consumption

· Grow your own food organically. Grow your own produce without using pesticides and artificial fertilizers. Make your own fertilizer by composting your organic garbage.


· Do not buy unregistered, dented and corroded canned goods. Check withthe Bureau of Food and Drugs for a list of canned products which were found to contain high lead content, such as Maxam dental cream, Lychees (Narcissus) and Sesame Oil (Pearl River Bridge).

Dented and corroded canned goods

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992

Food safety practices

Food is a basic human need. However, through carelessness and ignorance, food can also be a source of contamination which can cause diseases or, sometimes, death.

Advancements in science have improved the levels of food safety. Food preservation, causes of spoilage and reasons why food can cause illness were learned from studies.

The objectives of food safety practices are:

· to insure primarily the consumption of safe and wholesome food;
· to protect humans from illness and to promote their health and well-being;
· to prevent consumers from buying inferior and low-quality food; and,
· to cut down spoilage and wastage of food.

Buying food safety

Food sources

· Procure food and food materials only from approved sources to prevent food infection or food intoxication (e.g., markets, supermarkets, groceries, bakeries and stores; meat, poultry, grain, egg, fish and shellfish shops; and, dairy products, fruits, vegetables and rootcrop stalls.)

· Avoid buying food that show signs of deterioration, adulteration or damages, even when sold at bargain prices. Canned goods with leaks, swells and bulges can be poisonous.

· Buying junk food is discouraged. Junk food may have less nutritional value and may be inferior in quality.

· Never buy shellfish when your area is affected by Red Tide. Get the latest news updates from your local radio station, newspaper or other reliable sources of information.

· Avoid buying food from ambulant food vendors, particularly those that are not wearing their Health Certificate IDs. Food from these vendors are not guaranteed safe.

· Patronize only food establishments bearing the SSRS (Sanitation Standard Rating Stickers). You can be sure that food establishments bearing the SSRS are operating legally, are frequently inspected by health authorities and have complied to minimum sanitary requirements on health and sanitation. With SSRS, the potential risk of transmitting communicable disease is minimized. The SSRS are usually posted at the doors of food establishments with the following color codes: green for an excellent rating (90% - 100%), yellow for very satisfactory (70% -89%) and red for satisfactory (50% - 69%).

Junk food

· Use your senses when buying food. Consult and/or report to the proper authorities when you are in doubt of the food quality. Remember, it is your money and health that is at stake.


Food containers and transport

· Make sure that the food containers you are using are clean and can easily be cleaned and disinfected.

· Packed lunches or snacks for school children and other members of the family should be placed in clean, sanitized and covered containers (e.g., lunch boxes and juice/water jugs). These should be consumed within the day. Use only clean paper wrapper for sandwiches, bread, cookies, etc.

· It is highly recommended that containers be solely for the carriage or delivery of one class of food.

· Prevent food deterioration during transportation. It should be stored at proper temperature (below 7°C or 60°C) to prevent microbial growth.

· Consult the Department of Health (DOH) for further information on the approved design and construction of containers and transport vehicles.

Food containers and transport

Food Handling and Preparation

· Use only safe and wholesome food materials.

Use only safe and wholesome food materials

· Thoroughly wash food materials with safe water.

· Equipment and utensils should always be cleaned and sanitized before using. Consult the DOH Sanitary Inspectors in the sanitization activities.

· Prepare, process and cook food in a sanitary manner. Food contact surfaces (e.g., tables, cutting/chopping boards) should be free from cracks and crevices and should be cleaned before and after preparing food.

· Avoid eating food with bare hands. Where eating utensils are not available, wash hands with soap and water before eating. If soap is unavailable, use ash.

· Avoid eating raw food. Adequate cooking of food (beef, pork, shellfish, fish, shrimps, squids, poultry, vegetables, etc.) will prevent bacterial infection and intoxication, viral infection and parasitic infestation. Pasteurization of milk and milk products is required before consumption.

Adequate cooking

· Re-heating, warmed-over food and serving leftover food are discouraged. Prepare food enough for your consumption.

· Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water and, if possible, with a nail brush before preparing food, after each visit to the toilet and after handling soiled or contaminated equipment and utensils.

Wash your hands

· Always observe personal hygiene and personal habits while handling food. Do not scratch your head, pick your nose or wipe your mouth with your fingers while preparing food. Sneezing or coughing is not only a bad manner but also unsanitary.

· Do not be involved in food preparation if you have diarrhea, dripping nose, sore throats, colds, skin diseases, infected wounds, boils, cuts or pimples. Human discharge can contaminate food and can produce toxins.

Food storage

· Always separate storage for wet and dry food and for non-food items, particularly detergents, chemicals and pesticides.

· Separate storage by the type and kind of food.

· Apply the principle of FIFO (First In - First Out) in storing food.

· Food should be stored away from floors and walls. Place them in pallets, platforms, shelves or food cabinets.

· Protect food from insect and rodent infestation and from other contaminants.

· Store food in refrigerators, if available.

· All food should be stored at proper temperatures.

Separate food and non-food items

Ideas for Action:

A Technology Information Kit, November 23 - 28, 1992