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close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 4: Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 95 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentChapter 1: Principles and Rationale
View the documentChapter 2: Programme Framework
View the documentChapter 3: Organization and Implementation
View the documentChapter 4: Materials and Resources
View the documentChapter 5: Training of Personnel for Quality of Life Improvement Programmes
View the documentChapter 6: Monitoring and Evaluation
View the documentChapter 7: Challenges and Issues
View the documentAnnex: List of Participants

(introduction...)

UNESCO PRINCIPAL REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
APPEAL training materials for continuing education personnel (ATLP-CE) Vol. IV - Income-generating programmes. Bangkok, 1993
88 p. (Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All)

1. LITERACY PROGRAMMES - ASIA/PACIFIC. 2. UNIVERSAL EDUCATION - ASIA/PACIFIC. 3. BASIC EDUCATION - ASIA/PACIFIC. 4. CONTINUING EDUCATION - ASIA/PACIFIC. I. TITLE. II. Series.

379.24

UNESCO PRINCIPAL REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Bangkok, 1993

© UNESCO 1993

Published by the
UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
P.O. Box 967, Prakanong Post Office
Bangkok 10110, Thailand

Printed in Thailand

The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries.

bkl/93/m/249-2000

Foreword

Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) was launched in 1987 by UNESCO with the aims of promoting literacy and basic learning skills through three programmes, i.e. 1) Eradication of Illiteracy (EOI), 2) Universalization of Primary Education (UPE) and 3) Continuing Education for Development (CED). The concept of basic education programme was reinforced and expanded by the World Declaration on Education for All adopted by the Jomtien Conference held in 1990. This expanded vision of education will help the people firstly to acquire survival life skills through pre-school education, primary education and functional literacy programmes. Secondly to acquire knowledge and skills to improve their quality of life, and attitude and habit of lifelong learning through continuing education programmes.

The world is going through a process of change which is unprecedented in its magnitude and implication. This phenomenon is specially noticeable in the Asia-Pacific Region where the progress is much faster and implications are far more profound. APPEAL has made a survey of continuing education programmes in various countries. The survey revealed that the countries were organizing continuing education programmes under different names such as post-literacy, adult education, non-formal education, etc. The Second Meeting for Regional Co-ordination of APPEAL (Bangkok, 1990) decided to classify continuing education into six categories, they are (1) Post-Literacy Programmes (PLP), (2) Equivalency Programme (EP), (3) Quality of Life Improvement Programme (QLIP), (4) Income-Generating Programme (IGP), (5) Individual Interest Promotion Programme (IIP), and (6) Future Oriented Programme (FOP). Following the decision UNESCO/PROAP developed following manuals under the general title of APPEAL Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE)

ATLP-CE Volume I

:

Continuing Education: New Policies and Directions

ATLP-CE Volume II

:

Post-Literacy Programmes (PLP)

ATLP-CE Volume III

:

Equivalency Programmes (EP)

ATLP-CE Volume IV

:

Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIP)

ATLP-CE Volume V

:

Income-Generating Programmes (IGP)

ATLP-CE Volume VI

:

Individual Interest Promotion Programmes (IIP)

ATLP-CE Volume VII

:

Future-Oriented Programmes (FOP)

ATLP-CE Volume VIII

:

Learning Centre Development Programmes

These volumes have been conceived, developed and written by the experts on continuing education in the countries in the region. Therefore, they have combined theory and practice into suitable manuals and made them flexible so that each country can adopt and adapt them according to the situation and needs. These volumes are designed to act as source material for launching continuing education programmes. UNESCO/PROAP hope that each country will develop its own system of continuing education. A number of Regional and Sub-Regional Workshops are planned to train key personnel who would be working for continuing education in their countries. ATLP-CE will provide basic materials for such workshops. I hope the countries will also use them in their national workshops.

In the end I would like to express UNESCO’s grateful thanks to all the experts who have contributed to conceptualize, develop and write ATLP-CE. I would like to request all the experts of continuing education to make suggestion to improve the series continuously. I firmly believe that in this ever changing panorama practitioners of education should not be silent spectators but the main actors to induce the change in the right direction.

Hedayat Ahmed

Director, UNESCO/PROAP

Introduction

Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) has the following Action Areas:

1. Universalization of Primary Education (UPE)
2. Eradication of Illiteracy (EOI)
3. Continuing Education for Development (CED)

UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (PROAP) has been working very closely with the Member States to expand and improve Primary Education and Literacy Programmes. Specifically APPEAL Training Materials for Literacy Personnel (ATLP) has helped improve the quality of curriculum, learning materials and training for literacy programmes in Asia and the Pacific. Based on the experiences of ATLP, UNESCO/PROAP is developing APPEAL Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE). It organized a Planning Meeting on 16-20 April 1990 in Hua Hin, Thailand, and developed the First Volume of ATLP-CE entitled: "Continuing Education: New Policies and Directions." The Planning Meeting prepared guidelines for the preparation of training manuals for the following six types of Continuing Education Programmes:

1. Post-Literacy Programmes
2. Equivalency Programmes
3. Quality of Life Improvement Programmes
4. Income-Generating Programmes
5. Individual Interest Promotion Programmes
6. Future-Oriented Programmes

UNESCO/PROAP has convened a series of Technical Working Group Meetings of Experts and developed eight volumes of ATLP-CE. This book is the fifth volume in the series and it deals with Income-Generating Continuing Education Programmes (IGPs). The first volume Continuing Education, New Policies Guidelines establishes basic principles and should be read in association with this present volume.

QLIPs are defined as CE programmes which aim to equip learners and the community with that essential knowledge, attitudes, values and skills to enable them to improve quality of life as individuals and enable them to improve quality of life as individuals and as members of the community. The volume discusses the meaning of the term "quality of life" and defines it as the level of well-being of the society and the degree of satisfaction of a numbers of human needs. Indicators of quality of life are identified and discussed.

The special role of QLIPs in promoting community development is reviewed and a curriculum framework is proposed. This framework involves community development targets and indicators and educational activities designed to achieve the targets. Examples of various types of QLIPs are described, and a delivery system is proposed.

Guidelines are provided for the production of learning materials, for establishing an infrastructure for implementation, for training personnel and for monitoring and evaluating QLIPs. In discussing implementation approach of QLIPs, the approach of DELSILIFE project at the local level has been discussed as an example.

The volume concludes with a discussion of the role of QLIPs in promoting socioeconomic development in an environment of rapid technological change. The importance of establishing national policies for QLIPs and the contribution of QLIPs to the promotion of lifelong learning and the evolution of a leaning society are emphasised.

T.M. SAKYA

Co-ordinator «APPEAL»

Chapter 1: Principles and Rationale

A. THE FOCUS OF THIS VOLUME

This volume deals with quality of life improvement programmes within the context of continuing education. While almost all aspects of education can be said to contribute in some way to improved quality of life some types of educational activities can be more specifically directed to improve general well-being through the development of higher standards of living and improved excellence of life style. These types of educational activities are termed in this volume «quality of life improvement programmes,» (QLIPs).

The definition of quality of life adopted here is as follows:

Quality of life refers to the level of well-being of the society and the degree of satisfaction of a number of human needs.1

Quality of life improvement programmes can be functionally defined as follows:

Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs) aim to equip learners and the community with that essential knowledge, attitudes, values and skills to enable them to improve quality of life as individuals and as members of the community.

Quality of life improvement programmes are therefore development focused and have a strong future orientation. They are concerned with helping establish an enriching vision of the future and with helping the community devise and undertake developmental activities to achieve that vision through education.

B. DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF LIFE

The definition given above for the quality of life has been chosen because of its simplicity and utility. It is a functional definition with a clear action orientation.

The concept of quality of life, however, has different meanings, interpretations and expectations for different individuals, communities, societies and nations. These different meanings have been reflected in various definitions. The educators Dalkey and Rouke define quality of life as a "person’s sense of well-being, his or her satisfaction or dissatisfaction with life, or happiness or unhappiness".2

The American sociologists F.M. Andrews and S.B. Withey believe that the concept «Quality of life» should be viewed from two related perspectives3 The first is a national perspective which is generally concerned with the idea of «standard of living» as a criterion for assessing the level of well-being of society and for assessing progress towards achievement of societal goals. The second is a personal perspective which involves considering the «degree of excellence in ones lifestyle» and that is of course a highly subjective judgment4 So putting these ideas together the concept «quality of life» could be viewed as «A concept involving a relative assessment of human well-being in terms of the overall standards of living of society and the degree of excellence of an individual’s life style».

The concept of «well-being» is common to these definitions and usually well-being is interpreted in terms of satisfying both economic and social need.

Quality of life improvement programmes (QLIPs), therefore, are educational programmes designed to enhance the well-being of all citizens. This definition given in Section A above gives QLIPs a strong developmental focus and makes clear that their role is to promote human well-being through education aimed at improving general standards of living and the degree of excellence of one’s life style.

C. QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES IN THE CONTEXT OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

a) The Idea of Development

The development of a nation or community is now seen to be concerned with two elements - general resource development and human resource development. By general resource development is generally meant the development of primary and secondary industry, commerce and trade and infrastructures such as transport, communications, medical services and the like. This type of development of course also benefits individuals by providing and increasing nation-wide services and systems which enhance general well-being. The level of general resource development of a country is generally expressed by the index of Gross National Product (GNP).

Human resource development, however, is more directly concerned with upgrading human qualities, mainly through education and training, to enable individuals to develop to their maximum potential. International agencies such as UNDP and the World Bank now use a measure termed the Human Development Index (HDI) which has three components (i) longevity (ii) knowledge and (iii) living standards. The educational (knowledge) component recognizes the importance of high levels of skill and is measured by a combination of adult literacy and mean years of schooling. Living standards are measured by levels of income relative to the poverty cut-off point.

Quality of life development is almost synonymous with development per se as measured by a combination of the factors assessed by GNP and HDI but is moderated to an extent by issues such the relationship between development and perceived happiness and by environmental concerns such as limitations imposed by the idea of sustainable development. Sustainable development stresses that present generations should ensure that the quality of the natural environment and availability of natural resources are not degraded for future generations.

To simplify the design of quality of life improvement programmes the various stages of a development of a nation or community have been classified in this volume as follows:


Figure 1.1: A classification of living standards

The primary criterion for this classification is standard of living as measured by levels of income. Other development indices correlate with this criterion. While this is not always the case, poor people usually lack access to skilled knowledge and have shorter life spans, whereas people with incomes above the poverty line usually have better educational opportunity and enjoy greater longevity. So while very generalized this type of classification provides an useful framework for the design of quality of life improvement programmes for different levels of development.

It is important to stress however that the purely economic indicator of GNP is not always positively correlated with the more socially oriented HDI. There are a few countries which have relatively high GNP and relatively low HDI indicating perhaps that social development has not keep pace with economic development. Such imbalances can be partly addressed through quality of life improvement programmes.

Within each of the categories shown in figure 1.1 certain societal groups lag behind in development and should be priority targets for QLIPs. Women are especially significant in this regard. One aspect of the special concerns of women is the need to help them cope more effectively with obsolescent technology. Women do not have the same opportunities as men to keep abreast of new developments and should therefore have improved access to retraining and to recurrent education. Another aspect of the issue of women in development (WID) is the need to improve their general status in society and to empower them to participate more in societal decision making.

Others which may need to be specially targeted by QLIPs include subsistence level farmers, urban youth and other disadvantaged groups.

b) Indicators for Quality of Life Development

The various elements or aspects of quality of life can be expressed in the form of indicators. These indicators, as the term suggests, represent a set of variables which can be measured to assess progress.

The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) has suggested that Quality of Life indicators have been traditionally classified into three groups as follows:

i) Economic Indicators

GNP and GDP

ii) Objective Social Indicators

Hard data on elements such as:

health/nutrition
education/learning
housing and physical environment
working life
social security
personal safety and justice
leisure and use of time
social participation
human freedom

iii) Subjective Social Indicators

Soft data on individuals’ reactions and perceptions about quality of life.

Perceived levels of happiness and life satisfaction in regard to

work
health
family
environment
income
leisure time
life housing
government
and others

ESCAP points out an interesting lack of correlation between the three categories of indicators. While income levels can go up people surveyed can claim that they are less happy and so on.

Other lists have been compiled by various authors. Professor S. M. Yassin of Malaysian suggests that these elements are as follows:

i) The physical and material well-being of an individual or family that accrues from material possession and financial security usually of income and property. Other related aspects are the levels of health and personal safety.

ii) Relations with other people, which refer to good relations with family members, having and raising children, and positive interactions with relatives, friends and neighbours.

iii) The area of social, community and civic activities that relate to activities for helping or encouraging other people and activities associated with participation in local and national governments.

iv) Concern for personal development and fulfilment. This includes intellectual development, spiritual development, personal understanding and planning, occupational role in society and creativity and freedom of personal expression.

v) Concern for recreation. By this is meant the opportunity for socializing, facility for passive and recreational observation as well as for active and participatory recreational activities.

Professor Yassin, also stresses, that these elements cannot be made operational and that quality of life development cannot be sustained unless the adult population has a set of values which will foster and promote their development6. These values are as follows:

i) Diligence and Industriousness: These are important to ensure that the populace posses a positive attitude towards change.

ii) Discipline and Respect for Knowledge: These values are necessary to support the desire to possess and seek knowledge especially in the context of technological and industrial development.

iii) Integrity and moral ethics: These values are the basic building blocks of various modes of social and commercial interactions which directly affect either improvement or decline in quality of life.

iv) Tolerance: In a plural society, this value is a crucial ingredient, without which harmony and cooperation will be jeopardised. Also, this value is important to support the ability of a societal group to accommodate the subtle or overt differences in roles or ideas of other groups and in appreciating the differences that others possess.

v) Loyalty: Above all, this value reigns supreme in importance especially when seen in respect of the ruling government or towards the nation. The citizenry’s loyalty is often earned when they believe that a government is sincere and not corrupt in its dealings with the people at large.

Another Malaysian educator Dr. Cheong, Siew Young7, suggests that the following elements are important in indicating the level of life quality. (table I.1).

Table 1.1: Elements Important for a High Quality of Life (After Cheong, Siew Young 1983)

Biological variable. The satisfaction of basic biological needs is of fundamental importance both for survival and for the quality of life. The availability of nutritious food, clean air, unpolluted water, a life relatively healthy and free from sickness, adequate housing and sanitation are essential.

Economic variable. From the individual point of view, two factors are important: (a) an opportunity to work to earn an adequate income and to achieve self-actualization; and (b) money to purchase modern material goods. From the societal viewpoint, quality of life is a function of economic capabilities and depends on an equitable distribution of the society’s economic opportunities among the people. In developing societies, it would imply, for example, a better earning capacity for people living in rural areas. Employment opportunities and an adequate income for all would be the ultimate goal.

Social variable. The freedom to make choices and decisions and to participate in the affairs of society is an important dimension of democratic life. Other factors are lack of discrimination based on sex, place of residence, religion, race, or physical or mental handicap; access to social services and cultural activities; and law and order.

Environmental variable. The environment consists of both the natural and the human environments. The natural environment includes natural resources such as land, air, water, fauna and flora, mineral and oil deposits. In general, the quality of life is severely reduced if the natural environment is badly managed. The human environment comprises the populations of countries and the socialization process. In some cases an increase in the population can contribute to economic progress, but in other instances a large population is a liability to the achievement of desirable standard of living for the people.

Humanistic variable. The psychological and affective aspects of human life are extremely important. Human feelings and emotions, in particular happiness, inner harmony, spiritual fulfilment, peace of mind and general contentment, are critical to attaining mental well-being and hence increasing the quality of one’s life.

A similar list was developed by Dr. Michael Atchia of Mauritius who is 1983 conducted on opinion survey of nearly 500 educators from six countries.8 Based on his study he developed the following classification shown diagramatically in figure 1.2.


Figure 1.2: Essential and peripheral elements of the quality of life (After Atchia 1985)

These various lists have many elements in common. Not all of the elements, however. can be directly affected by education.

One thing is clear however, there is general agreement that economic indicators alone are not adequate to give a measure of the quality of life. Both economic and social indicators are required.

Indicators such as those listed above can be grouped into general categories for the purposes of planning and programme design. The broad categories suggested in this volume are shown in the box below

BROAD CATEGORIES OF QUALITY OF LIFE INDICATORS

i) Biological
ii) Social
iii) Economic
iv) Humanistic

v) Environmental

c) Selecting Elements and Indicators for Quality of Life Improvement Programmes

Not all elements of quality of life development can be addressed by education. For example a community’s well-being may be enhanced by the flood control, irrigation and hydroelectricity arising from construction of a major dam. The decision to build the dam, however, is not the direct product of an educational programme. What education can do in such a situation is help people adjust to the impact of the dam, to help them weigh up the advantages and disadvantaged of its construction and assist them in making wise and effective use of its benefits.

What Quality of Life Improvement Programmes aim to do is to educate people as change agents by helping groups learn and act on how to improve their quality of life. It is important that QLIPs help to improve the standards of living and the life styles of as many people as possible. Elements to be promoted by such programmes should be carefully selected with this aim in mind. Criteria for selection are given below (Table 1.2).

Table 1.2: Criteria for Selecting Elements for QLIPs

i) Promote active participation by learners. QLIPs are intended to facilitate planning and implementation of developmental projects designed to improve standards of living and quality of life style. Only those quality of life elements which can actively involve learners are suitable for educational programmes.

ii) Be of direct benefit to learners. Outcomes of QLIPs must be immediate and relevant to the needs of those involved. Only those aspects which can be directly and immediately developed through education and training should be included in QLIPs.

iii) Be developmental and action oriented. Since QLIPS are concerned with bringing about changes in society they must be action oriented. Only realistic and practicable targets should be included.

iv) Be time bound in the achievement of specific targets. Targets should be set within a specified time frame. There could be a relationship with a national five year plan or a phased development plan for a specific community. Targets should be selected which can be realistically achieved in the time available.

v) Be capable of delivery through a multisectoral approach. Almost all development projects involve more than one sector of government. Educators planning QLIPs must be aware of the sectors involved in any given project and select only those elements which involve realistic coordination and cooperation between the sectors concerned.

vi) Be family and community oriented with clear benefits for all. Families are the ultimate beneficiaries of improved standards of living and an upgraded life style. Families therefore need to be targeted in promoting QLIPs.

vii) Be culturally relevant to the needs and concerns of those involved. Different cultural groups have different developmental priorities and only elements of relevance to specific groups should be addressed through QLIPs.

viii) Be suitable for application of non-formal methods and the principles of adult learning. QLIPs are a type of continuing education and only those aspects of quality of life which can be addressed using the methodologies of adult education should be involved.

ix) Promote complementary inputs by both the formal and non-formal education systems. QLIPs are not only multi-sectoral but should also utilize inputs from both the formal and non-formal educational systems. Elements which can be readily supported by both systems should be given some priority.

x) Be supportive of national policy. Elements selected for QLIPs should be consistent with and contribute to achieving the goals of overall national development.

As a result of applying criteria such as those given above (table 1.2) it is possible to select indicators and define realistic targets to be addressed by QLIPs.

d) Consolidated list of Indicators

After reviewing the lists of quality of life indicators discussed above and the criteria for selection also listed above, a consolidated list of categories of indicators which could be addressed by QLIPs has been prepared and is given in table 1.3 below:

Table 1.3: Indicators for Quality of Life Improvement Programmes

1. BIOLOGICAL

These refer to biological elements fundamental for survival and for the quality of life. For example availability of nutritious food and clean water.

Elements

· availability of food
· cleanliness of air
· availability of clean water
· freedom from illness
· quality of housing
· good sanitation

2. SOCIAL

The elements of this category include those necessary for social harmony and progress such as freedom to make choices and decisions and absence of discrimination.

Elements:

· Quality of family life (example parenting)
· Socialization process
· Freedom of choice and decisions
· Level of participation in affairs
· Absence of discrimination
· Access to social services
· Access to cultural activities
· Degree of law and other

3. ECONOMIC

This category can be looked at from the individual and societal viewpoints. Individuals need an opportunity to work and earn on adequate income to purchase material goods. Society as a whole benefits from an equitable distribution of economic opportunity.

Elements

· opportunity to work and earn adequate income
· level of achieving self-actualization through financial security
· equity in distribution of wealth adequate physical infrastructure

4. HUMANISTIC

These include psychological aspects such as values and emotions. Elements such as feelings of happiness, inner harmony and spiritual fulfilment are important here.

Elements

· Level of happiness
· Degree of inner harmony
· Level of spiritual fulfilment
· Degree of contentment and peace of mind
· Loyalty, ethics and tolerance.

5. ENVIRONMENTAL

This category includes both the natural and the human-made environment. The former include natural resources such as land, air, water, animals, plants and so on. The latter includes the human population.

Elements

· Natural environment

Natural resources

· Human environment

Human population

The list of elements in each category of indicators in table 1.3 could be further expanded. Also in practice any one element would be broken down into more specific indicators and these specific indicators would then be expressed as targets for development. For example the element «availability of food» might be made more specific by identifying availability of one commodity such as rice and a target of increasing rice production by ten per cent over two years may be set. The QLIP devised to support this planned development would then focus on the achievement of that specific goal.

D. QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTINUING EDUCATION

a) Definition of Continuing Education

Quality of life Improvement Programmes as proposed in this volume are one type of Continuing Education programme. Under ATLP-CE Continuing Education has been defined as follows: (See box).

Continuing Education is a broad concept which includes all learning opportunities all people want or need outside of basic literacy education and primary education

This definition implies the following:

i) continuing education is for literate adults;

ii) it is responsive to needs and wants;

iii) it can include experiences and activities provided through the formal, non-formal and informal educational sub-sectors;

iv) it involves the provision of opportunity to engage in learning with the further implication that after the completion of child education, education continues throughout life.

An important aspect of continuing education is that the society should evolve so that not only schools, colleges and universities provide educational opportunity but that all agencies including factories, commercial enterprises, farms, retail outlets, libraries, government agencies and so on provide education. A society in which all agencies provide opportunities for learning and in which most citizen are life-long learners is, under UNESCO, defined as a learning society.

Since Quality of Life Improvement Programmes are one type of Continuing Education they contribute to the evolution of a learning society. Because of their specific focus on development they have a special role to play in the context of continuing education and life-long learning. This role is briefly reviewed in section D(b) below:

b) Types of Continuing Education

Continuing Education under APPEAL offers six types of programme. These are post-literacy, income generation, equivalency, individual interest and future oriented programmes as well as quality of life improvement programmes. All six types are functional in that they involve the development of functional knowledge. The functional knowledge is used as a motivator and delivery emphasis with the aim of making learning relevant to living and working. The relationships between the six types of CE programmes are discussed in ATLP-CE volume 1.

c) The Specific Role of QLIPs in Continuing Education

Since the role of QLIPs is to facilitate positive societal change through education it is important to develop such programmes within the context of a general model for change. The change model advocated in this volume is given in detail in Chapter 2 but its essential elements are reviewed below. The model indicates (i) where we are now, (ii) the procedure to bring about development and (iii) a statement of the development target (where we want to be). QLIPs can be implemented at all three stages of the model.

At the initial stage the aim should be to compare national targets on key indicators with community perceptions. Education through QLIPs can help the community to:

- understand national targets
- assess their own situation
- identify their own targets
- negotiate desirable targets

At the second stage QLIPs can help to change human factors and through them change institutional and environmental aspects.

At the third stage QLIPs may help people monitor and evaluate whether they have reached the target, to assess successes and failures and to help in deciding in where to go next.

So the model implies that there should be two types of QLIPs - general and specific. The general types should be concerned with broad aspects of implementation such as planning, management and evaluation. For example, QLIPs could be developed for each stage of the model.

Stage I

:

How to determine needs



How to assess the level of relevant indicators




Stage II

:

How to select appropriate methods



How to implement change




Stage III

:

How to assess level of achievement



How to evaluate the effectiveness of the outcomes



How to assess impact



How to review processes



How to determine future priorities

More specific types of QLIPs could then be developed to support the specific aspects of change. Issues to be addressed could include: What are the specific needs? How the specific targets are determined? How are they to be achieved? How should training in the techniques and procedures required be achieved? How should outcomes be measured? And so on.

Such a change model is relevant at all levels; national; state-wide; provincial and local. It provides a broad framework for the selection, design and development of QLIPs of relevance to development needs. Priorities would of course be different for different groups. Developed nations would be different from developing nations, rural communities would have different priorities from urban communities, and so on.

For example the priorities for two contrasted nations, one highly developed and one less developed, may be as follows (see box):

Examples of Development
Priorities to be addressed by QLIPs

Developed country

Developing Country

Improved national identity
Reduced use of illegal drugs
Improved parenting
Better use of leisure
Wise consumerism
Reduced hypertension
Increased high tech. employment
Improved facilities for the aged


Reduced poverty
Increased food supply
Improved health services
Improved communications
Provision of clean water
Reduced forest destruction
Better family planning

Selected targets could not of course be achieved through education and training alone but education through QLIPs can facilitate and accelerate development.

d) The Characteristics of Effective QLIPs

As discussed above QLIPs are socially oriented and developmental in focus and to achieve their objectives they need to have certain specific qualities. These are outlined below:

i) Participatory: Since QLIPs are concerned with the lives of people in a given community they should be highly participatory. All relevant members of the community should be involved in determining priorities, in deciding which QLIPs are required and in their development and implementation.

ii) Clearly Defined Targets: Realistic and practicable development targets should be set with carefully defined indicators of change. Whenever possible these indicators should be quantitative rather than qualitative e.g. increase rice production of the village by five per cent over the next twelve months.

iii) Linked to a change Model: Effective development occurs only when it is carefully planned. There should be clear understanding of the procedures needed to bring about change from needs analysis, through implementation to the evaluation of outcomes. All those involved in QLIPs should understand the nature of change and the general procedures for implementation.

iv) Action Oriented: QLIPs can be concerned with awareness raising (e.g. the dangers of smoking) but unless they lead to action (reduction in smoking) they are largely ineffective. QLIPs should therefore enable people to take direct action in improving their living standards and life styles. Some types of action may be entirely community-based self help; other may need partial support from outside the immediate community and others may be entirely supported form outside.

v) Family Oriented: Since the main beneficiary of QLIPs is the family, the most effective programmes, therefore, should keep the needs of the family in mind and ensure that family welfare, interests and concerns are at the heart of the development.

vi) Multisectoral: Many sectors of government are concerned with development. Education, health, agriculture, communications, transport, industry and so on. This implies the need for close coordination of all agencies involved.

vii) Linked to National Development Plans: To have major impact QLIPs, even at village level, should not be planned on an ad hoc basis. The more closely they are linked to overall plans for national development the more likely they are to have a cumulative impact on the development of the nation as a whole. Also they are more likely to receive support from the national level.

e) Levels of Quality of Life Improvement Programmes

QLIPs can be broad in scope and be of concern to the entire nation or l e more localized in scope. QLIPs can therefore be mounted at various levels (i) national (ii) state wide (iii) district (iv) local.

i) National QLIPs: In each country the National Development Plan or State Policy usually states how it wants to develop the quality of life of the people. This is the main framework which provides direction for all agencies concerned with quality of life working at various levels such as national, provincial, district and local. Thus many agencies at each level have quality of life programmes.

ii) State or Provincial level: In many countries the individual states or provinces have specific developmental concerns. An state or province which is largely forest may wish to focus on the sustainable development of forest resources. A state concerned mainly with the production of grain crops such as rice or wheat may wish to maximize production. State wide programmes would need to combine training with action oriented projects supported by campaigns utilizing the mass media.

iii) District level: Different districts also have their own developmental concerns. Some QLIPs may need to be organized to guide the necessary educational support for these developments. For example a district may wish to improve aspects of community health or assist people establish small businesses. These types of targets may be achievable through training, community education and action projects.

iv) Local level: Small communities such as urban groups or village collectives have very specific development concerns. Village management or local urban committees can initiate action oriented projects such as introducing new income generating schemes or for the local provision of clean water. In cooperation with local learning centres action oriented projects can be organized supported by awareness and training courses.

It follows that some QLIPs may be initiated at higher levels of the system with aspects operationalized at lower levels. In other cases lower levels such as village communities may be the initiators and these may influence higher levels. In fact it should be the responsibility of both the lower and higher levels to work together to ensure that projects achieve their targets and that successful lower level projects serve as models for replication at district, state or national levels.

E. THE IMPACT OF QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES

Human Resource Development (HRD) is now seen by those concerned with facilitating national growth and positive change in the improvement of human well-being as the main approach to be adopted. As expressed by Sulaiman Yassin9:

"Human development is the process of increasing the knowledge, skills, and capacities of all the people in a society. In economic terms, it could be described as the accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the development of an economy. I)t political terms, human development prepares people for adult participation in political processes, particularly as citizens in a democracy. From the social and cultural points of view, the development of human resource helps people to lead fuller and richer lives less bound by tradition. In short, the processes of human development unlock the door to modernisation."

Continuing Education is probably the most effective agency for human resource development. Quality of Life Improvement Programmes are an especially significant type of continuing education since they relate directly to planned economic and societal development. By helping to raise living standards and to improve life styles they enhance human well-being and contribute to the process of modernisation.

In almost all countries of the Region there are educational activities concerned with improving the quality of life. Many of these activities have been included in types of continuing education programmes such as post-literacy, equivalency, income generation and so on. While this is useful and makes a significant contribution to development, the effort lacks coordination and is somewhat ad hoc in approach. This volume is designed to facilitate the design and development of quality of life improvement programmes in their own right. It attempts to provide not only a theoretical rationale but a set of guidelines and procedures to assist in the introduction of a systematic, coherent, nation-wide system of development and delivery.

The outcomes of quality of life improvement programmes, therefore, effect all levels of the nation - nationally, state wide, in districts and locally. Since the family is the basic unit of society it is the family which is the ultimate beneficiary. Quality of Life Improvement Programmes, therefore need to be a major focus of continuing education and deserve full government support and commitment.

Note and References

1. UNESCO. Population and Quality of Life. Paris: UNESCO 1982.

2. As quoted in Karim, Raj Quality of Life - Concept and Programme. Paper presented to UNESCO PROAP Technical Working Group Meeting on Quality of Life Improvement Continuing Education Programmes 8-16 May 1992, Penang, Malaysia, p.2.

3. Andrews, F.M. and Withey, S.B. Social Indicators of Well-Being. Americans’ Perceptions of Life Quality. New York: Plenum Press, 1976.

4. Ibid.

5. Yassin, Sulaiman M. Human Development and Quality of Life Improvement Paper presented to UNESCO PROAP Technical Working Group Meeting on Quality of Life Improvement Continuing Education Programmes, 8-16 May 1992, Penang, Malaysia, p.9.

6. Ibid, p. 10

7. Cheong, Siew Young. Quality of Life and Biology Education. A Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Commission for Biological Education of the International Union of Biological Sciences, Vancouver Canada 1983.

8. Atchia, Michael. The Concept of «Quality of Life» a Model. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the Education Commission of the International Union of Biological Sciences, Bangalore, India, August 1985.

9. Yassin, Sulaiman M. Op Cit. pp 1-2.

Chapter 2: Programme Framework

A. INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of five parts as follows:

- Common features of Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs)
- A change model as the basis for QLIPs
- A curriculum framework for QLIPs
- Types and examples of specific programmes
- Delivery and integration of components

It is important to stress at the outset that QLIPs are aspects of development projects. They provide the education and training needed to bring about planned changes to meet the needs of a community in improving standards of living and degree of excellence of life styles.

B. COMMON FEATURES OF QLIPs

In examining Quality of Life Improvement Programmes it is evident that while programmes may vary in approach and emphasis, they share several common characteristics. These are outlined below:

a) All programmes are involved with a planned process of transformation from the present state of being to the more desirable state


Figure

b) The directions of such transformations are clearly identified and can be broadly categorized into five dimensions namely:

Biological
Social
Economic
Environmental
Humanistic

c) These dimensions are further elaborated in terms of indicators, targets to be reached within a certain time frame and criteria to be applied in determining whether the desirable target has been achieved.

Indicators, targets and criteria can be expressed in many ways as actual numbers, as percentage or as scores as shown in examples below (table 2.1).

Table 2.1: Selected Dimensions of QLIPs

Dimension

Indicator

Target to be reached

Criteria

Social

Levels of literacy

Over 20 per cent

People aged 7-40 who can read popular newspaper

Economic

Wage level in the community

Score more than 2

More than 50 dollars: score 3
Between 35-50 dollars: score 2
Less than 35 dollars: score 1

Biological

Malnutrition among children Rating 0-5

No malnutrition at dangerous levels 0-3

No children suffering from malnutrition at level 3 or below

It is noted that the clearer the indicators, targets and criteria, the more effective the programmes tend to be. Quantitative criteria are preferable to qualitative criteria.

d) The goals and targets for quality of life improvement can be set at several levels: national, provincial, district or even among small groups of local beneficiaries. The effectiveness of the programme, however, will depend on the extent to which these goals and targets are supported by national policy and by development agencies’ mandates and organisational objectives as well as the satisfaction levels of the majority of the intended beneficiaries. A process of dialogue between all levels and agencies is an important feature.

e) In bringing about the planned process of change, the following steps are generally undertaken (Figure 2.1):


Figure 2.1: Steps in Implementing Planned Development

The nature of intervention can take many forms: through changes in human capabilities (i.e. awareness, attitudes, values, knowledge and skills) environmental factors (i.e. physical environment, provision of services, legal measures), institutional factors (i.e. social and political mechanisms) or a combination of different factors. Training and education can be involved at all steps.

f) An integrated approach to quality of life improvement will try to tackle factors in tandem. Sectoral development programmes will focus on providing services in their area of speciality (e.g. health, agriculture) while education activities will emphasize the development of human potential and capability.

g) Within the above conceptual framework, quality of life improvement continuing education programmes (QLIP’s) serve two roles, namely,

i) They further enrich and upgrade the level of self-sufficiency and the learning capabilities of neo-literates, a mission which is common to all CE programmes, and

ii) They assist neo-literate improve their quality of life through intervention at different stages of the transformation process.

(h) In the context of this change model, QLIPs can be designed with the following general objectives in mind:

i) Assist the community formulate a desirable vision of the future through the understanding of the goals set by national policy and development agencies as well as the ones based on community needs and concerns. Facilitate the resolution of the differences, if any, among conflicting visions of the future.

ii) Enable the community to asses their own situation, and prioritize areas where intervention and future action are needed.

iii) Strengthen capabilities to formulate plans for intervention.

iv) Provide the necessary technical and financial assistances to bring about changes in the intervention inputs and processes.

v) Enable the community to monitor and evaluate outcomes, to understand how they have been brought about, to identify problems, strengths and weakness and to review future targets and intervention strategies.

vi) Broaden the community’s awareness of the outside world and alternative visions of the future.

Not all QLIP’s need to aim to achieve all of these objectives in one single programme but can seek to tackle the areas which are in the greatest need. They may also share responsibility with other development sectors. The design of curricula and delivery systems, therefore, needs to be flexible and take into into account the diverse nature of QLIP’s and their target groups

C. A CHANGE MODEL AS THE BASIS FOR QLIPs.

The proposed model for change providing the context for QLIPs is based on a number of assumptions. They are as follows:

a) It is assumed that humankind is rational and being rational and intelligent will endeavor to improve in all aspects of life when put in a conducive environment.

b) It is also assumed that poverty is closely linked with illiteracy. This implies that an illiterate is normally economically poor. This assumption is built on his or her inaccessibility to knowledge which is considered as a factor of production.

c) It is also assumed that education and development serve the same goal i.e. to improve quality of life.

d) It is further assumed that education involves formal, non-formal and informal systems within the context of life-long education.

The various assumptions above can be illustrated in the following figures (figure 2.2):


Figure 2.2: Factors leading to the development of QLIPs

Humankind being intelligent and rational, plans for change. Most of the energy is used to improve quality of life. Change processes can be self-directed, planned by others or a mixture of both. In QLIP (CE) the change process is a combined effort of the planner and the beneficiaries. A proposed model of change as the basis for QLIPs is illustrated below (figure 2.3).

PROPOSED MODEL OF CHANGE FOR QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMMES


Figure 2.3: Aproposed model of change providing the context for Quality of Life Improvement Continuing Education Programmes

D. A CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK FOR QLIPS

a) A curriculum framework for QLIPs brings together the various elements discussed above in sections B and C. The framework should include two types of educational activities, general and specific. The general activities should include education and training about managing and implementing development projects. Areas to be covered could include the following:

Leadership
Project Planning
Project Implementation
Monitoring
Evaluation

Specific activities should relate to the specific elements to be covered by a particular programme and to the specific indicators and targets to be addressed. The emphasis should be on how to translate national or provincial level indicators to local level indicators and targets. The following diagram illustrates how a national set of indicators could be translated into an action curriculum at the local level. (Figure 2.4). The present and targeted standards could in practice be shown in several ways (ratings, percentage of population, percentage yield, numbers of people or services provided and so on). In the exemplar the standards are shown as percentages only. The figures shown are of course arbitrary but in practice would be derived from a careful analysis of the present situation and by the setting of realistic targets.

I. NATIONAL INDICATORS AND TARGETS
(perhaps a rive year plan)

Element and Indicator

Present level
(%)

Development Stage

Target level
(%)



1

2

3

4

5


Biological









Food availability

60

60

65

70

75

80

80


Air cleanliness

40

40

45

50

55

60

60


Clean water

50

50

55

60

65

70

70


Freedom from illness

etc.

etc.





etc.


Quality of housing









Level of sanitation








Social









Parenting Quality









Level of socialization









Degree of freedom









Level of participation









Absence of discrimination









Access to social services









Access to cultural activities









Degree of law and order








Economic









Opportunity to work









Financial security









Equity









Improved Infrastructure








Humanistic









Level of happiness









Degree of harmony









Spiritual fulfilment









Contentment









Loyalty, ethics








Environmental









Natural









Human








II. SELECTED LOCAL PROJECTS

Element and Indicator

Present level

Development Stage

Target level


(%)

1

2

3

4

5

(%)

1. Biological









Rice Yield

40

40

50

50

70

80

80

2. Social









Parenting









% in programme

10

10

20

30

40

50

50

3. Economic









% in jobs

30

30

35

40

45

50

50

4. Humanistic









% claiming to be content

20

20

22

25

27

30

30

5. Environmental









% clean and tidy compounds/houses

50

50

55

60

70

80

80

III. GENERAL SKILLS OF LOCAL IMPLEMENTERS

Element and Indicator

Present level

Development Stage

Target level


(%)

1

2

3

4

5

(%)


Quality






Quality

Leadership

60

60

65

70

75

80

80

Project Planning

40

40

50

60

70

80

80

Project Implementation

10

10

30

50

70

90

90

Monitoring Skills

0

0

20

40

60

80

80

Evaluation Skills

10

10

15

30

60

80

80

Figure 2.4: A possible curriculum framework for Quality of Life Improvemement Programmes.

The development stages in the figure are intended to show two things (i) sub-targets for development within a specified time frame and (ii) levels of objectives to achieved in the educational or training programme required to achieve the sub-targets.

E. TYPES AND EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC QLIPS

a) General Categories

It is a massive social undertaking to improve the quality of life. To reach this goal, concrete specific development plans involving educational activities must be formulated. Since QLIPs are programmes which aim to improve well-being in biological, social, economic, humanistic and environmental areas, it is essential that QLIPs be designed to help certain target groups solve certain specific problems. As the target groups include people of all walks of life of both sexes, the approach and resources of QLIPs must vary considerably for various groups. To highlight this, the following table (table 2.2) of just a few possible programmes is presented. Before formulating actual programmes in reference of the table certain points should be considered:

1. Target group, their needs and requirements;
2. Dimensions, indicators, aspects, time, and method;
3. Resources and facilities available and needed;
4. Delivery system and implementation agencies.

b) Specific Examples

When designing a programme for the improvement of Quality of Life, certain essential elements of the programme should be considered. Before drafting the programme the following questions should be answered:

1. Why launch this programmes? (rationale)
2. Who are the beneficiaries? (target group)
3. How to motivate participants? (income generating components and community benefits)
4. When is the programme to start and its duration? (time)
5. By whom the programme will be implemented? (responsible bodies)
6. Where? (location and scope)
7. How? (procedures)

To answer these questions, one has to be very clear about the objective of the programme. The following are four exemplar programmes. The Reference codes refer to specific cells of table 2.2.

Table 2.2: Examples of Specific QLIPs



For people below Poverty Line

For people above Poverty Line

Dimension

Aspects

A. Very Poor

B. Poor

C. Comfortable

D. Affluents

1. Biological

a. Food
b. Clothing
c. Basic shelter

a. Enough food
b. Adequate clothing
c. Healthy shelter

a. Food security
b. Suitable clothing
c. Healthy shelter

a. Balanced diet
b. Wise selection of clothing
c. Adequate and comfortable home

a. Health/diet
b. Wise selection and use of clothing
c. Improving the home

2. Social

a. Parenting
b. Women and technical innovation
c. Participation

a. Child Development
b. Simple technologies involving women
c. Awareness of law and order

a. Child Development
b. Women coping with new technology
c. Understanding basis for law and order

a. Adolescent adjustments
b. Learning about new technologies
c. Safeguarding law and order

a. Tactful family leadership
b. Making the most of new technologies
c. Personal roles in law and order

3. Economic

a. Work
b. Income
c. Service facilities

a. Job hunting
b. Increasing income
c. Basic physical facilities

a. Job security
b. Further increasing income
c. Better physical facilities

a. Improving working conditions
b. Receiving satisfying income
c. Priority planning

a. Creative work
b. Sensible use of income
c. Sensitive use of facilities

4. Humanistic

a. Moral values
b. Attitudes to development
c. Contentment of mind

a. Honesty
b. Urge to change
c. Basic satisfaction with life

a. Honesty
b. Development perspective
c. Satisfaction with life

a. To be concerned about others
b. To be concerned with helping in development
c. To be healthy, happy and comfortable in life

a. To have high social awareness
b. To contribute to development
c. To share happiness with others

5. Environment

a. Pollution
b. Resource protection
c. Population

a. Awareness of dangers
b. Awareness I of needs
c. Family planning

a. Problems and affects
b. Meeting needs
c. Advantages of small family

a. Awareness and civic duties
b. Rational use of resources
c. Healthy children and proper education

a. Contributions to solve the problem of pollution
b. Planning for wise use of resources
c. Social consequences of over population

Exemplar 1: INCOME GENERATING PROGRAMME

Reference Code: 3.A.b

1. Rationale: Poverty has been the major problem which hinders the improvement of people’s life in a rural area. Something must be done to eliminate poverty.

2. Target groups: Agricultural community in poverty- stricken area. Neo-literates with limited skills.

3. Expected Duration of the Programme: 2 years.

4. Responsible bodies: Joint Efforts - Education Sector, Agriculture Sector, Science and Technological Sectors, Social forces (NGOs, Volunteers), Governmental bodies at various levels.

5. Input: Financial assistance from governmental bodies, Technical assistance from all concerned bodies.

6. Procedures

a) Problem identification

- Traditional concept of farming; backward agriculture production techniques; lack of skill; shortage of facilities and funds;

b) Possible solutions:

- New concept and ways of farming; new skills; technical and financial assistance.

c) Entry point: Education

Activities

Delivery System

Training of personnel (practical skill in improving income)

Long-term and short-term courses; dialogues and discussion; workshops; working-camp; mass media; distance education; learning groups.

d) Participation of other related bodies — agriculture ministry; provincial and local government; science and technology ministry, non-governmental bodies; volunteer organisations.

Roles of various bodies:

Education

- Training and material development. Provide teachers and training bases (schools and adult learning centres, etc.)

Agriculture

- Provide technicians, professional staff, materials(seeds, experimental site).

Science body

- Technology/consultancy service,

Governmental bodies

- Loans, funds, materials such as fertilisers, pesticides, breeding stock.

NGOs

- Publicity, mobilisation tasks, voluntary campaigns.

7. Evaluation, feedback and expansion

All phases to be evaluated and action plans formulated for future development.

Exemplar 2: HEALTHY EDUCATED CHILDREN

Reference: 5.C.c

This programme is to enable the learner to acquire the concept of population quality and to understand the relationship between population size and quality of life so as to urge the learner to follow the practice of «Quality Birth and Proper Education».

1. Objective:

1992-93:

Implement a family planning programme by means of raising awareness of need and methods.

1994-98:

Reach the goal of "Quality of birth" and proper standards of education for the children".

2. Bodies involved in the programme:

Governmental bodies at all levels; Education Sector; Health Sector: Family Planning body (if already exists); Women’s Federations.

3. Division of Work:

All the above cited bodies would contribute within their field of competence and pay attention to inter-sectoral collaboration.

4. Target Groups: young couples (below 40 years old) whose living standard is above average. They are to receive 20 hours of education. Out of this 20 hours, 10 hours will be group study.

5. Content:

a) Advantage of family planning, and the harm of not practicing family planning.
b) Most appropriate age of breeding and pregnancy.
c) Do’s and Don’ts during pregnancy.
d) Baby’s food and nutrition.
e) Early childhood education.

6. A teaching manual of about 10,000 -20,000 words would be compiled by experts.

7. Training of the trainers would be undertaken including the production of teaching plans

8. Choice of appropriate delivery method

1) Radio and T.V. courses;
2) Correspondence;
3) Self-study, group study with regular tutoring;
4) Classroom teaching, lectures, reports and consultancy;
5) Learning through recreational activities.

9. Resource:

Government, collective, individual.

10. Assessment and Evaluation

1) On organisation and management (of the programme).
2) On the effect of the programme.

Exemplar 3: HEALTHY DIET

Reference: 1.D.a

Economic development has enabled many people to become rich. As a negative byproduct of a comfortable lifestyle, many kinds of disease appear as the result of too much good food. High blood pressure, obesity and coronary heart disease are diseases that endanger people’s life and cast a shadow on the quality of life. Programmes should be implemented to solve this problem.

Bodies and institutions that can be involved in healthy diet programme are hospitals, medical colleges, research bodies, popular science associations and the mass media.

The target groups of the programme are those comfortably off people with high risk of obesity and heart trouble.

The content of education should include aspects of physiology and nutrition as well as correct diet behaviour such as cooking and using nourishing food. The harm of eating and drinking too much at one meal, the effect of partiality for a particular kind of food and of excessive drinking of alcoholic spirits should be reviewed.

The methods of delivery are: mass media, printed materials, popular readers on healthy diet, articles, newspaper and magazines on diet, posters, leaflets, consultancy, and short courses.

Exemplar 4: WOMEN COPING WITH NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Reference: 2.B.b

1. Rationale: Women do not have the same opportunity as men to become familiar with new technologies in employment and in society in general (e.g. new manufacturing techniques, computing and so on). Special programmes are needed to address this.

2. Target group: Women in the clothing industry.

3. Expected Duration of the Programme. 6 months.

4. Responsible bodies - Joint effort by the private sector, ministries of education, industry, trade and employment.

5. Input. Financial assistance, materials and equipment from the private sector. Training expertise provided by Ministry of Education. Training resources provided by both private sector and other ministries.

6. Procedures

a) Review of current manufacturing practice
b) Review of a new manufacturing technology
c) Training in the application of the new technology.

7. Monitoring and evaluation of progress of participants in mastering the new technology.

F. DELIVERY AND INTEGRATION OF COMPONENTS

As previously mentioned the target for QLIPs should be a specific community group and the scope should deal with issues of concern to all adult citizens in that group. Delivery systems should be of a broad out-reach type with a public education focus. Since each line of the exemplar curriculum grid is independent of each other line and has at least some of the characteristics of a minicourse, the delivery system should have the following characteristics.

· Capable of reaching all adult citizens in the target group
· Sufficiently flexible to accommodate a variety of presentation methods
· Cost effective in terms of personnel and material resources
· Linked to and emerge from national development planning.

The following are possibilities:

a) Structured courses. These could be offered by both learning centres and the formal education system in their own right and/or as components of other types of continuing education such as post-literacy programmes or equivalency programmes. Since the aim, however, is to reach all citizens this approach would not be sufficient and would need to be associated with other forms of delivery.

b) Carefully structured and sequenced information presented through the mass media, especially newspapers, radio and broadcast TV.

c) A poster campaign highlighting the main issues involved in each line of the curriculum framework. Posters should be designed to correlate with courses and mass media programmes but also to be self contained and self explanatory.

d) Publication programmes of reading materials especially developed in a structured sequence to he placed in libraries, reading centres and learning centres to correlate with the other elements of the delivery system but also to be self-explanatory.

e) Public relations and public education campaigns involving displays, talks, cultural programmes, public meetings, contests and competitions, production of pamphlets, booklets, wall newspapers and so on by each relevant government and non-government agency and instrumentality. Each of these campaigns would need to be carefully correlated with the other components of the delivery system.

f) A political campaign to advertise, promote and foster each unit or "line" of the curriculum framework.

Ideally each type of delivery system described above should be part of a carefully coordinated programme over a defined period. There should be one such programme for each line of the curriculum but each programme should be repeated indefinitely with appropriate modifications as standards improve. There is no upper limit to improvement of the quality of life, just the attainment of specified targets along a continuous path of development. Therefore there should be no thought of terminating this type of programme but repeating each «line» over and over with a gradual build up of standards from repeat to repeat.

The type of overall coordination that would be desirable between the various components and types of delivery system is shown in the following diagram (figure 2.3).

In the figure (figure 2.3) the numbers along each horizontal row represent different activities arranged in a time sequence and the duration of each activity is shown by the length of each numbered line. While each «strand» and each unit in each strand could be designed to stand alone, this type of arrangement allows a sequential build up of ideas and skills from week to week or month to month and also enables each activity in each row to complement the activities of the other rows and in some case to provide resources for the other activities.


Figure 2.3: Correlation between activities provided by different delivery systems for one QLIP

Chapter 3: Organization and Implementation

A. PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION

Like any other programme, a Quality of Life Programme in continuing education will face a number of constraints during its conceptual planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation stages. Among the constraints, the more prominent are:

a) Psychological barriers

i) Vision Gap
ii) Confidence Gap
iii) Stereotyping

b) Absence of Technical and Human-Relation Skills

c) Economic Constraints

d) Administrative Constraints

e) Lack of Political Support

f) Structural Problems Each of these constraints is briefly discussed below:

(a) Psychological Barriers

All QLIPs involve a planned process for change from the present state of being to a more desirable situation. The future is unknown and it requires a mind of high intellectual capacity to map out the desired future quality of life. The task is not easy since it involves value judgments. However, aspirations of national leaders could be taken as a guideline. These are usually expressed in a form of public policy statements.

Problems and issues within this category are most pronounced in local areas. In the local region, policy and programme managers are less qualified and possess less experience. They are faced with the problem of integrating needs of target groups into the aspiration of the nation. To adapt the nation/state programme towards the actual needs of local people requires not only vision but the ability to understand the sub-culture of the target group. Only an enlightened local change agent will be able achieve this and this quality is not easily available. However, continuous training and practice may be able to bridge the vision and confidence gaps which can exist between the programme advocators and neo-literates. It will also help to reduce stereotyping, an error which is so common when dealing with groups of people coming from different socio-economic backgrounds with different sets of values.

(b) Technical Skills Required

An effective QLIP must be able to blend aspiration and vision of the leaders with the demands of local people. Besides the desired vision of the future, effective programmes involve correct assessment of needs, correct prioritisation of areas for intervention, selection of implementing strategies and the right form of evaluation. All these processes call for efficient collection and analysis of data. However, the skill required goes beyond data collection. It also involves the skill to choose QLIP indicators and the correct choice of QLIP criteria. Other than these technical skills, a certain degree of skill in human relations is required since the best source of data is the target group itself. Only warm positive human relations will produce effective results.

Like conceptual skill, technical skill is weakest at the lowest level. An error in data collection may produce inappropriate and costly results. However, like any other skill, technical and human relations skills can be acquired. A well designed training programme, diligently executed, can produce required results. Action-training research is a technique with which every change agent should be familiar. See Chapter 5. The use of action training research which allows room for target-group participation is most helpful since it paves the way for collective decision-making. Collective decisions strengthen the programme and reduce the rate of failure.

(c) Economic Constraints

In some countries, economic constraints are not dominant but what is lacking is political will. However, some countries in our Asian Pacific region are economically poor. They can be so poor that it may break the political will of the leaders. Nevertheless the cause is not all lost. Treating QLIP-CE programme as a strategy for human resource development should be seen as a gainful investment. Besides investment in this sector is not expensive. There is no necessity for the government to set aside large allocations for continuing education infrastructure. The existing physical infrastructure readily available everywhere should be utilized involving a «Complementarity Approach» among Non-formal and Formal education institutions. This will reduce the annual budget, increase economic efficiency and produce higher returns for every dollar invested.

Besides making full use of all the physical infrastructure available in the public sector, the private sector should also be drawn into this programme. The private sector may be interested in a particular project since the economic spill-over improves productivity. The society at large too has the potential to contribute to the project. This possibility should be examined in detail because this strategy will inculcate a spirit of self-reliance. All projects with low technical input and low financial cost should be left to the target group to plan and implement. The role to be taken by the change agent in this situation is as a mobilizer and facilitator. Besides minimizing cost, this strategy eradicates a spirit of dependency among target-groups.

(d) Administrative Constraints

In the public sector administrative constraint may be strong. Bureaucracy tends to be somewhat unresponsive whereas QLIP-CE programmes are dynamic since they are designed to meet the changing demands of time. Financial rules and regulation may be the most serious problem. Special attention must be given to this issue because delay in financial support is costly to the programmes. Any delay in programme implementation is disastrous. It kills the motivation and imagination of the target-group. Once let-down people become disillusioned and so other efforts to encourage people to change may be futile.

To avoid such situations administrative planning must be diligent comprehensive and precise. Everything must be budgeted. Special procedures for expenditure must be devised This is essential since items required for neo-literate programmes are different from normal development programmes.

An over-centralized administrative structure is another constraint. An organisational system that commands only from the top is detrimental to the programme. It may become cold and overbearing. A decentralized system supported by technically able change agents is most desirable. However, even if the structure is decentralized and personnel are trained, programme planning and implementation may encounter administrative constraints if there is no co-operation among organisers. Many agencies are involved in QLIP-CE projects. Only strong interagency networking can help solve this problem. This is best served by a working committee system. Working committee systems which are at all levels including the village are most appropriate. This administrative design is conducive for participation of programme organisers, development agencies and programme beneficiaries.

(e) Political Support

Countries with the most effective QLIPs are those with clear-cut and previously formulated policies for national development. With strong political commitment, suitable and relatively inexpensive infrastructures and implementation strategies can be established. Without this political will which provides a positive national framework, there is a danger that development at the local level will be ad hoc and uncoordinated. Development occurs from above down and from below to the top. In the absence of a strong positive political ethos and a coherent infrastructure there is danger that successful local innovations will not be replicated and valuable lessons will be lost.

(f) Structural Problems

Those countries which have successfully addressed major structural problems most likely will have the most successful QLIPs. Structural problems seriously affecting development include, for example, inequality in the status of the sexes; lack of equity in the distribution of resources such as land and property; wide gaps between the living standards of the wealthy and the poor and problems of human rights and freedom of decision-making and participation in national affairs. Countries which have reduced the seriousness of these structural problems provide a positive climate for change.

In developing an organisational structure and implementation strategies for QLIPs these various constraints should be kept in mind. Systems and strategies which reduce their negative affects and maximize positive aspects should be stressed.

B. ORGANIZATIONAL, STRUCTURE

a) QLIPs and a Cross Sectoral Approach

The quality of life in our region is still low, but we are convinced that the quality of life may be improved through continuing education. Continuing education has been defined as «all learning opportunities that all people need outside basic literacy and primary education.»

In order to be effective, a quality of life improvement programme (QLIP) needs to be designed and devised in cooperation with other educational and non-educational institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, such as the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Association of Workers, the Women’s Association, and there is a need to inform and to motivate such institutions, and to encourage their participation in QLIPs implementation.

The improvement of the quality of life of all—upgrading the living standards and lifestyles of all citizens — is the responsibility of all the people and their organisations. But, this requires an attitudinal change because in order to be able to perceive the need for raising the quality of life, one should accept the idea that «the problem —a low level quality of life involves all the activities of the people and their organisations», not just of a single person or an institution. With this attitude people can move in unison and be able to solve their problems. This attitude will do away with defending institutional territories.

Since the planning and implementation of QLIPs are the responsibility of all the people - GOs and NGOs alike —, then we should endeavor to develop and implement QLIPs through both a harmonious bottom-up and top-down planning processes, and a cross-sectoral approach. Bottom-up and top-down planning processes are more realistic in dealing with the needs of the people. With this approach almost everybody gets involved and participates fully and positively. A cross-sectoral approach should be applied, not only at the national level, but also at the state/provincial level, and especially at the local (implementation) level. This cross-sectoral approach will guarantee the successful planning and implementation of QLIPs. QLIPs, being part and parcel of national development plans, will therefore penetrate all levels and sub-sectors of the community.

The concept of intersectoral linkage is shown diagrammatically in figure 3.1.


Figure 3.1: Linkages between agencies involved in QLIPs.

Relationships shown in figure 3.1 suggest that networking is one important strategy for the implementation of QLIPs. Any organisational structure developed for the implementation and administration of QLIPs, therefore, should facilitate the emergence of suitable networks linking all relevant institutions and agencies.

b) QLIPs and Education for All

When discussing an expanded vision and a renewed commitment of education for all, the World Declaration on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 9 March 1990 — page 7) mentioned as the heart of it, necessary new and revitalized partnerships at all levels, as follows:

i) partnerships among all sub-sectors and forms of education, recognizing the special role of teachers and that of administrators and other educational personnel;

ii) partnerships between education and other government departments, including planning, finance, labour, communications, and other social sectors;

iii) partnerships between government and non-governmental organisations, the private sector, local communities, religious groups, and families.

These new and revitalised partnerships at all levels, as already mentioned above, are also very much needed by QLIPs if they are to be effective and successful in the improvement of the quality of life. See figure 3.2.


Figure 3.2: Partnerships in the implementation of QLIPs

c) QLIPs and NCCCE, PCCCE, LCCCE

The National Coordinating Committee for Continuing Education (NCCCE) as proposed in ATLP-CE Volume I should make sure that all the relevant agencies and organizations of QLIPs at all levels (PCCCE/LCCCE) participate fully and positively, not only in ensuring the existence of a political will, and a commitment to implement QLIPs, especially at the local/village level, in the administration and organization in general in support of the QLIPs’ implementation, but also in the provision of budget, personnel, and technical knowledge and know-how needed at national, state/provincial, district, sub-district, and village levels. The NCCCE should have a regular programme of introducing QLIPs to the people through the mass media and others to elicit their support in QLIPs’ implementation, and to motivate them to work hard and productively for the improvement of the quality of life. The Provincial/State CCCE as implementors of policies will promote QLIPs, train providers of QLIPs, and facilitate activities in the promotion of QLIPs. So also with the District and Sub-district CCCE if any, before one is dealing with the Village QLIPs. In some countries, the Learning Centres in Sub-district capitals may help the Sub-district CCCE in the coordination and implementation of QLIPs.

This type of structure is illustrated in figure 3.3.


Figure 3.3: Levels of implementation for QLIPs

d) Village QLIPs and DELSILIFE

At the village level, QLIPs should be implemented by the Village Community Council. Usually, the Council is responsible for all development efforts in the village, in the following fields: security; education and information; economy; construction of infrastructure and village environment; religion; health; population and family planning; family welfare development; youth, sports and arts; and social welfare.

In each of these development efforts, one may organize learning programmes which will help in the improvement of the quality of life. Thus QLIPs will not only be in the "education and information" sectors alone! When it comes to learning programmes for the improvement of the quality of life, education in its broadest sense encompasses the totality of life in a community and therefore includes all sectors or areas of living.

The term ‘learning programme’ emphasises the educational nature of the intervention system that is DELSILIFE - (Development of a Coordinated Educational Intervention System for Improving the Quality of Life of the Rural Poor through Self-Reliance)*. Whether in small neighbourhood learning groups or in the community council, the acquisition of problem-solving skills through learning programmes is vital since these are capability-building and develop those empowering skills which people need to cope with the demands of their physical and social environment.

* Boeren. Ad. and Kater Adri (Eds.) Delsilife and Educational Strategy to Fight Poverty (CESO Paperback No. 9). The Hague: Center for the Study of Education in Developing Countries (CESO), 1990. The quotations are from pages 19 and 53.

The Village Community Council should encourage first, any educated person to help the less educated/poor people, and second, the formation of learning groups who are studying certain programmes of interest to them, all-in-all with the purpose of improving the quality of life of the villagers.

The interventions system proposed by DELSILIFE is summarised in figure 3.4.


Figure 3.4: The DELSILIFE Educational Intervention System.

Note: KSA: Knowledge, Skill, Attitude.

The organisational structure shown in figure 3.4 has the following four components.

i) A Community Council. In the context of QLIPs this would be the Village Committee.

ii) An Area leader. In the context of QLIPs this could be the chairperson of the Village Committee or his or her designated representative. The role of the Area leader would be to ensure full participation by all local people, to organize project groups and to ensure that group leaders are trained.

iii) Group leader. A member of the QLIP group especially trained as coordinator and facilitator.

iv) Sectoral and Non-Sectoral Agencies. These provide services, resource personnel, materials and equipment.

Processes implemented under a DELSILIFE approach are summarised below in figure 3.5.


Figure 3.5: The DELSILIFE Process

The DELSILIFE approach is appropriate for the organisation and implementation of QLIPs at the local level. This is because the core of the process (figure 3.5) is a learning programme. The processes follow the model of QLIPs given in Chapter 2. The process starts with needs assessment (where we are now), determines what is to be achieved (where we want to be) and how to proceed. Learning activities aim to develop the knowledge, attitudes and skills concerned with improving the quality of life. They are project and action oriented, and promote the skills of problem-solving and development action.

C. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES

The implementation strategies must become part and parcel of national development policies in order to guarantee the effective implementation of QLIPs.

Through a coordinated effort of devising QLIPs in order to have the characteristics such as participation; clearly defined targets; linkage to a change model; action-orientation; family orientation; especially linkage to national development plans, the following strategies are recommended.

a) In the implementation of QLIPs, one should first thoroughly study all aspects of a programme for quality of life improvement, because the organizational structure and its implementation strategy might differ from one programme to another. For example, a national campaign against AIDS will usually be undertaken by the Ministry of Health or a National Committee under that Ministry, then the NCCCE, QLIPs division, would plan a strategy, not only to integrate its action at the Centre, probably just to inform or to collaborate with the Ministry, but more. For instance, it could help prepare «learning materials» perhaps in the form of «do-it-yourself» kits and to distribute them to learning groups in the villages and informing the PCCCE and the LCCCE about this activity.

Steps to be taken therefore can be summarized as follows:

i) Study of a programme in terms of the target group, the goal to be attained, the learning materials used, the organisational structure and the implementation strategy.

ii) Popularization of the programme aiming at eliciting not only learners’ enthusiasm, but also of supporting organisations and individuals.

iii) Formation of learning groups for QLIPs, as far as possible promoting «learning-by-doing».

iv) Action, i.e. activities aiming at improving the quality of life.

The multisectoral emphasis is at the core of such implementation. This idea is summarised in Figure 3.6 below:


Figure 3.6: QLIPs involve multi-sectoral development

b) A QLIP should not be implemented in isolation, but it should be related horizontally with other sectors, such as health, and vertically with other continuing education programmes. For instance, a village QLIP may be associated with others and with other CE activities outside the village. This type of linkage is illustrated in figure 3.7 below:


Figure 3.7: The integrated approach of QLIPs involving both vertical and horizontal linkages.

c) A QLIP must be integrated as far as possible with socio-cultural aspects and values, or with the socio-economic aspects including business and enterpreneurship, in order for it to be an effective programme for the improvement of the quality of life.

This idea is illustrated in figure 3.8.


Figure 3.8: Social control of QLIPs

d) If a QLIP has been effectively implemented in a poor village, then one should study it thoroughly with the idea in mind of its replicability, because a QLIP is designed to alleviate or eradicate poverty nation-wide. The greater the number of beneficiaries the more successful the QLIP. See figure 3.9.


Figure 3.9: Replicability of QLIPs

e) If a certain QLIP in a village cannot be implemented effectively without personnel with specific technical or professional skills from outside the village, then the LCCCE should be able to provide such experts. If LCCCE fails to do this then there should be a way to appeal to the PCCCE, or even the NCCCE. This idea is illustrated in figure 3.10.


Figure 3.10: The need for access to specific technical skills in the implementation of QLIPs.

f) The implementation of a QLIP in a village should encourage families to be involved in all the activities, and this should be a major focus, because if the quality of life of each family in a village is good, then the quality of life of that community as a whole is good. This aspect is illustrated below in figure 3.11.


Figure 3.11: The participatory approach of QLIPs and the focus on family involvement.

g) All educated or learned people available in the village should be mobilized to assist learners in the implementation of QLIPs in that village. By this means, an acceleration of the process of improving the quality of life of the villagers may he achieved. See figure 3.12.


Figure 3.12: The role of volunteerism in the implementation of QLIPs.

h) QLIPs must start from where the people are, and slowly, surely and steadily move toward a better quality of life — physio-biological and socio-mental-spiritual; thus avoiding an upheaval, and guaranteeing sustainable development. Only this rational type of approach will ensure lasting effects. See figure 3.13.


Figure 3.13: A balanced strategy for the implementation of QLIPs.

D. CONCLUSION

Since QLIPs are one type of continuing education, organizational aspects and implementation strategies should take full advantage of any infrastructure established for continuing education as a whole (see ATLP-CE Volume I). The special qualities of QLIPs, namely their development focus and their intersectoral needs, however, mean that linkages with all institutions and agencies involved in development is especially important.

The problems of implementation raised in Section A of this Chapter will be readily resolved if the bottom-up and top-down strategies outlined in this Chapter are effectively applied.

Chapter 4: Materials and Resources

A. INTRODUCTION

Appropriate supportive material to facilitate learning in Quality of Life Programmes is very crucial. But what is especially important, is to determine the types, formats, and sources of materials to suit specific target groups. Other considerations would be evaluation of the effectiveness of the materials.

Generally materials should be able to promote learning in reading, writing, numeracy, and general mental skills. Especially in terms of developing learners mental skills in vocabulary building, general knowledge, critical reasoning and problem solving. These skills, however, need to be applied to the development process which is the focus of QLIPs.

The next question to ask is how do we go about developing, acquiring and adapting materials. We must always remember that production of materials involves money. Therefore it is important to ensure appropriateness of materials to meet the needs of specific learner groups.

B. TYPES OF MATERIALS

The most important element in designing learning materials is that they should be simple and clear with appropriate graphics such as charts and photographs to ensure that they are attractive and interesting.

Learning materials could be developed, reproduced, adapted or acquired from existing sources.

There are two types of materials needed for QLIPs namely:

a) General
b) Specific

‘General’ material is aimed at giving useful information on planning and management of QLIPs. They for planners, managers and participants of QLIPs to help in organizing QLIPs activities more effectively. On the other hand ‘Specific’ materials aim at certain target/learner groups with the specific purpose of facilitating understanding about their specific development project, for example, immunisation. The following table (table 4.1) lists the types of materials appropriate for a QLIPs project on immunisation and drug abuse.

Table 4.1: Types of Materials Appropriate for QLIPs (An Immunisation and Anti-Drug Project)

Types of Materials

For Whom

Contents and

Dissemination channels

1. General




General Information on development projects




Objective




To provide general information on planning and project implementation

- planners

- developers and participants of QLIPs

- How to analyze needs

- How to design a programme

- How to manage, etc.

- Action oriented workshop

2. Specific




Specific information intended to increase knowledge and change behaviour




- Immunization

Mothers with young children

- Importance of immunization

- How to go about it

- Through village Committee

- Health Centres

- Women's Organization

- Drug Abuse

Youth

- Danger of drugs addiction

- How to avoid

- Youth clubs, schools

C. FORMAT OF MATERIALS

There are various ways in which learning materials could be presented effectively. They could be in the form of print or audio-visual materials and they can lie categorized as follows (table 4.2).

Table 4.2: Possible Formats for QLIP Materials

Types of media/Instruction Materials for QLIPs

Format/Channels

a) Print

Pamphlets
Booklets
Magazines
Photonovellas
Comics
Textbooks
Fact sheets
Diaries

b) Visuals

Posters
Billboards
Banners
Buntings
Fliers
Wall newspapers

c) Audio

Cassettes
Radio

d) Audio-visuals

Video
Slide kits with audio tape
T.V.

e) Other media



- Folk Media

Jerry gun (sing song)
Bangsawan (Indian folk opera)
Chinese opera
Shadow/puppet play
Mela (Indian folk exhibition)


- Educational games/gimmicks

Snakes and ladders
"Plan-a-fam" (family planning)
Simulation activities


- Advertisements

Jingles
Songs
Advertisements in newspapers and magazines
Stickers


- Religious sermons

During religious gatherings

D. PRODUCTION

Decisions to produce materials need to be considered carefully because this involves cost. It is important to select the best possible medium within the limits of the budget. It is sometimes possible to find cheaper alternatives without too great a sacrifice to quality. For example a simple pamphlet would be cheaper to produce than video. In this case cost-effective material designs should be the basis or production.

The process that is involved in the actual production of materials could be complicated and tedious, if one is serious about doing it thoroughly. It follows certain logical steps. The following diagram illustrates the general steps to be followed in the production of materials for programmes such as QLIPs (Figure 4.1).


Figure 4.1: Steps in the production of learning materials for QLIPs

The first step to be considered is that. there should be clear cut programme objectives, for example: the objective could be «to promote contraceptives.»

The next step to consider is who is the target group. In the example of contraception it would be women. And within the ‘women’s group» it could be further qualified as eligible women who are within the age group of 15 to 49. The next consideration is what do they need to know, what are their media habits, what appeals to them, what are their aspirations and so on. This kind of information can be obtained from general observation and interview. Interviews may be conducted by questioning the direct target group as well as the service providers or field workers, where a balanced picture of the situation could be obtained. Some of the general questions that could be asked are given in the following list.

a) General characteristics of the audience.

- Age
- Sex
- Marital status
- Family background

b) Media habits

- Whether they listen to radio or watch television and how frequently.
- Which medium do they prefer

c) Whether they read newspapers and magazines

- What newspapers and magazines do they read and in what language
- Frequency of reading
- Preference

d) What kind of media formats appeal to them most

- booklet
- video
- posters
- brochures
- comic strips

e) What colour attracts them most

f) Illustration preference

- pictures
- sketches
- graphics
- charts
- cartoon

g) Their aspirations

The findings would be used to determine the kind of materials to be produced in terms of objectives, contents and format.

Once the above has been decided, the development of prototype materials should follow. These prototype materials would then be pretested with a selected group. The pretesting is carried out in order to find possible gaps in the presentation of material either in terms of general understanding (the language, messages) or in terms of illustrations pictures, graphics and colour appeal.

The findings from this pre-testing would then be applied to make necessary changes for the final production of the materials. The final product then would be disseminated direct to the target group or other intermediate channels such as through the organizations, schools, village committees and association. In the case of QLIPs the main local agency would be the Village Committee.

The final step that should or could be taken is the evaluation of the effectiveness of the materials. Questions such as usefulness and whether the intended messages have been understood should be asked. This kind of feedback is necessary in refining materials and in formulating future policy for material production.

E. ADAPTATION OF LEARNING MATERIALS

There are many materials relevant to QLIPs which have been produced by national as well as international agencies. International Agencies such as UNESCO, ESCAP, ILO, UNICEF and institution like the John Hopkins University have produced such materials or act as clearing houses or resource centres on Quality of Life related activities and programmes. For example UNESCO has produced a manual on Family Life Education. The John Hopkins University has produced various packets on population and communication. These materials are of good quality and could be easily adopted or adapted for local use.

In adapting these materials, the organizers of QLIPs should be able to provide some guidelines for the learners and give specific examples of local situations, in order to ensure that the materials are used in the right context. All materials should be action oriented and developmental in focus.

F. SOURCES OF MATERIALS

There are various sources of materials suitable for QLIPs. Here are some suggestions:

a) Official documents;

b) Materials produced by government and para-governmental agencies, private organizations and NGOs;

c) Self-generated materials.

There is a variety of official documents giving specific information about a particular country. For an example in Malaysia, the Yearbook, Economic Index, the Government Development Plans Book, Population Statistics and other socio-economic related documents are readily available.

There are undoubtedly large amounts of documentation being produced by agencies in private and non-governmental sectors. International agencies such as WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNESCO, ILO produce a lot of materials which focus on specific quality of life issues and those are readily available in most countries. There are also local non-governmental agencies, which produce such materials.

The private sector such as private companies, book publishers and manufacturers of other educational products also produces educational materials of relevance to QLIPs.

The last category is self-generated materials produced for specific groups. There materials could either be developed by institutions or individuals and are tailor made for specific use.

G. MOBILIZATION OF RESOURCES

Since most Quality of Life Programmes are supported by development agencies the business of production of materials should be coordinated. This is to ensure maximum benefits, reduced cost, and avoidance of duplication and waste. Co-ordination could be achieved perhaps by setting up a joint-committee on material production with specific tasks delegated to each agency. For example the Malaysia National Population and Family Development Board has produced materials on family planning. These materials are disseminated to other agencies with parallel programmes. There are many instances where requests are made for reprinting or reproduction of the materials. Likewise, if the Ministry of Health produces materials on breast feeding, immunisation and other health related matters, these materials are also shared among the agencies.

In this changing society, the demand for information and knowledge is increasingly important. Most people do not mind spending money on books and materials. In this respect, in order to meet the costs of material production a nominal fee could be charged. The National Population and Family Development Board of Malaysia has produced a parenting magazine and various booklets on family communication, and family life where a nominal sum is charged. The demand for the booklets is quite encouraging and they have had to be reprinted.

The other aspect that could be considered in the mobilisation of resources in the production of materials is to solicit involvement of the private sector and NGO’s. Private sector support, could be sought in sponsoring certain activities and programmes in relation to QLIPs especially through media campaigns. For example the telephone company could be asked to sponsor TV advertisement appealing for children to maintain contacts with their parents. Relevant private sector companies could sponsor items that promote respect for the elderly, AIDS education, drug abuse, healthy lifestyle, environmental issues and so on.

In Malaysia, private sector involvement has been very encouraging in supporting government programmes to promote happy family life, through bill boards, banners, posters and by sponsoring specific media activities.

H. CASE STUDY - KOREA RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR WOMEN’S LIFE (KRIWL)

a) The KRIWL Programme

The Korea Research Institute for Women’s Life, Seoul, Republic of Korea, provides an interesting programme, focusing on the needs of illiterate women. It provides a comprehensive integrated programme taking illiterates through to quite advanced levels of education.

The Institute provides a basic literacy programme in two levels, each level extending over three months. After completion of the basic literacy programme, neo-literates may then proceed to continuing education programmes offered by the Institute. These are of three types.

The first type is a post-literacy programme in four levels (levels III to VI) which consolidates literacy skills and prepares learners for future study. Each of the levels is of three months duration.

After completing post-literacy Level VI graduates then have a choice. They may enter an equivalency programme which enables them to reach Middle or even High School standards. Alternatively they may proceed to general educational programmes which focus on improving quality of life.

b) Types of Materials

Materials for the various aspects of this fully integrated system have characteristics appropriate for their level and purpose. The types of materials are as follows:

BASIC LITERACY

Basic Literacy
(Levels I and II)

:

Mainly simple activity-based workbooks with teacher's guides developed by KRIWL, supported by flash cards and other resources. A literacy course for the aged however does not utilize structured resources. This is because most of the participants have a very low levels of literacy.

CONTINUING EDUCATION

Post-Literacy
(Levels III to VI)

:

Textbooks, calendars, housekeeping guides, newspapers, periodicals, audio and video cassettes.


Equivalency Courses

:

The textbooks of the Middle School and High School.


General Education stressing Quality of Life Improvement

:

Activity oriented manuals produced by KRIWL, 35 mm slide sets, selected school textbooks.

c) Source of the Materials

Some of the materials are developed by KRIWL (manuals and slides). Middle school textbooks are purchased by participants. Slides are bought by KRIWL from the Catholic Church Education Centre. Video tapes are borrowed from residential colleges run by the church.

d) Criteria for Choosing Materials

Besides the materials generated by the KRIWL, the other types of materials such as slides, videos and textbooks are chosen because they are found to be suitable in terms (i) content, and (ii) presentation that meet the Institutes needs. They must fit the objective of the programme and be suitable for use by adult women.

The main criteria for the choice of materials are as follows:

Textbook

- simple
contents comprehensive and systematic
activity based (exercises)
easily available
low cost

Video and Slides

- informative
spiritual values
documentary
documentary drama

e) Development of KRIWL Materials

A group of experts on education are invited to develop the manuals. The experts suggest topics, duration, content and format of each manual to be produced. Six manuals have been produced on literacy and post-literacy. The manuals have also been revised several times on the basis of feedback obtained from the learners and the teachers.

f) Details of the Programme

The structure of the overall programme and its activities are summarized in the table which follows (table 4.3).

Table 4.3: KOREA RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR WOMEN’S LIFE (KRIWL)

A. PROFILE

OBJECTIVES OF KRIWL

1. To provide a necessary education and information for promoting women’s standing in our developing society.
2. To serve the community by developing qualified women for the work force.
3. To analyze and develop general cultural programmes for women.

PROFILE OF KRIWL

The following activities have been developed since 1978.

29 August 1978

- Research Institute founded

5 March 1979

- Continuing Education Centre for Women established


- A course of study equivalent to evening Middle and High Schools programmes for employed women(working)


- A course of study equivalent to Middle School for housewives


- Programme for the Aged


- Programmes for brides-to-be


- Mothers’ programmes for housewives


- Literacy and Basic Education Programmes for illiterates

10 May 1981

- Free Beauty Service (Grooming) offered to the poor and aged women once a month


- Sunday Literacy and Middle School classes established for young working women

1 December 1989

- Centre for the Aged established

27 August 1991

- Community Library established

Table 4.3 (Continued): B. BASIC LITERACY AND CONTINUING EDUCATION LEVELS I TO VI


BASIC LITERACY

CONTINUING EDUCATION POST LITERACY PROGRAMMES

Level

Level I

Level II

Special Class

Level III

Level IV

Level V

Level VI

Duration

3 months

3 months

15 days x 2 hours

3 months

3 months

3 months

3 months

Day

Mon. Wed. Fri.

Tue. Thu. Sat.

Every day

Mon. Wed. Fri.

Tue. Thu. Sat.

Mon. Wed. Fri.

Tue. Thu. Sat.

Time

72 hours

72 hours

30 hours

72 hours

72 hours

72 hours

72 hours

Ages of Participants

Women 15 years and above

Women 60 years and above

Women 15 years and above

Purpose

Reading

Writing (1)

Reading Writing

Writing (2)

Composition (1)

Composition (2)

Grammar

Curriculum

ALPHABET (Korean)
· Essential ®
· Words for Reading


®
(Ibid) for Writing

ALPHABET (Korean)
Name
Address
Tel. No.
Family
Signboard

Elementary Level
Grade 3
Korean language
Selective titles
Social Studies
Science
Mural Education
Music
Korean History

Elementary Level
Grade 4
Korean language
Selective titles
Social Studies
Science
Moral Education
Music
Korean History

Elementary Level
Grade 5
Korean language
Selective titles
Social Studies
Science
Moral Education
Music
Korean History

Elementary Level
Grade 6
Korean language
Selective titles
Social Studies
Science
Moral Education
Music
Korean History



· Nation's Name
· City's Name
· Wall Poster
· Signboard
· Destination of bus subway and train


Practice filling
up several kinds of application forms (Bank, Hospital post office)


Bus number of destination

Foods
Watch (time)
Simple arithmetic


Mathematics
(Grade 1)
(+ -)
Calendar

Dairy Practice to Write about housekeeping


Mathematics
(Grade 2)
(x ÷)
Korean language
Short Essay

Writing letters
Proverbs(1)
Complex Sentences

Simple Chinese characters
Mathematics
(Grade 3)

Weights and measures
Writing letters

Korean language and Grammar
Mathematics
(Grade 6)
Chinese characters
English alphabet

Attainment

Reading short stories

Can write simple words

Can fill in all application forms

Can Read and write

Beginning to write their Dairy and housekeeping notes memos, etc.

Can write a composition
Can write letters

Can write newspapers,
Can understand news, story
Can write essay

Autonomous learning

Ibid

Material

KRIWL textbook I
Others

KRIWL textbook II
Writing Forms

KRIWL textbook I
Tutoring

KRIWL textbook II and newspapers

KRIWL textbook newspapers

KRIWL textbook V newspapers and others

KRIWL textbook VI
newspapers and others

Note:

1.

All textbooks developed by KRIWL


2.

Content of level III-VI include



(35% of elementary level's textbook (selected topics



(30% from newspaper, Radio, TV and Periodicals



(35% other books)

Table 4.3 (Continued): C. CONTINUING EDUCATION BEYOND LEVEL VI

EQUIVALENCY COURSES

COURSES WITH AN EMPHASIS ON QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT

Course

Middle School

High School

Sunday class

Aged

Brides to be

Mothers




Literacy

Middle School




Tune

08:00 p.m.

09:40 a.m.







10:00 p.m.

11:30 a.m.

08:00-10:30 p.m.

09:30 - 16:30

02:00-04:00 p.m.

Evening

Day Time

Duration

One year

One year

One year

Two months

Two months

Two months

Frequency

Monday - Saturday

Monday - Saturday

Sunday

Once per week

Twice per week

Twice per week

Participants

Young Ladies

Housewives

Employed Women

Employed Women

Women 60 years and above

Ladies to be married

Housewives

Subjects

Korea National Language
Mathematics
History
Sociology
Biology
Physical Science
Music
Physical Education
Moral Education/general

English

Korean Language
Mathematics
Korean History/
Social Studies
World History
Chemistry
Biology
Physics
Music
Fine Arts
Physical Education
Moral Education
English
Commerce

Korean Language

Reading & Writing Class

Korean Language

English

Science

Sociology

Health

Recreation

General-knowledge
Human Development
Lecture
(Several Topics)
Mathematics
Healthy family


Psychology
Science

Etiquette

Family-relation
Adolescent Psychology

Korea Traditional Culture

Guidance for children
Role of family


Married life

Role of parent

Psychology of parenting

Nutrition

Sociology

Home economic


Educational

Material

Middle School
Text Books

High School
Text Books

KRIWL
Manual

Middle School
Text Books

Without Text Books

KRIWL Manual

KRIWL Manual

Note:

1. General Counseling

:

Family relationships


2. Beauty Services

:

Once a month (2nd week)




Services will he provided for poor people


3. Optional Courses (hobby and culture) Photography, flower arrangement, choir, reading club, calligraphy and other activities related to daily life.

Chapter 5: Training of Personnel for Quality of Life Improvement Programmes

A. INTRODUCTION

As discussed in ATLP-CE Volume I all types of continuing education programmes should be supported by especially trained continuing educators. A training curriculum for the QLIP personnel at three levels of management is described below. The levels and types of personnel covered by this curriculum are as follows:

Table 5.1: Levels of QLIP Personnel

Level A Personnel

Level B Personnel

Level C Personnel

1. Senior educational managers
2. Educational planners
3. Socio-economic planners
4. Human resources planners
5. Senior managers in non-government agencies

1. Trainers of trainers
2. Resource developers
3. Field consultants
4. Counsellors and guidance officers
5. Members of provincial CE management committees
6. Evaluators

1. Field consultants
2. LOCAL counsellors and guidance offices
3. All types of providers, especially lay teachers and volunteers
4. Tutors
5. Facilitators
6. Monitors
7. Instructors
8. Motivators
9. Change agents

B. TRAINING LEVEL A PERSONNEL

a) Tasks/Duties. Level A personnel would be required to perform the following tasks/duties:

i) to integrate QLIP with National Development Plans/Policies;

ii) to advocate acceptance of QLIP by development agencies politicians, various mass organizations, mass media, etc.;

iii) to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate QLIP programmes;

iv) to mobilize resources - financial, technical, and human;

v) to anticipate challenges for socio-economic and technological change.

b) Required Competencies - In order to perform the above functions/duties, Level A personnel would be trained to attain the following competencies.

- Understand the concept and principles of QLIP. This would include knowledge and understanding of the definition and scope of QLIP.

- Identify the human resource development potential of National Development Plans/Policies. This would require a close analysis of planning/policy documents in order to identify potential areas for QLIP programmes.

- Advocate acceptance of QLIP. Level A personnel would be required to secure acceptance for QLIP from politicians, various mass organisations, development departments/agencies, mass media, etc. The idea of a learning society would have to be stressed, especially in regard to the roles and agencies other than the Ministry of Education.

- Assess and strengthen coordination for QLIP. The success of QLIP would be determined by the degree of coordination between different agencies. Various mechanisms for coordination would have to be reviewed, including networking.

- Prepare planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation guidelines. Methods of ensuring that development plans, implementation strategies and monitoring and evaluation procedures are appropriate and effective, would need to be reviewed.

- Mobilize resources for QLIP Programmes. Various resources would have to be mobilized for QLIP Programmes. These would include (i) financial, (ii) technical, (iii) human:

i) Financial - this would entail mobilizing financial resources from different government departments and agencies as well as from non-government agencies/services. Various private sector enterprises could be mobilised for this purpose.

ii) Technical - this would include identification of suitable teaching and learning materials, equipment and technologies that are available from development and resource agencies that could be disseminated for adaptation or modification and change.

iii) Human resources. Participation of NGOs could be elicited in identifying those individuals who could facilitate and promote QLIP programmes. Some of them could take on training and networking responsibilities for strengthening QLIPs.

- Undertake policy analysis for QLIPs. It would be necessary to develop critical, analytical and conceptual skills that are necessary to anticipate the challenges and demands arising out of modern technological changes and shifts in macro-economic policies.

- Initiate action-oriented research in QLIP programmes., In particular, guidelines would have to be developed for planning and improving QLIP programmes in response to changing values at the family level, with the aim of enhancing social and economic growth.

- Initiate impact studies. It would be necessary to develop skills in the broad areas of assessing the impact of QLIPs on social, economic and technological change in local communities and of assessing their overall impact on national development.

c) Organization of Training

Since level A Personnel are senior policy makers at top levels of management, their training would be of short duration. One or two national level training organizations would have the overall responsibility for preparing the curriculum and materials for organising training programmes for level A personnel. The training strategy would have to promote small group interaction, learning from case study materials and field visits, use of audio-visual materials, etc. Special reading and A/V materials would have to be developed for self-directed, self-paced learning by this category of personnel.

C. TRAINING LEVEL B PERSONNEL

a) Tasks/Duties - The tasks/duties of this category of personnel would include the following -

i) to train Level ‘C’ personnel

ii) to liaise with

- development departments at state/provincial, district/sub-district levels;

- media agencies such as TV/Radio/newspapers at state/provincial, district/sub-district levels.

iii) to mobilize support/resources for QLIP programmes at various levels.

iv) to organize and coordinate QLIPs at state/province/district levels;

v) to set up mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating QLIP programmes.

b) Required Competencies - In order to perform the above tasks/duties the following competencies would have to be developed -

- undertake needs analysis of Level ‘C’ personnel. Level C personnel would have to undertake needs surveys of different group in the community as well as of the community as a whole. Level B personnel would be required to gauge the specific needs of Level C personnel in carrying out needs survey as well as other aspects of QLIP programmes.

- design curriculum. A curriculum would have to be designed that emanates from the national development plan/policies and yet is flexible enough to meet regional and even local community needs.

- develop materials. Since QLIP programmes would be varied in nature and of diverse formats, Level B personnel should not only be able to produce relevant materials for QLIP but also help level C providers adapt or even produce materials that are locally relevant.

- design training activities. Level B should be able to design training activities for level C personnel. The emphasis in this training should be action research. A model for this type of research is shown below (Figure 5.1).

- foster links between agencies. Networking at state/provincial, district/subdistrict levels is especially important in QLIP programmes and level B personnel need skills in developing and maintaining linkages and in coordinating the work of all relevant agencies.

- elicit support from media agencies. Support from mass media such as TV/Radio/newspaper at various levels would be necessary to publicize QLIP programmes as well as to ensure their involvement in organizing these programmes.

- mobilise support, as well as resources from agencies/individuals.

Mobilization on a mass scale would be required to ensure that QLIP programmes are sustained on a long term basis and are even improved and strengthened.

- Organize and coordinate QLIP programmes. Skills would be required to organize QLIP programmmes that can cater to the needs of different groups in a community, as well as the community as a whole. This would mean that level B personnel would have to ensure that a comprehensive QLIP programme is designed and organized by level C personnel and is suitably coordinated.

- set up mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating QLIPs. For monitoring and evaluating QLIP programmes, varied skills would be required. At the village level, a benchmark survey, incorporating all aspects of development, could be undertaken. Appropriate skills for collection of quantitative data by village-level volunteers as part of on-going monitoring, would have to be developed. Alongside, qualitative monitoring by the community could be undertaken periodically to evaluate the impact of QLIPs on raising the living standards in the community. Level B personnel would have to set up a mechanism whereby a two-way quantitative and qualitative monitoring and evaluation system as well as an efficient MIS can become operational for on-going improvement of QLIP programmes, (see Chapter Six).

- Undertake action-research, including impact studies. Systematic research studies would be required to assess the impact of QLIP programmes on different aspects of community life. Action research would be particularly helpful for mid-course correction of QLIP programmes and in order to ascertain their overall impact on national development. (See figure 5.1)


Figure 5.1: The components of action research

c) Organization of Training

Training for Level B personnel would be organized by state/provincial level training organisations. These organizations could draw resources - technical, and human - from agencies/organizations/government from state and local levels. NGOs could play an important role in providing training support. As a matter of fact, a network of institutions and individuals could strengthen the training capability of the nodal training centre. A variety of training materials - print, A/V materials, supplemented by field visits, case study materials etc. would be required to train level B personnel. In addition, suitable training materials, already available, could be modified or adapted.

D. TRAINING LEVEL C PERSONNEL

a) Tasks/Duties

This category of personnel would include the field level functionaries at the village level. In particular members of the Village Committee or their nominees should be included. They would be required to perform the following tasks/duties.

i) to acquaint themselves with the community and identify different groups for QIPL programmes;

ii) to asses and identify needs of specific groups for QLIP programmes;

iii) to assist the community in articulating their vision of the future;

iv) to enable the community to assess their needs and priorities, formulate their own plans and methods of intervention;

v) to identify local resources - physical, human, technical - for conducting QLIPs;

vi) to promote understanding of QLIPs in the community;

vii) to mobilize support and resources for QLIPs from different sections;

viii) to develop simple QLIP materials wherever necessary or to select and/or adapt existing materials to suit local needs.

ix) to organize and coordinate QLIPs at the village level;

x) to help set up a practicable, functional system of monitoring and evaluating QLIP programmes.

b) Required Competencies - In order to perform the above tasks/duties, the following competencies would have to be developed.

- understand the community and identify groups for which QLIPs would be necessary. It would be necessary to gauge the level of development of the community and ascertain its quality of life. This assessment would be useful in monitoring the changes, if any, brought about by the QLIP programmes.

- understand relationship of QLIP programmes with national development plans/policies. Concepts such as sustainable development, human resource development, and socio-economic development and their links with QLIPs would have to be clear to all level C personnel.

- apply skills in working with adults. Training in adult learning and in organizing learning experiences that would elicit community participation would be essential. By providing forums for members of the community to come together, the process of planning, ordering priorities, and deciding on methods of intervention, would be facilitated.

- identify local resources. In order to carry out a wide variety of QLIP programmes, Level C personnel would need to identify local resources. These would include physical, human and technical resources. Their potential for involvement in QLIPs would have to be ascertained.

- mobilise local resources. The success of QLIPs would be determined by the degree of mobilization of local resources. All sections of the community would have to be mobilized in self-help programmes and be able to draw on all available local resources for this purpose.

- promote understanding of QLIP programmes in the community. It would be essential for members of the community to understand the importance of QLIPs and understand their relevance in helping to improve their quality of life.

- develop or adapt materials. At the local level, materials would have to be suitable for the stage of development of the community and of the individuals. Level C personnel would need to select and/or adapt learning materials to suit local needs.

- Organize QLIP programmes to suit local needs. Since QL activities are to improve the living standards of all citizens, they must be appropriate for local individuals, families and social groups. Level C workers would need to know how to identify and respond to such local needs.

- assess local development against national QL indicators. While this will have to be done by QLIP workers at Level B for the state/province as a whole, level C workers would need to know how to compare stages of development locally with a range of nationally prescribed QL indicators.

- undertake action research. This would involve developing skills in level C workers to undertake action research at the community level. Skills in action research would facilitate enabling the community (1) to identify problems (2) plan together (3) take collective action (4) assess impact. This would be a cyclical process. (See figure 5.1)

- set up a functional system for monitoring and evaluating QLIP programmes. This would involve varied skills. A benchmark survey at the village level, incorporating all aspects of development could be undertaken. Appropriate skills for collection of quantitative data by village level volunteers, as part of on-going monitoring, would have to be developed. Alongside, qualitative monitoring by the community could be undertaken periodically to evaluate the impact of QLIPs on raising the level of living of the community. Relevant data would have to be processed and passed on to level B for possible feedback action from higher levels.

c) Organization of Training

Training of Level C personnel would be organized by local-level training agencies. In addition, teams of training personnel could be identified to carry out such training programmes. Thus a network of training centres and individuals would provide training for level C personnel whose numbers could be large. The training strategy would be field based and practice-oriented and would be supplemented with suitable print and A/V materials. Use would be made of role play, simulation exercises, games, and various folk forms in order to design interesting and relevant training materials.

Chapter 6: Monitoring and Evaluation

A. NEED FOR MONITORING AND EVALUATION

All development projects need a built-in system for monitoring and evaluation (M&E). Projects aiming to make quantitative and qualitative changes of the life of the intendent beneficiaries need them most. M&E for QLIP-CE is essential because such an exercise:

i) examines whether institutional, administrative and material support is adequate for conducting the programme;

ii) provides information to the project planners and managers whether the project is being implemented in accordance with its plans and objectives towards achieving its intended goals.

iii) suggests (on the basis of ii above) mid-course corrections, modifications and improvements, if any, rather than waiting for the final outcome.

iv) contributes to national documentation for wide-scale expansion/replication of the project and formulation/implementation of similar development projects.

M & E activities of an educational development project are also important because one may like to analyze the situation and the context from where the project takes off, and what inputs and process are needed in order to achieve certain project outcomes and goals.

In the specific case of QLIPs it is important to assess the immediate need and to evaluate the present state of development in relation to that need. It is important, too, to establish a monitoring system to check on progress towards achieving development targets and to evaluate the final achievement and its impact on the community.

A critical aspect in the case of QLIPs is to identify the element of quality of life to be developed, to identify precise indicators and to formulate measures of the state of development of each indicator. For example the general element may be availability of food, the specific element, the availability of rice, the indicator, the crop yield and the quantitative measure the percentage increase in production.

The programme of development should be set into a time frame with carefully defined development steps (sub-goals) defined at set intervals. (See Chapter Two) Monitoring should aim to overcome problems in the achievement of the sub-goals.

B. STAGES OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION

As in other projects, M & E for QLIP-CE should be conducted in three stages:

Stage One:

Pre-implementation (Benchmark survey)

Stage Two:

On-going Assessment (Monitoring)

Stage Three:

Assessment of Project Performance (mid-term and/or final evaluation)

The M & E stages are summarized in Figure 6.1.


Figure 6.1: Stages in Monitoring and Evaluation of a Development Programme such as QLIP

C. RESPONSIBILITIES OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION

Many different individuals or agencies including NGOs may be involved in M & E activities. However, a Committee in each of the three levels of operation may coordinate the M & E activities in each country. Table 6.1 gives the levels and the possible compositions of the M & E Committees.

Table 6.1: Levels by M & E Committee

Level

M & E Committee*

(A) National

A.1 Department of Education/Non-formal Education
A.2 More specialized agencies (e.g. National Academy for Educational Management, Bangladesh)
A.3 (Country) National UNESCO Commission/Intergovernmental Organizations (e.g. APDC,** CIRDAP**, etc.)
A.4 Major NGO representatives
A.5 Others (nominated by government)

(B) Slate/Province/District, etc.

B.1 Department of Education/Non-formal Education (of that level)
B.2 Local Government representatives
B.3 Private Sector/People's Organization/NGO representatives

(C) Local (villages)

C.1 Local government/village council (e.g. JKKK** in Malaysia)
C.2 Grassroots NGOs/People's Organizations
C.3 Learners' Group representatives (Participatory approach in M & E)

* Suggested Composition; National Government may consider restructuring.
** APDC: Asia-Pacific Development Centre
** CIRDAP: Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific
** JKKK: Village Development and Security Committee

The national Continuing Education Committee headed by the representative of the Department of Education/Non-Formal Division may coordinate activities of all the three-level committees. The National Committee may analyze data and compile reports of all the three committees. (See Chapter three).

D. HOW TO CONDUCT MONITORING AND EVALUATION

A number of M & E formats may be available within Department of Education, Social Services, Community Development, Women Affairs etc. within a country. One closely related format may be suitably adopted for the M & E purpose of QLIP-CE. However, the adopted format should be very simple in terms of words/language and length. The format must be available in the national/local language and easily understandable by the programme managers as well as the learners.

An M & E format may be worked out in a joint consultation of the members or representatives of M & E Coordination Committees. The agreed format may be printed and be made available by the NCCCE or the PCCCE. A brief orientation to the M & E format may be introduced in training courses being attended by all the QLIP-CE personnel. They may in turn train the learners in how to fill-in the format.

Variables to be incorporated in a M & E format are suggested in Tables 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4.

Table 6.2: Pre-implementation (Bench mark Survey)

Variable(s)

Question/Determinants

(A) LEARNERS



1. Geography

· Rural/Urban


2. Age-Group

· Most of ihem belong to (e.g. 25-30 years)


3. Occupation

· Most of them are (e.g. landless labourers, fa workers, housewives, etc.)


4. Income level

· Below poverty line (very poor, poor)
· Above poverty line (Comfortable, Affluent)


5. Basic education

· Five years' formal education
· Non-formal education
· Neo-literates
· High-school graduates
· Others (specify..)


6. Attitudes to CE

· Good towards attendance at CE courses
· CE does not make any difference
· CE not necessary at all


7. Reasons for participation in CE programme

· Specify up to three

(B) PROJECT OBJECTIVES/INPUTS



1. Project duration

· Unit Courses
· Period (in months)


2. Project objectives

· List all of them as provided in the project document/records, etc.


3. Number of learners (as targeted)

· Total No.




- Phase I




- Phase II




- Phase III


4. Dimensions (as envisaged)

· Biological
· Social
· Economical
· Humanistic
· Environment
(Tick Mark, where appropriate)


5. Specific indicators

· List and tick


6. Measure of present level of development

· Show % or other measure


7. Level of development to be achieved

· Show % or other measure


8. Time frame and sub-goals

· Sub-Goal
____________
____________

Date to be Achieved
_________________
_________________


9. Percentage of Project budget provided for initialing income generating projects (IGPs)

· Nil
· Specify

....
....


10. Technical Support from other agencies (as envisaged)

· Nil
· Sought from Government agencies
· Sought from NGOs/people's organizations

....
....
....


11. Material support from other agencies (as envisaged)

· Nil
· Sought from Government agencies
· Sought from NGOs/people's organization

....
....
....

(C) INSTITUTIONAL/ADMINISTRATIVE


1. Proponent of Project

· GO/NGO/People's Organizations

....


2. Implementing Agency

· Proponent itself
· Other than the proponent

....
....




- GO





- NGO





- People's Organization



3. Sponsor of Project

· Proponent itself
· Other than the proponent

....
....




- GO





- NGO





- People's Organization



4. Total budget (in all phases)

· Amount (Local currency)

....


5. Technical/material support coordination with other agencies

· Nil
· Sought from other agencies

....
....




- GO





- NGO





- People's Organization



6. Staff to be involved in the Project execution

· Total No.

....




- General

....




- Technical

....


7. Staff training

· Training by government agency
· Training by NGO

....
....

Table 6.3: On-going Assessment (Periodic Monitoring)

Variable(s)

Question/Determinants

(A) LEARNERS


1. Increased Knowledge (IK)/More participation (MP)




IK

MP


· Biological

....

....


· Social

....

....


· Economical

....

....


· Humanistic

....

....


· Environment

....



(Tick mark, where appropriate)

2. Change in occupation

· Percentage of learners



- Have changed their occupation

....



- Toward occupation requiring higher skills

....

3. Participation in IGPsIncome Generating Programmes (IGPs)

· Activities (IGPs)

Nos

%


____________

___

___


____________

___

___

4. Net benefit from participation in IGPs

· Amount _________
(Local currency)

5. Change in income

· Percentage of learners whose income have changed from the baseline ones (....) %

6. Learners' perception about the flow of budget for IGPs and technical materials

· Flow has been satisfactory

....


· Flow has been discontinued

....


· Others (specify......)

....

7. Learner's perception about the beneficial aspects of the project

· Specify at least three of them


__________________________


__________________________


__________________________

(B) OBJECTIVES/INPUTS


1. Objectives

· Percentage/proportion of project objectives achieved

.....%

2. Learners

· percentage of target learners being covered

.....%

3. CE-Course

· Percentage of CE-Courses being taught

.....%

4. Dimensions

· Learners have taken courses in the following areas:



- Biological

........



- Social

........



- Economical

........



- Humanistic

........



- Environment

........


(Tick mark, where appropriate)

5. Level of competence

· Learners have achieved competence leading to:



- More awareness of immediate environment

.....



- More participation in social and economic life

.....



- More appreciation of values, ethics, loyalty, etc.

.....



- Better quality of life

.....



- Others (specify.....)

.....


(Tick mark, where appropriate)


6. Budget utilized for IGPs

· What percentage of the budget is utilized for IGPs

.....%

7. Plan to expand the project to cover more number of learners

· Yes/No




if Yes, what number

.....




when

.....

8. Course instructors

· More course instructors available




Yes/No

.....

9. Training of the Course instructors

· Are the course instructors being trained




Yes/No

.....



if yes, what competency

.....



(specify......)


(C) INSTITUTIONAL/ADMINISTRATIVE

1. Inflow of project budget

· Satisfactory

......


· Not always satisfactory

......


· Hardly flows

......


· Others (specify..)

......

2. Technical assistance from other agencies (GOs/NGOs/People's Organizations)

· Being regularly received

......


· Sometime received

......


· Not received at all

......

3. Material supplies

· Satisfactory

......


· Not always satisfactory

......


· Hardly available

......


· Others (specify......)

......

4. Contact/Coordination with other agencies (GO/NGOs/People's Organization)

· Satisfactory

......


· Not always done

......


· Hardly being done

......

5. Target achievement

· Percentage of learners covered under the programme

......%

6. Receipt of completed M & E Formats

· Regularly received

......


· Received some lime

......


· Not received at all

......

Table 6.4: Evaluation of Inputs - Process - Outputs (Midterm and Final)

Variable(s)

Question/Determinants


(A) LEARNERS



1. Objectives

· Were relevant to the learners' context:




- Highly relevant

......



- Moderately relevant

......



- Irrelevant

......



- Other (specify...)

......

2. Inputs

· Input were relevant to project objectives:




- Highly relevant

......



- Moderately relevant

......



- Irrelevant

......



- Other (specify...)

......

3. IGPs

· Were instrumental to raising learners" socio-economic standards of life




- Highly relevant

......



- Moderately relevant

......



- Irrelevant

......



- Other (specify....)

......

4. Quality of Life

· Learners found the project useful for improving their quality of life




- Highly relevant

......



- Moderately relevant

......



- Irrelevant

......



- Other (specify...)

......

5. Role of Learners

· Learners encouraged others to participate in the project




- Yes

......



- No

......

(B) OBJECTIVES/INPUTS

1. Fulfilment of objectives and sub-goals

· Largely fulfilled

......


· Moderately fulfilled

......


· Fulfilled to a smaller extent

......

2. Technical inputs

· Satisfactorily available

......


· Moderately available

......


· Poor

......

3. Material supplies

· Highly satisfactory

......


· Moderate

......


· Poor

......

4. Further inputs (Technical and materials)

· Knowledge generated about further source/quality of inputs




- Yes

......



- No

......

5. Local inputs (Technical materials)

· Local inputs generated




- Yes

.....



- No

.....



If Yes, specify




1.________________________




2. ________________________




3. ________________________


(C) INSTITUTIONAL/ADMINISTRATIVE

1- Budget/resources

· New source identified (specify.....)




1. ________________________




2. ________________________




3. ________________________


2. Participation of more agencies (GOs/NGOs/People's organizations)

· New agencies identified (specify....)




1. ________________________




2. ________________________




3. ________________________


3. Coordination among GOs/NGOs/People's organizations

· Yes

.....


· No

.....


(if yes, specify with whom....)




1. ________________________




2. ________________________




3. ________________________


4. Target achievement of the Project

· Yes

......


· No

......


(if no, specify why.....)



1. ________________________



2. ________________________



3. ________________________


5. Receipt of completed M & E formats, analysis of data and report compilation

· Adequately attended

......


· Not attended

......


(if not, specify reasons)




1. ________________________




2. ________________________




3. ________________________


(D) IMPACT OF QLIP-CE

1. Target fulfilment

· Yes

....


· No

....

2. Encouraged new learners to participate

· Yes

....


· No

....

3. Created awareness/demand at various levels for initiating more QLIP-CE Projects

· Yes

....


· No

....

4. Recruited many more agencies to launch similar projects

· Yes

....


· No

....

5. Established better co-ordination mechanisms among agencies dealing with CE

· Yes

....


· No

....

6. Created more documentation about the real State-of-the-Art of CE

· Yes

....


· No

....

7. Created sustainable impacts on the learners' life in terms of their greater participation in socio-economic activities, employment, increase in income and resource generation

· Yes

....


· No

....

E. CONCLUSION

This Chapter has provided guidelines for M & E activities of QLIP-CE Programmes. The guidelines and procedures outlined above are indicative only. A NCCCE may consider modifying the guidelines depending on the particular country situation. An agreed M & E formal may be applied in both short-term and long-term studies. The government through its NCCCE may also consider the design of other instruments for M & E activities of similar development projects keeping in mind the specific QLIP-CE Projects.

M & E is important in this area not only because the approach discussed in this volume is relatively new and untried in many countries of the Asia-Pacific region but also because such M & E will contribute to the overall process of similar M & Es to be conducted with respect to other educational programmes. A meticulous approach to M & E of QLIPs project will be supportive in the following ways;

1. Assessment of the impact of QLIPs on development
2. Establishment of a nation-wide Management Information System (MJS) to support QLIPs
3. Documentation of Non-formal Education

Chapter 7: Challenges and Issues

A. INTRODUCTION

Some of the expected challenges and issues faced by QLIP-CE programmes are tabulated below (Table 7.1):

Table 7.1: Problems Faced by QLIPs in Asia and the Pacific

No.

Challenge

Issues

1.

Rapid Technological Change

High rate of technological obsolescence and skill deficiency.

Capacity to cope with change.

Impact of technology on socio-cultural values.

2.

Growing economy of Asia-Pacific region

Growth and Equity.

3.

Availability of scarce resources

Allocation of scarce resources

4.

Organizational Structure of the future

Decentralization versus centralization.

The rise of advocacy.

5.

Absence of National Policy and directive for QLIP-CE

Co-ordination and integrated approach.

Each of these challenges and issues is briefly reviewed below.

B. RAPID TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE

Economic development will make sure that the wealth of the world expands faster than the population growth. The engine for the growing economy is technological innovation. Based on the market-system, effort is channeled to creating new machines. However, this strategy will increase the rate of product obsolescence. A neo-literate adult may find it difficult to manipulate and operate sophisticated new tools unless he or she is given special training. A good functional-literacy and CE program-me may be of great help under these circumstances. Thus change agents must be sensitive, responsive and alert, lest the problem of skill-deficiency may retard progress.

Besides causing skill-deficiency, rapid technological change may also produce negative impacts on socio-cultural values. There is a tendency for a "demonstration effect" to take place. That is many people may become dependent on imported technologies rather than developing self-generated technologies. This is particularly evident when mass-media and electronic technologies are cheap and made available to everybody. This type of negative impact weakens social-cultural values within the community. This is unfortunate because the survival of each community depends on the strength of existing social values. None will be able to cope with rapid change when the foundation for survival is weak. However, an effective QLIP-CE programme, carefully designed and diligently executed, may be able to cushion the unintended consequences of negative socio-economic development.

C. GROWING ECONOMY OF ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

Many writers have forecast that the world will experience the biggest economic boom in the coming decades. It is said that countries within the Region of Asia and Pacific will benefit most from this. However, the prosperity gained will not be equally distributed. Countries with plenty of natural resources, rich supplies of a quality work force, strong socio-economic infrastructures and possessing political stability will benefit most. Not every country in this Region has the potential to prosper since some member countries are not fully prepared. This equity issue is not felt only between countries, but is also a topic discussed within the countries. This assumption is based on the fact that poverty and illiteracy rates are highest hi this Region. The negative conclusion we can derive is the real danger of development towards mass poverty within a growing economy. However, we should not be too alarmed since QLIP-CE is an education programme aimed at improving the quality of human resources. Improved family units will enable people to cope with change while at the same time utilizing every available socioeconomic opportunity open to them.

D. AVAILABILITY OF SCARCE RESOURCES

Population grows exponentially while natural resources do not. Besides. natural resources are a given. Some countries are not blessed by nature while others are endowed by natural resources that command high market value. A country in which natural resources are plentiful and where there is appropriate technology and a good supply Of quality work-force should be able to cope with every eventuality in the future. This type of country does not have a bleak future. On the other hand, countries with few natural resources and a poor human work force will deteriorate. Such a country will have a hard choice in regard to budget allocations. The alternative is either to devote effort in human resource development or hi the socio-economic physical infra-structures needed by the ever increasing population.

The best way to confront this issue is to strike a balance since both are necessary for development. Without an essential socio-economic infrastructure, the Quality of Life will also drop since socio-economic elements of life are a part of QLIP indicators. At the same time. enough financial resource must be allocated to Continuing Education Programmes since CE is a part of the Life-Long Education System. All forms of education are developmental and are therefore worth investment. It has to he realized that the main factor which determines economic growth and improved quality of life is the quality of the human resource. Good quality human resource determines not only the rate of growth but also determines the "quality of development" itself. It is often said that there is no substitute for quality human resource. This implies that the presence of good quality human resource can overcome the shortage of natural resources. The birth of Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) speak for the validity of this hypothesis. Singapore and Hong Kong are two countries ill-blessed by natural resources, yet they can achieve a developed economic status with high QLIP indicators.

An effective Quality of Life Improvement Programme within the Continuing Education system of Life-long Education can help every country to enrich the quality of human resource while at the same time improving quality of life.

E. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE FUTURE

Technological innovations and the wind of change that is occurring throughout the world demand a change in the way we organize our world of work. There is a possible tendency that centralized organisation will be displaced by decentralised structures. The flattened organization seems to be more popular. Besides the flattened chart, advocacy will also gain prominence. Decentralized advocacy with a matrix organizational structure (consolidated unified networks) is good for QLIP-CE programmes. Designed to meet the needs of specific target groups in attaining special objectives, QLIP-CE requires a structure that is responsive, informal and systematic. Only a matrix organisational structure can meet these criteria, (see Chapter Three).

Besides changing the organisational structure, strategies and systems, technological innovations will also demand a quality work force. Meritocracy will displace nepotism and other bureaucratic diseases. This administrative reform is also good for QLIP-CE programmes. Efficient, well-trained dedicated and enlightened «change-agents» are most desirable. Inefficient, cold and irresponsible workers must go. Matrix organizational structures empowered with legal provision to fire and hire inefficient workers will improve productivity.

F. ABSENCE OF NATIONAL POLICY ON QLIP-CE

The introduction of Quality of Life Improvement Programmes in Continuing Education is a planned process to transform our family-based community from a relatively low level of development to a desired state of being. Having no time limit, the direction of such transformation can revolve around biological, social, economic, environmental and humanistic dimensions. The goals and targets for quality of life improvement can be set at national, regional, district and local levels. The effectiveness of the programme depends on the extent of support from the government and the many agencies involved in planning, implementing and evaluating the ongoing programmes. A programme which depends on a number o development agencies to ensure its effectiveness can never survive without an effective system of co-ordination.

Co-ordination systems without strong support structures will not be effective because by themselves they will allow too much room for departmental self-interest to dictate the course of the programmes. Departmental pride and jealously can reduce effectiveness to zero. Besides reducing efficiency, poor coordination system and strategies will lead to economic wastage of scarce resources. This cannot be allowed to happen since the time will come when natural resources are exhausted.

A strategic support system must be devised to make sure that QLIP-CE programmes can make positive contributions to the development efforts of a country. The most effective strategy is to formulate a national policy. Declaring a clear and positive national policy with a firm role in contributing towards socio-economic development will produce a framework for QLIP-CE. It will integrate Non-formal Education and Training as part of any national development strategy. The development strategy will thus be balanced.

Besides setting the direction for the future, National Policy Plans can also help to strengthen operational structures at the national, state, district and village levels. The existence of structural support can be reinforced by a system of working committees. All major agencies involved in QLIP-CE activities should be involved. Formal leaders of high reputation enjoying wide influence should chair these committees. Their presence will ensure co-ordination not only among government agencies but will also infuse confidence among NGOs and the private sector.

National policy acts as guideline for future plating. While carrying the vision of the future it has the power to harness all available resources towards the desired goal.

G. CONCLUSION

The future is said to be full of uncertainties. It may bring affluence or poverty. because the future must involve many changes caused by the development process. Humankind must be ready to face that challenge. Since the very survival of the human species is at stake, every effort must be made to preserve the family flit and to foster community solidarity. Quality of Life Improvement programme within continuing education can ensure quality living for all those who care to learn. The system is able reach a large number of target groups since it is open all. It has the capacity to serve the most deprived and most isolated groups. It can be tailor-made suit people under all circumstances. It is only limited by the power of imagination of humankind itself.

Realizing the importance of QLIP-CE, it is safe to assume that a number of countries will adopt it as strategy towards attaining their goals of development since the goals of national development are also the goals of QLIP-CE. Both aim to improve the quality of life of all.

Annex: List of Participants

Participants


CHINA
(People’s Rep. of)

Mr. Liu Goujun
Associate Professor and Deputy Director
Adult Education Department
Central Institute of Education Research
Beijing
People’s Republic of China


Mr. Liu Wanliang [Interpreter]
Programme Officer
Chinese National Commission for UNESCO
37, Damucang Hutong
Xidan, Beijing
People’s Republic of China
Tel. 662730; 6017912
Fax: 8601 6017912

INDIA

Dr. (Mrs.) Anita Dighe
Senior Fellow
National Institute of Adult Education
10-B Indraprastha Estate
New Delhi- 100 002, India
Tel. 3318553, 3741313-14 (Off.)
225-3552 (Res.)

MALAYSIA

Mr. Mohd Hoesne Hussain
Deputy Director-General
Community Development Division
Ministry of Rural Development
Tingkat 7,9 and 19
Wisma Kimseah, Jalan Raja Chulan
50606 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Tel. 093 232-6744
FAX: 093 232-7646

REPUBLIC OF KOREA

Dr. (Miss) Chan-Nam Chung
President
Korean Research Institute for Women’s Life
41-200 Bongchun Dong
Kwanak-ku
Seoul, Republic of Korea
Tel. (02) 884-1500
FAX (02)887-1500

THAILAND

Dr. Kasama Varavarn
Deputy Director-General
Department of Non-formal Education
Ministry of Education
Rajdamnern Avenue
Bangkok 10300, Thailand
Tel. 2822853; 2820596
FAX: (02) 2829718

[CIRDAP, Bangladesh]

Dr. M. Mahbubur Rahman
Action Research and Fellow
Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP)
Chameli House
17, Topkhana Road
GPO Box 2883
Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
Tel. 239686 (Off.)
FAX 831522(Res.)
FAX 880-2-833321

Consultants



Dr. G. Rex Meyer
Educational Consultant
P.O. Box 154
(171 Copeland Road)
Beecroft N.S.W. 2119
Australia
Tel. 61 -2-4841597
61-2-4843786 (messages)
FAX 61-2-8753638


Dr. W.P. Napitupulu
Executive Chairman
Indonesian National Commission for UNESCO
Ministry of Education and Culture
Jalan Jenderal Sudirman - Senayan
Jakarta 102708 Indonesia
Tel. 581665 Ext. 100 and 126;
586367; 583127
FAX: 341534

Observers



Dr. (Mrs.) Fatimah Saad
Director
National Population and Family Development Board
Ministry of National Unity and Community Development
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Hajah Habsah bt. Abdul Rauf
Meeting Organizer
Director of Family Development Unit
Community Development Division
Ministry of Rural Development
Tingkat 7, 9 and 10
Wisma Kimseah, Jalan Raja Chulan
50606 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Encik Haron bin Ahmad
Director, State Community Development of Penang
Community Development Division
Ministry of Rural Development
Penang, Malaysia

UNESCO Secretariat



Mr. Hedayat Ahmed
Director


Mr. T.M. Sakya
Educational Adviser and Co-ordinator "APPEAL"


Miss Wallapa Aramwitha
Secretary

KEMAS Secretariat



Hj. Ibrahim bin Yunus
Functional Literacy Officer


Puan Norizan bt. Muda
Community Development Supervisor


Encik Hafiz bin Mohd. Hanam
Senior Community Development Supervisor


Encik Jailani bin Abd. Samad
Senior Community Development Supervisor


Encik Shuib bin Olhman
Artist


Encik Dol bin Bahrbl
Community Development Worker


Cik Rosnah ht. Hushl
Community Development Worker

APPEAL Trraining Materials for Training of Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE)

Volume I

:

Continuing Education: New Policies and Directions

Volume II

:

Post-Literacy Programmes (PLP)

Volume III

:

Equivalency Programmes (EP)

Volume IV

:

Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIP)

Volume V

:

Income-Generating Programmes (IGP)

Volume VI

:

Individual Interest Promotion Programmes (IIP)

Volume VII

:

Furture-Oriented Programmes (FOP)

Volume VIII

:

Learning Centre Development Programmes

These manuals have been prepared under the project
Training of Literacy and Continuing Education Personnel
(504-RAS-10 & 11) funded by the Government of Norway.