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close this bookCommunity-Based Environmental Management Information System (CEMIS) Module No. 4 - Guidelines for Assessing Effecting Demand of Communities for Environmental Infrastructure (HABITAT, 1995, 144 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
Open this folder and view contents1. INTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contents2. BACKGROUND: ASSESSING EFFECTIVE DEMAND
Open this folder and view contents3. INFORMATION NEEDS AND METHODOLOGIES
Open this folder and view contents4. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR COLLECTING INFORMATION
Open this folder and view contents5. KEY PERSON INTERVIEW WITH LOCAL AUTHORITY/WATER COMPANY/PUBLIC WATER UTILITY
Open this folder and view contents6. COMMUNITY SELF-SURVEY/ SELF- REPORTING
Open this folder and view contents7. COMMUNITY GROUP ACTIVITIES
Open this folder and view contents8. CONSENSUS BUILDING AND COMMUNITY CONTRACTS
View the documentREFERENCES
View the documentAnnex 1: Organisational structure for the management team responsible for assessing effective demand and information gathering
View the documentAnnex 2: Participatory planning methods
View the documentAnnex 3: Guidelines for an interview with the public water company with Jakarta including a sample questionnaire
View the documentAnnex 4: Example of costs and tariffs of the public water company in Jakarta (Indonesia)
View the documentAnnex 5: Interview guidelines
View the documentAnnex 6: How to design a questionnaire
View the documentAnnex 7: Sample cartoon questionnaire for community self-survey
View the documentAnnex 8: Sample questionnaire on willingness to pay for water and related data analysis
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Annex 8: Sample questionnaire on willingness to pay for water and related data analysis

SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE

I. RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS:

1. Respondents code number:







2. Name of the family head: ...................

3. Status: Father Mother Other (tick as appropriate)

4. Respondent's age: ....... years old

5. Number of family members:....... persons

II. OWNERSHIP OF FACILITIES:

6. Do you have piped water installation at home?

1. Yes
2. No - If No, then proceed to question 8.

7. Does the installation come from Government Water Supply Company?

1. Yes
2. No

8. Do you have latrine facility?

1. Yes
2. No

9. Do you have well facility?

1. Yes
2. No

III. WATER CONSUMPTION

DRINKING AND COOKING

10. a. What is your daily source of water for drinking and cooking?

1. Mineral Water

5. Public well

2. Government Water Company

6. Rain water


(a) yard tap

7. River or pond


(b) house connection

8. Miscellaneous....


(c) communal tap


3. Private well


4. Water vendor


10.b. Can you estimate the amount of water used for drinking and cooking per day, and how much it costs?

Amount of water used/day: ............ litres
The cost: US $/ Rp .......

10.c. Do you have enough water for drinking and cooking for your daily need?

1. Yes ® direct to number 11 a
2. No

10.d Why don't you have enough water?

yes

no

no regular supply

___

___

water too expensive

___

___

10.e. If not enough, how much water do you really need (for drinking and cooking) per day? And how much will that cost?

The actual amount of water needed/day: ............ litres
The cost: US $/Rp ........

10.f How do you manage to make up for the shortfall in your needs?

.............................................................................................

PERSONAL HYGIENE

11.a. What are your daily sources of water for washing and bathing?

1. Mineral Water

5. Public well

2. Government Water Company

6. Rain water


(a) yard tap

7. River or pond


(b) house connection

8. Miscellaneous....


(c) communal tap


3. Private well


4. Water vendor


11.b. Could you estimate the amount of water for washing and bathing per day, and how much it would cost?

The amount of water: .............litres
The cost of water: US $/ Rp .........

11.c. Do you always have enough water for your bathing and washing needs?

1. Yes ® direct to number 12
2. No

11.d Why don't you have enough water?

yes

no

no regular supply

___

___

water too expensive

___

___

11.e If not adequate, how much would you need to meet your daily needs for bathing and washing every day? And how much will that cost?

The amount of water needed: .......... litres
The cost of water: US $/Rp .......

11.f How do you manage to make up for the shortfall in your needs?

...........................................................................................

CLEANING, URBAN CROPPING, INFORMAL SECTOR WORK AT HOME

12. a. What is your course of water for domestic industrial work, cleaning and food growing?

1. Mineral Water

5. Public well

2. Government Water Company

6. Rain water


(a) yard tap

7. River or pond


(b) house connection

8. Miscellaneous....


(c) communal tap


3. Private well


4. Water vendor


12.b. Can you estimate the amount of water used for domestic, industrial work, cleaning and food growing per day, and how much it will costs?

Amount of water used/day: .................. litres
The cost: US $/Rp. ..................

12.c. Do you have enough water for domestic use, industrial work, cleaning and food growing?

1. Yes
2. No

12.d Why don't you have enough water?

yes

no

no regular supply

___

___

water too expensive

___

___

12.e If it is not enough, how much would you really need? And how much will that cost?

The amount of water needed/day: .................. litres
The cost of water: US $/Rp. ..................

12.f How do you manage to make up for the shortfall in your needs?

.............................................................................................

IV. WILLINGNESS TO PAY

13. If the coverage of water supply is expanded to include this area, would you be willing to get the installation?

1. Yes
2. No ® direct to number 15

14. How much can you afford to pay (a) for the water installation and (b) how much will you be willing to pay for the water consumption per metre cubic?

(a) Willingness to pay for installation US $./Rp ........

(b) Willingness to pay for water consumption:


US$/Rp ...../cubic metre or.............. US $/Rp. per month

15. Can you give the reason why you can't afford to pay for water installation?

Reason(s):................................................

16. Are you satisfied with the quality of water provided by the public water company? (tick as appropriate)


satisfied

less satisfied

not satisfied


- color




- taste




- smell




- cleanliness




- distribution
(continuity of availability)


17. If required to prefinance the extension of services to your area, how much money would you be willing to pay for the following items?

1. Installation

US$/Rp. ...............

2. Water price per m3

US$/Rp. ...............

3. Minimum price per month

US$/Rp. ...............

18. Are you confident that you can afford the expenditure for water?


yes

no

(a) installation costs

___

___

(b) monthly costs

___

___

HOW TO GROUP DATA AND FELL IT INTO TABLES FOR THE PURPOSE OF ANALYSIS

This part provides an example how to group data related to above questionnaire and how to fill it into tables for the purpose of analysis. Community volunteers would have to be trained in this exercise.

Table I IDENTITY OF RESPONDENT

No. Respondent

Name

Age (years)

Number of Family

1.

Joni

45

5 person

2.

Freddy

50

4 person

3.

Antoni

55

6 person

4.




5.




and so on....




50.




This table can be used for the tabulation of respondent answers related to personal identity (no 1-5). The process is simple, one person could read the respondent number, name, age, and the total number of family members while another one writes the information into the table.

Sample of table I was filled in with data from three respondents, name Johny, Freddy and Antoni, and their characteristic (age, and family members). This is continued for 50 households in a neighbourhood .

Table II. OWNERSHIP OF WATER INSTALLATION

Remarks

Family with an installation

Family without an installation

Total No. of respondents

Tally

IIIII

IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII
IIII IIII


Number of tally

5

45

50

Percentage

10%

90%

100%

Table II provides an example of how to record the number of families with an installation and without an installation. The procedures for recording are as follows:

1. To write down tally line

Each tally should be written in a column related to the answer of the respondents. If the respondent has given a "yes" answer for question 6, then the writer will place one tally in column depicting "family with an installation".

If the answer is "no", then the tally mark will be placed in the column "family without an installation".

2. To add all tallies

The add all tallies please count all in each category and fill total into box.

3. To calculate the percentage (in most cases not necessary)

For many communities percentage calculations are not feasible, and should thus not be attempted. Table III provides a further example for the ownership of a toilet and well.

Table III OWNERSHIP OF TOILET AND WELL

Remarks

Family has latrine

Family doesn't have latrine

Family has well

Family doesn't have well

Tally

IIII IIII IIII

IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII
IIII

IIII IIII IIII IIII

IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII
IIII

Total

15

35

20

30

Percentage

30 %

70 %

40 %

60 %

Table IV A: Water sources for washing and cooking

Remarks

Mineral water

Municipal water corporation

Private artesian well

Water seller

Public Hidrant

Public water

Rain water

River or pond

Etc

For drinking and cooking

IIII IIII

IIII

IIII IIII IIII

IIII IIII IIII

III

II

0

0

0

Number

10

5

15

15

3

2

0

0

0

Percentage

20%

10%

30%

30%

6%

4%

0

0

0

For bathing and washing

0

IIII

IIII IIII IIII

IIII

IIII

IIII IIII
IIII

0

IIII I

0

Number

0

5

15

5

4

15

0

6

0

Percentage

0

2%

30%

10%

8%

30%

0

12%

0

For working, cleaning and growing

0

III

IIII IIII IIII

IIII

IIIII

IIII IIII
IIII IIII
IIII

0

IIII

0

Number

0

3

14

4

5

20

0

4

0

Percentage

0

6%

28%

8%

10%

40%

0

8%

0

DATA RECORDING IN TABLE IV A

This table is completed with the respondents answers from questions number 10a, 11a and 12a. Again, the recording procedures are the same as those applied in table II. From 50 respondents in the sample of table IV A; 10 respondents (20%) were using mineral water, 5 respondents (10%) municipal water, 15 respondents (30%) from privately owned pump, 3 respondents (6%) water from a public hydrant, 2 respondents (4%) public well water and none of the respondents obtained water from the river or rain water for drinking and cooking purposes.

For bathing and washing, none of the respondents used mineral water and rain water. From other sources, 5 respondents (10%) obtained water from the municipal water supply, other 5 (10%) from water vendors, 4 (8%) from public hydrant, 15 (30%) from a private hand-pump, fifteen (30%) others from a public well and 6 (12%) from either a pond or a river.

For domestic industrial work, cleaning and food growing, none of the respondents used mineral and rain water. But from other sources, 3 (6%) respondents used water from municipal water supply, 4 respondents (8%) bought from a water vendor, 14 respondents (28%) from a privately owned hand-pump, 5 respondents (10%) from a public hydrant, 20 (40%) from a public well and 4 respondents (8%) from either a river or a pond.

Table IV B. Water for drinking and cooking

Respondents

The amount of water used for drinking & cooking per day

The Cost

The current water demand

The cost of current demand for water

Joni

10 buckets

$1

15 buckets

$1,5 1
















RECORDING DATA IN TABLE IV B

This table is filled with the respondents answers from questions number 10B and 10D.

Joni consumes 10 buckets of water per day, for drinking and cooking purposes, and spends $1. The amount of water that he actually needs for this purpose are 15 buckets which will cost him $1,5 per day.

Table IV C. Water for washing and bathing

Name

Amount of water for bathing & washing

The costs

The current demand for bathing & washing water

The costs for the current demand

Joni

25 buckets

$5

40 buckets

$8
















RECORDING DATA IN TABLE IV C

This table is filled with respondents answers from questions number 1 la and 11b.

Joni consumes 25 buckets of water per day, for washing and bathing. This costs him $ 5. But he actually needs 40 buckets of water to satisfy his current needs, which can cost him $ 8 per day.

Table IV D Water for informal domestic work, cleaning and growing food

Name

Water used for work, cleaning & growing food per day

The costs

The current demand for water per day

The costs for the current demand

Joni

25 buckets

$5

50 buckets

$ 10
















RECORDING DATA IN TABLE IV D

This table is filled with respondents answers from questions number 12 Joni consumes 25 buckets of water per day, for domestic industrial work, cleaning and food growing. This costs him $ 5. The amount of water he actually needs for domestic industrial work, cleaning and growing food are 50 buckets which will cost him $ 10 per day.

The table below shows the number or the percentage of families who are willing and those not willing to pay for a water installation

Table V Families willingness to pay for water installation

Remarks

Willing to pay for installation

Not willing to pay for installation

Tally

IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII

IIII IIII IIII

Number of tallies

40

10

Percentage

80%

20%

RECORDING DATA IN THE TABLE V

The answers for question number 12 have to be filled as shown in the above table using a similar procedure as in table II (see recordings in table II). The samples in this table shows 40 respondents (80%) who are willing to pay for water installation while 10 (20%) are not willing to pay.

Table VI Amount willing to pay for water

No.

Name of respondent

Amount willing to pay for installation in $

Amount willing to pay for consumption in $

Ability to pay (assessment by interviewer)

1.





2.





3.





4.





5.





6.





7.

Rony

$50

$7

capable

8.

Muhammad

$35

$5

not capable

9.





10.





RECORDING DATA IN THE TABLE VI

The last column in this table gives an estimation of the respondents capability to pay for water installation as subjectively estimated by the interviewer.

Respondent number 7 (Rony) is willing to pay for installation costs at $ 50 and consumption costs at $ 7. This is confirmed by the interviewers estimate that he is capable to pay. In contrast respondent number 8. (Muhammad) is willing to pay $35 as installation costs and $5 as consumption costs. This respondent is assessed as being not capable to pay.

Whereas the above table has focused on the willingness and capability to pay for water, the table below enlists the respondents who are not willing to pay and the reasons why they are not willing.

Table VII Reasons why a respondent is not willing to pay for water installation

No

Name of respondent

Reasons for Unwillingness to pay for water installation

1.

Joni

Expensive

2.

Freddy

The supply of clean water is adequate

3.

Antoni

Low-income