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close this bookNitrogen Fixing Trees for Acid Soils - A Field Manual (Winrock, 1996, 110 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentAssessing soil acidity
close this folderSelecting nitrogen fixing trees for acid soils
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Collect information on the planting site
View the document2. Determine what tree products and services are required
View the document3. Make preliminary species selections
View the document4. Check available research results to verify species selection
View the document5. Determine If the selected species are native or naturalized to the planting site
View the document6. Conduct field trials to determine how well exotic species will adapt to the site
View the documentGrowing nitrogen fixing trees in acid soils
View the documentNitrogen fixing trees for animal production on acid soils
View the documentPests of important nitrogen fixing trees that tolerate acid soils
close this folderAppendices
View the documentNitrogen fixing tree highlights: Species tolerant of acid soils
View the documentSeed and inoculant suppliers
View the documentAuthors
View the documentSelected readings

Pests of important nitrogen fixing trees that tolerate acid soils

Luko Hilje and Marcela Arguedas

Table 1 lists the pest species known to affect nitrogen fixing trees that tolerate acid soils. The term "pest" refers to any organism - insect, pathogen, vertebrate animal, or parasitic plant - that is actually or potentially harmful to reproductive structures, seedlings, stumps, or established trees. Most of the information presented in the table comes from Central America. The table also presents worldwide data from Boa and Lenn‚ (1994) on the following species: Acacia angustissima, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina cunninghamiana, Flemingia macrophylla, Gliricidia septum, Inga edulis, and Paraserianthes falcataria.

In Central America, most of the pest species listed here have been of minor importance. More than half of these pests attack tree foliage, but trees can normally compensate for damage to their foliage, so the impact of these pests on overall tree growth is generally not serious. However, damage to foliage can be important to fanners if they are raising trees primarily for fodder production.

Oncideres punctata and Platypus species have been the most serious pests of acid-tolerant nitrogen fixing trees because they attack wood. The adult female of Oncideres punctata girdles several nitrogen fixing tree species. Adult Platypus beetles feed on Acacia species, but they appear primarily to damage trees that have already been weakened by adverse soil and climatic conditions. The stingless bee Trigona silvestriana is commonly blamed for this damage, but the bees only enlarge the holes made by the beetles.

Several pest species can attack both trees and agricultural crops. This can pose serious problems if susceptible plants are combined in agroforestry systems.

For example, in the South Pacific Erythrina species serve as hosts to the fruit-piercing moth Othreis fullonia.

The list of pests that affect Erythrina species has been limited to the most common species. Some 70 insect and 12 mite species have been reported to attack Erythrina species in Central America.


Table 1. Pests that attack nitrogen fixing tree species tolerant of acid soils.


Table 1. Pests that attack nitrogen fixing tree species tolerant of acid soils. (cont-1)


Table 1. Pests that attack nitrogen fixing tree species tolerant of acid soils. (cont-2)


Table 1. Pests that attack nitrogen fixing tree species tolerant of acid soils. (cont-3)


Table 1. Pests that attack nitrogen fixing tree species tolerant of acid soils. (cont-4)


Table 1. Pests that attack nitrogen fixing tree species tolerant of acid soils. (cont-5)


Table 1. Pests that attack nitrogen fixing tree species tolerant of acid soils. (cont-6)


Table 1. Pests that attack nitrogen fixing tree species tolerant of acid soils. (cont-7)


Table 1. Pests that attack nitrogen fixing tree species tolerant of acid soils. (cont-8)