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close this bookSourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNEP-IETC - OAS, 1998, 247 p.)
close this folderPart D. Annexes
View the documentAnnex 1 - Acknowledgments
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 2 - List of participants in the Lima and Barbados workshops
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex 3 - Contributions presented by the participants
View the documentAnnex 4 - Table of conversion factors for metric and english units

Annex 1 - Acknowledgments

The national agencies, institutions and organizations listed below provided valuable information or otherwise contributed to the preparation of this Source Book. Thanks are due to all of them.

1. National Agencies and Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean

Aruba

Department of Agriculture, Husbandry and Fisheries

Argentina

Instituto Nacional de Ciencia y Tica Hicas (INCyTH)
Centro Regional Andino (CRA)
Centro de Econom Legislaci Administraciel Agua y del Ambiente (CELAA)
Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Aridas (IADIZA)
Instituto Argentino de Nivolog Glaciology Ciencias Ambientales

Bahamas

Ministry of Works and Lands, Water and Sewerage Corporation

Barbados

Ministry of Health

Environmental Engineering Division
South and West Coast Sewage Project

Barbados Water Authority, Barbados Water Resources Management and Water Loss Studies

Bolivia

Universidad Mayor de San Andr Instituto de Hidrica e Hidrolog(IHH)

Brazil

Ministerio das Minas y Energ(MME), Departamento Nacional de Aguas y EnergElrica (DNAEE)

Universidade de SPaulo, Faculdade de Saublica, Departamento de Sambiental

Estado de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Aguas y Energia Elica (DAEE)

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tro Semi-Arido (CPATSA)

Instituto ACQUA

British Virgin Islands

Ministry of Communications and Works, Water and Sewerage Department

Chile

Universidad Cata del Norte, Departamento de Fca, Facultad de Ciencias

Instituto Forestal (INFOR)

Colombia

Ministerio de Desarrollo Econo, Viceministro de Desarrollo Urbano, Vivienda y Agua Potable

Direccie Agua Potable y Saneamiento Bco

Costa Rica

Centro Agrono Tropical de Investigaci Ensea (CATIE)
Servicio Nacional de Aguas Subterras, Riego y Avenamiento (SENARA)

Dominican Republic

Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidricos (INDRHI)
Instituto Superior de Agricultura (ISA), Departamento de Recursos Naturales

Ecuador

Universidad de Cuenca, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Ticas (IICT), Facultad de Ingenier/blockquote>

El Salvador

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganader Departamento de Hidrolog Direccie Recursos Naturales Renovables

Guatemala

Ministerio de Comunicaciones, Transporte y Obras Pas, Instituto Nacional de Sismolog Vulcanolog Meteorologe Hidrolog(INSIVUMEH)

Haiti

Service National d'Eau Potable (SNEP)
Minist de l'Agriculture, des Resources Naturelles et du Dloppement Rural, Service National des Ressources en Eaux (SNRE)

Honduras

Ministerio de Recursos Naturales, Direccieneral de Recursos Hicos (DGRH)

Jamaica

Water Resources Authority

Mexico

Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologdel Agua (IMTA)
Universidad Auta del Estado de Mco (UAEM), Facultad de Ingenier Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua.

Netherlands Antilles

Department of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Water and Soil Section

Nicaragua

Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales (MARENA)

Panama

Universidad Tecnola de PanamUTP)

Paraguay

Comisiacional de Desarrollo Regional Integrado del Chaco Paraguayo

Peru

Pontificia Universidad Cata del Perupo de Apoyo al Desarrollo Rural
Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo (INADE)

Proyecto Especial Binacional Lago Titicaca (PELT/Peru)
Proyectos en Sierra y Selva

Asociaciara el Desarrollo Rural de Cajamarca (ASPADERUC)
Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA)

Saint Lucia

Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries and Forestry

Suriname

Hydraulic Research Division

Turks and Caicos Islands

Ministry of Health and Social Security, Environmental Health Department

Uruguay

Ministerio de Transporte y Obras Pas, Direcciacional de Hidrograf Departamento de Administracie Aguas

U.S. Virgin Islands

University of the Virgin Islands, Water Resources Research Institute

Venezuela

Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables (MARNR), Direccie Hidrology Meteorolog Direccieneral Sectorial de Informacimbiental

Universidad de Carabobo, Facultad de Ingenier Estacie Promoci Desarrollo Tecnolo.

2. International and Regional Organizations

Centro del Agua del Tro H para Amca Latina y el Caribe (CATHALAC)
Caribbean Meteorological Institute (CMI)
Inter-American Program OAS/CIDIAT
Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI)
CEPIS/Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO)

Preparation of the Source Book

The following persons of the Unit of Sustainable Development and Environment of the General Secretariat of the OAS participated in the preparation of this Source Book:

Newton V. Cordeiro, Chief, Geographic Area, South America
Nelson da Franca Ribeiro dos Anjos, Principal Water Resources Specialist
Jorge Marban, Consultant
David Moody, Consultant
Christine DeVaux, Consultant
Jeffrey A. Thornton, Editor
Betty Robinson, Editor
Laura Haran, Desktop Publishing

The general coordinator of the project was Mrs. Elizabeth Khaka, Programme Officer in the Integrated Water Programme (UNEP).

A. List of participants in the Lima workshop

(19-22 September 1995)

ARGENTINA

NicolCiancaglini, Investigador, Centro Regional Andino (INCYTH/CRA), Belgrano 210 (Oeste), Casilla de Correo 6,5500 Mendoza, Argentina. Tel. (54-61)28-6998. Fax (54-61)28-8251, E-mail: postmaster@inccra.edu.ar.

Valeria Mendoza, Investigadora, Centro de Econom Legislaci Administraciel Agua y del Ambiente (INCYTH/CELAA), Belgrano 210 (Oeste), 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. Tel. (54-61)28-7921/28-5416. Fax (54-61)28-5416.

Eduardo Torres, Investigador, Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Aridas (IADIZA), Bajada del Cerro de la Gloria s/n. Parque General San Mart Casilla de Correo 507, 5500 Mendoza. Argentina. Tel. (54-61)28-7995. Fax (54-61)28-7995. E-mail: ntcricyt@criba.edu.ar.

AdriVargas Aranr, Investigador, Centro Regional Andino (INCYTH/CRA), Belgrano 210 (Oeste), Casilla de Correo 6, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. Tel. (54-61)28-6998/28-8005. Fax (54-61)28-8251. E-mail: postmaster@inccra.edu. ar.

Alberto I. J. Vich, Responsable Unidad Ecology Manejo de Cuencas Hicas, Instituto Argentino de Nivolog Glaciology Ciencias Ambientales, Bajo del Cerro de la Gloria s/n. Parque General San Mart Casilla del Correo 330, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. Tel. (54-61)28-7029/21-6317/28-5416. Fax (54-61)28-7370/28-7029. E-mail: ntcricyt@criba.edu.ar.

BOLIVIA

Freddy Camacho Villegas, Director, Instituto de Hidrica e Hidrolog(IHH), Universidad Mayor de San Andr(UMSA), Casilla Postal 699, La Paz, Bolivia. Tel. (591-2)79-5724/79-5725. Fax (591-2)79-2622.

BRASIL

Gertjan Beekman, Engenheiro, Departamento Nacional de Aguas y EnergElica (DNAEE), Ministerio das Minas y Energia (MME), SGAN Q 603 Modulo J, 2° andar, 70830-030 Brasilia, DF, Brasil. Tel. (55-61)225-5768/223-8592/321-3446/226-7429. Fax (55-61)226-5735/224-4150. E-mail: iica@cr-df-mp.br.

Pedro Caetano Sanches Mancuso, Professor Doutor, Departamento de Sambiental, Faculdade de Saublica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Amaldo 715, 01246-904 Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil. Tel. (55-11)282-3842/872-3464. Fax (55-11)853-0681.

Marco Antonio Palermo, Engenheiro, Departamento de Aguas y Energia Elrica do Estado de Sao Paulo (DAEE), R Riachuelo 115, 4° andar, sala 415, 01007-000 Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil. Tel. (55-11)974-0350/258-4595. Fax (55-11)258-4595.

Everaldo Rocha Porto, Pesquisador, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tro Semi-do (CPATSA), BR 428 km 152, Zona Rural, Caixa Postal 23, 56 300-000 Petrolina, PE, Brasil. Tel. (55-81)862-1711. Fax (55-81)862-1744, E-mail: erporto@cpatsa.embrapa.br.

Claudison Rodrigues, Economista, Instituto ACQUA, Rua do Russel 300/401, 22210-010 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. Tel. (55-21)205-5103. Fax (55-21)205-5544. E-mail: solon@omega.lncc.br.

Luiza Teixeira de Lima Brito, Pesquisadora, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tro Semi-do (CPATSA), BR 428 km 152, Zona Rural, Caixa Postal 23,56 300-000 Petrolina, PE, Brasil. Tel. (55-81)862-1711. Fax (55-81)862-1744. E-mail: luizatlb@cpatsa.embrapa.br.

CHILE

Roberto Espejo Guasp, Profesor, Departamento de Fca, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Cata del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Casilla de Correo 1280, Antofagasta, Chile. Tel. (56-55)24-1148, anexos 211-312-287. Fax (56-55)24-1724/24-1756. E-mail: respejo@socompa.cecun.ucn.cl.

Johannes Wrann, Ingeniero Forestal, Instituto Forestal (INFOR), Calle Huanos 554, Casilla de Correo 3085, Santiago, Chile. Tel. (56-2)639-6189. Fax (56-2)638-1286.

COLOMBIA

Guillermo Sarmiento, Asesor, Direccie Agua Potable y Saneamiento Bco, Viceministerio de Desarrollo Urbano, Vivienda y Agua Potable, Ministerio de Desarrollo Econo, Bogota, Colombia. Tel. (57-1)287-9743. Fax (57-1)245-7256/212-6520.

COSTA RICA

Jorge Faustino Manco, Lr, Proyecto RENARM/Cuencas, Centro Agrono Tropical de Investigaci Ensea (CATIE), Apartado 7170, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tel. (506)556-6279/556-7830. Fax (506)556-1576/556-1533. E-mail: jfaustin@catie.ac.cr.

William Murillo Montero, Ingeniero Civil, Director de Ingenier Servicio Nacional de Aguas Subterras, Riego y Avenamiento (SENARA), Calles 18-20, Av. 12 Transversal, Apartado 5262, San JosCosta Rica. Tel. (506)257-9733. Fax (506)222-8785.

ECUADOR

Felipe Cisneros Espinosa, Profesor-Investigador, Instituto de Investigaciones de Ciencias Ticas (IICT), Facultad de Ingenier Universidad de Cuenca, Avenida 12 de abril s/n, Cuenca, Ecuador. Tel. (593-7)831-688/819-891. Fax (593-7)832-183. E-mail: fcisnero@az.pro.ec

EL SALVADOR

Sadrez, Ingeniero, Departamento de Hidrolog Direccie Recursos Naturales Renovables, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganader Cantl Matasano, Apartado Postal 2265, Soyapango, San Salvador, El Salvador. Tel. (503-2)277-0622, ext. 60. Fax (503-2)277-0490

GUATEMALA

Luis A. Ochoa Marroqu Ingeniero, Instituto Nacional de Sismolog Vulcanolog Meteorologe Hidrolog(INSIVUMEH), Ministerio de Comunicaciones, Transporte y Obras Pas, 7 Avenida 14-57 Zona 13, Guatemala, Guatemala. Tel. (502-2)31-4967/31-9163. Fax (502-2)31-5005.

HONDURAS

Ernesto Bondy Reyes, Director General, Direccieneral de Recursos Hicos (DGRH), Ministerio de Recursos Naturales, 100 metros al sur campo Birichiche, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Tel. (504)32-6250/32-1386. Fax (504)32-1828.

MEXICO

Polioptro Martz Austria, Doctor Ingeniero, Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologdel Agua (IMTA), Paseo Cuahunac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos, Mco. Tel. (52-73)19-4000/19-4111/19-3663. Fax (52-73)20-8725/19-3422. E-mail: polioptr@tlaloc.imta.mx.

Carlos SolMorelos, Profesor-Investigador, Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Universidad Auta del Estado de Mco (UAEM), Facultad de Ingenier Co Postal 50110, Cerro de Coatepec, C.V. Toluca, Estado de Mco, Mco. Tel. (52-72)20-1582. Fax (52-72)20-1582/14-4512.

NICARAGUA

Javier GarcRomano, Asistente Tico, Vice-Ministerio del Ambiente y los Recursos Naturales (MARENA), Km. 12 1/2 Carretera Norte, Apartado Postal 5123, Managua, Nicaragua. Tel. (505-2)63-1343. Fax (505-2)31-916.

PANAMA

MarConcepcionoso, Directora, Centro del Agua del Tro H para Amca Latina y el Caribe (CATHALAC), Apartado Postal 873372, Panam, PanamTel. (507)228-7944/228-7072. Fax (507)228-3311. E-mail: donoso@aoml.erl.gov.

Icela Muez de Rojas, Profesor Titular, Universidad Tecnola de PanamUTP), Apartado 1, PenonomProvincia de CoclPanamTel. (507)997-9371. Fax (507)997-9182. E-mail: irojas@keops.utp.ac.pa.

PARAGUAY

Eugenio Godoy Valdovinos, Director de Recursos Hicos, Comisiacional de Desarrollo Regional Integrado del Chaco Paraguayo, Av. Hindenburg c/Palo Santo, Casilla de Correo 984/273, Filadelfia, Chaco, Paraguay. Tel. (595)91-275. Fax (595)91-493.

PERU

Miguel Hadzich Mar Coordinador, Grupo de Apoyo al Desarrollo Rural, Pontificia Universidad Cata del Perenida Universitaria, Cuadra 18, San Miguel, Lima, Perl. (51-1)462-2540, anexos 263 y 285. Fax (51-1)461-1785.

Juan Ocola Solazar, Especialista, Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo (INADE), Proyecto Especial Binacional Lago Titicaca, Av. El Sol 839, Puno, Perl. (51-54)35-2305, Fax (51-54)35-2392.

Fernando Rey Tordoya, Gerente, Proyectos en Sierra y Selva, Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo (INADE), Calle Tarata 160, Miraflores, Lima 18, Perl. (51-1)446-8730. Fax (51-1)446-8730.

Hugo Rodrez, Jefe del Sub-Programa PIWA, Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo (INADE), Proyecto Especial Binacional Lago Titicaca (PELT), Av. El Soi 839, Puno, Perl. (51-54)35-2305. Fax (51-54)35-2392.

Pablo Shez, Director, Asociaciara el Desarrollo Rural de Cajamarca (ASPADERUC), Jr. Bel678, Cajamarca, Perl. (51-4)492-4196. Fax (51-4)492-5988.

Manuel Tapia Mu Director General de Aguas y Suelos, Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), Calle 17 N. 355, Urb. El Palomar, San Isidro, Lima 27, Perl. (51-1)224-3298/224-2858. Fax (51-1)224-3218.

Miguel Ventura Napa, Jefe. Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), Calle 17 N. 355, Urb. El Palomar, San Isidro, Lima 27, Perl. (51-1)224-3298/224-2858. Fax (51-1)224-3218. E-mail: m.ventura@onem.org.pe.

Fx Urcuhuaranga Cochas, Ingeniero, Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), Calle 17 N. 355, Urb. El Palomar, San Isidro, Lima 27, Perl. (51-1)224-3298/224-2858. Fax (51-1)224-3218.

REPUBLICA DOMINICANA

Milagros Martz Esquea, Ingeniero Agro, Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidricos (INDRHI), Programa Manejo de Agua a Nivel de Finca (PROMAF), Ave. Jimz Moya, Centro de los Hes, Apartado Postal 1407, Santo Domingo, Repa Dominicana. Tel. (809)533-5804/532-4863. Fax (809)532-5884.

Josayero, Profesor, Investigador, Departamento de Recursos Naturales, Instituto Superior de Agricultura (ISA), Apartado 166, La Herradura, Santiago, Repa Dominicana. Tel. (809)247-0082/247-2000. Fax (809)247-2626/247-0085.

URUGUAY

Lourdes Batista, Jefe, Departamento de Administracie Aguas, Direcciacional de Hidrograf Ministerio de Transporte y Obras Pas, Rinc75, Piso 2, 11100 Montevideo, Uruguay. Tel. (598-2)96-4667. Fax (598-2)96-4667.

VENEZUELA

Carmen FermRegardiz, Direccie Hidrology Meteorolog Direccieneral Sectorial de Informacimbiental, Ministerio del Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables (MARNR), Esquina Camejo, Edificio Camejo, Piso 5, Oficina 508, Caracas 1010, Venezuela. Tel. (58-2)408-1952/408-1945. Fax (58-2)545-0607. E-mail: dhm@dino.conicit.ve.

HernL Herrera, Director, Estacie Promoci Desarrollo Tecnolo, Facultad de Ingenier Universidad de Carabobo, Bula, Valencia, Estado de Carabobo, Venezuela. Tel. (58-41)66-7555/58-9867. Fax (58-41)66-6819.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Nelson da Franca R dos Anjos, Especialista Principal en Recursos Hicos, Unidad de Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente, Organizacie los Estados Americanos (UDSMA/OEA), 1889 F Street NW, Room 340-C, Washington, D.C. 20006, U.S.A. Tel. (202)458-3454. Fax (202)458-3560, E-mail: regional_development@oas.org.

Elizabeth Khaka, Programme Officer, Integrated Water Programme, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Post Office Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel. (254-2)62-1234/62-3990. Fax (254-2)62-4249/22-6890. E-mail: elizabeth.khaka@unep.no.

Roger Amisial, Coordinador, Programa Interamericano OEA-CIDIAT, Apartado Postal 219, 5101-A Mda, Edo. Mda, Venezuela. Tel. (58-74)44-9582/44-2647. Fax (58-74)44-1461. E-mail: cidiat@dino.conicit.ve.

Julio Moscoso, Asesor, Programa de Reuso de Aguas Residuales, Divisie Salud y Ambiente, Centro Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente (CEPIS), Organizacianamericana de la Salud (OPS), Calle los Pinos, 259, Urb. Camacho, Lima 12, Persilla Postal 4337, Lima 100, Perl. (51-1)437-1077. Fax (51-1)437-8289. E-mail: jmoscoso@cepis.org.pe.

Diodoro Acosta, Consultor, Unidad de Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente, Organizacie los Estados Americanos (UDSMA/OEA), Avenida Nicolde Rivera 774, San Isidro, Lima 27, Persilla Postal 140214, Lima 14, Peru. Tel. (51-1)441-5624/441-6214/441-6126. Fax (51-1)441-6715.

B. List of participants in the Barbados workshop

(24-27 October 1995)

ARUBA

Theofilo Damian, Department of Agriculture, Husbandry and Fisheries, 114-A Piedra Plat, Aruba. Tel. (297-8)58-102/56-473. Fax (297-8)55-639.

BAHAMAS

Cadrington Coleby, Water and Sewerage Corporation, Ministry of Works and Lands Building, Post Office Box N3905, Nassau, Bahamas. Tel. (809)323-3944. Fax (809)326-3751/328-0579.

BARBADOS

Carlyle Bourne, Civil Engineer, c/o The Home, Salters, St. George, Barbados. Tel. (809)428-3451. Fax (809)429-5292/424-9228.

Sylvan Rudolph Catwell, Chief Environmental Engineering Assistant, Environment Engineering Division, Ministry of Health, The Garrison, St. Michael, Barbados. Tel. (809)436-4820. Fax (809)436-5570.

Cathal Healy Singh, Project Engineer, South and West Coast Sewage Project, Ministry of Health, Block 28C, The Garrison, St. Michael, Barbados. Tel. (809)427-5910. Fax (809)435-1595.

John Bwalya Mwansa, Project Manager, Barbados Water Resources Management & Water Loss Studies, Barbados Water Authority, "Invermark", Hastings, Christ Church, Barbados. Tel. (809)430-9343. Fax (809)430-9374.

HAITI

Michael P. Merisier, Ingeur, Drtement du Sud, Service National d'Eau Potable (SNEP), Delmas 45, #1, Caisse Postale 13431, Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Tel. (509)46-2927. Fax (509)46-0881.

JAMAICA

Basil Fernandez, Managing Director, Water Resources Authority, Hope Gardens, Post Office Box 91, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Tel. (809)927-1878. Fax (809)977-0179.

MONTSERRAT

Margaret Dyer-Howe, General Manager, Montserrat Water Authority, Post Office Box 324, Church Road, Plymouth, Montserrat, BWI. Tel. (809)491-8440. Fax (809)491-4904.

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES

Martha Pinedo-Medina, Coordinator, Water and Soil Section, Department of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Klein Kwartier N. 33, Cura, Netherlands Antilles. Tel. (599-9)37-6170. Fax (599-9)37-0723.

SAINT LUCIA

Martin Satney, Senior Agricultural Engineer, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries and Forestry, NIS Building, 5th Floor, Castries, Saint Lucia. Tel. (809)450-2337. Fax (809)453-6314.

SURINAME

Moekiran A. Amatali, Director, Hydraulic Research Division, Magnesiumstraat 41 (Duisburglaan), Paramaribo, Posbus 2110, Suriname. Tel. (59-7)49-0963. (59-7)46-4901/49-0627.

TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS

Joseph E. Williams, Chief Environmental Health Officer, Environmental Health Department, Ministry of Health and Social Security, Duncombe Alley, Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands, BWI. Tel. (809)946-2152/946-1335. Fax (809)946-2411.

U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS

Henry H. Smith, Director, Water Resources Research Institute, University of the Virgin Islands, #2 John Brewers Bay, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00802-9990. Tel. (809)693-1063. Fax (809)693-1074. E-mail: hsmith@uvi.edu.

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Nelson da Franca R. dos Anjos, Principal Specialist in Water Resources, Unit of Sustainable Development and Environment, Organization of American States (USDE/OAS), 1889 F Street NW, Rm. 340C, Washington, D.C. 20006, U.S.A. Tel. (202)458-3454. Fax (202)458-3560. E-mail: regional_development@oas.org.

Roger Amisial, Coordinator, Inter-American Program OAS/CIDIAT, Apartado Postal 219, 5101-A Mda, Edo. Mda, Venezuela. Tel. (58-74)44-9582/44-2647. Fax (58-74)44-1461. E-mail: cidiat@dino.conicit.ve.

Elizabeth Khaka, Programme Officer, Integrated Water Programme, United Nations Environment Programme -UNEP, Post Office Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel. (254-2)62-1234/62-3990. Fax (254-2)62-4249/22-6890. E-mail: elizabeth.khaka@unep.no.

Jorge Marban, Consultant, Unit of Sustainable Development and Environment, Organization of American States (USDE/OAS), 1923 Mediterranean Road, Lake Clarke Shores, Florida 33406, U.S.A. Tel. (407)642-1758. Fax (407)687-6442. E-mail: jmarban@sfwmd.govt.

Frank Farnum, Chief Hydrologist, Caribbean Meteorological Institute (CMI), Husbands, St. James, Barbados. Tel. (809)425-1363. Fax (809)424-473 3.

Colin Depradine, Principal, Caribbean Meteorological Institute (CMI), Husbands, St. James, Barbados. Tel. (809)425-1363. Fax (809)424-4733. E-mail: cold@inaccs.com.

Vincent Sweeney, Sanitary Engineer, Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI), Post Office Box 1111, The Morne, Castries, Saint Lucia. Tel. (809)452-1412. Fax (809)453-2721. E-mail: cehi@isis.org.lc. OBSERVER

Ed Burke, Project Manager, Water and Sanitation Project, South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), Mead Road, Private Mail Bag, GPO, Suva, Fiji. Tel. (679)38-1139/38-1377. Fax (679)37-0040. E-mail: ed@sopac.org.fj.

A. Workshop on alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in Latin America

Lima, Peru, 19-22 September 1995

Country

Participant

Technology Profiles

Case Studies

Argentina

NicolCiancaglini

- Artificial recharge of aquifers
- Desalination using reverse osmosis
- Irrigation using clay pots

Irrigation using clay pots in Mendoza


Valeria Mendoza

- Artificial recharge of aquifers
- Water management model using conservation
- Reuse of domestic effluents for irrigation
- Optimization of water resources
- Management of potable water systems
- Utilization of surface water in dams

Reuse of domestic effluents for irrigation in Mendoza


Eduardo Torres

- Rainwater harvesting roofs/cisterns
- Rainwater harvesting (natural low areas)
- Use of well buckets in groundwater extraction
- Artificial recharge of aquifers

Natural and artificial recharge of underground reservoirs in Mendoza


Alberto Vich

- Rainwater harvesting (paved roads)
- Rainwater harvesting and aquifer recharge

Water traps for runoff diversion, rainwater harvesting, and recharge of aquifers in mountain areas


AdriVargas

- Utilization of river beds

Utilization of river beds in Santiago del Estero

Bolivia

Freddy Camacho V.

- Hand pumps
- Use of desalination in irrigation
- Totora as a water quality treatment agent
- Use of native products in clarifying water
- Irrigation using clay pots

Use of hand pumps in the high plateau of Bolivia

Brazil

Everaldo R Porto

- Rainwater harvesting (roofs/cisterns)
- Rainwater harvesting (paved and unpaved roads)
- Irrigation with clay pots and porous capsules

Use of rural cisterns in northeastern Brazil


Luiza T. de L. Brito

- Rainwater harvesting (in situ) - Runoff collection and storage (dams/dikes)
- Underground dams

Underground dams in northeastern Brazil


Pedro C.S. Mancuso

- Use of continuous vertical reactors for wastewater treatment and reuse

Continuous vertical reactors


Marco Antonio Palermo

- Runoff collection and storage
- Water basin diversion and reuse
- Reuse and utilization of saline waters

Optimization of runoff storage and distribution in the state of SPaulo


Claudison Rodrigues

- Desalination using reverse osmosis
- Desalination using solar distillation
- Desalination using electrodialysis

Desalination of well water in northeastern Brazil using reverse osmosis


Gertjan B. Beekman

- VLF-WADI method to locate fractures in crystalline rocks

Small systems of dams in river basins of Para

Chile

Roberto Espejo Guasp

- Fog harvesting (Camanchacas)
- Desalination using reverse osmosis
- Desalination using distillation
- Treatment and recycling of non-potable water

Water supply using fog harvesting in Poposo, Chile


Johannes Wrann

- Fog harvesting (camanchacas)
- Rainwater harvesting

Rainwater harvesting and utilization of surface water runoff from sloping watersheds for forestation in Chile

Colombia

Guillermo Sarmiento

- Wastewater treatment technologies

Biological treatment of domestic wastewater using hydroponic cultivation and comparison with other wastewater treatment technologies in Colombia

Costa Rica

Jorge Faustino Manco

- Rainwater harvesting(roofs/cisterns)
- Water conservation agricultural practices
- Runoff storage in irrigation ditches
- Use of lagoons for runoff collection and storage

Runoff storage in irrigation ditches in various regions of Central America


William Murillo Montero

- Comprehensive utilization of water resources (basin transfer)
- Sustainable use of aquifers
- Efficient use of irrigation methods in small areas (use of pressurized systems)

Comprehensive use of surface water resources in Costa Rica (water transfer from the Arenal to the Tempisque river basin)

Dominican Republic

Milagros Martz Esquea

- Rainwater harvesting using house roofs
- Irrigation with clay pots

Irrigation with interconnected clay pots in Dominican Republic


Jos. Payero

- Artificial lagoons
- Rainwater harvesting using collection pipes
- Cloud seeding
- Water distribution by cistern trucks
- Bottling of water
- Development of small watersheds
- Water storage in homes
- Water purification systems
- Wastewater treatment technologies

Home water purification systems in Dominican Republic

Ecuador

Felipe Cisneros Espinoza

- Rainwater harvesting
- Distribution of potable water
- Water transfer by pumping
- Disinfection/purification
- Use of clay pots in irrigation

Rainwater harvesting through runoff storage in reservoirs in the southern region of Ecuador

El Salvador

Saul Rodrez

- Cyclic rope pump
- Chlorine production in situ
- Home made artesian filters
- Potable water by filtration using slow sand dripping filters

Utilization of cisterns for rainwater harvesting in El Salvador

Guatemala

Luis Alfredo Ochoa

- Rainwater harvesting
- Water purification using sodium hypochlorite in rural areas
- Stabilization lagoons (Jacintos)
- Water quality treatment using seeds of Monringa olera
- Pilot project on the use of pre-filters
- Irrigation with treated water

Use of potable water from rainwater harvesting in Guatemala

Honduras

Ernesto Bondy Reyes

- Rainwater harvesting (roofs, cisterns, and lagoons)
- Rope and bucket homemade wells
- Use of mulch to control soil humidity and sediments
- Photovoltaic energy for pumping systems
- Alternative pumping systems

Rainwater harvesting using roofs, cisterns, and lagoons in Honduras

Mexico

Polioptro F Martz

- Fog harvesting
- Quarry filters
- Gravitational tank irrigation system
- Device for intermittent irrigation in furrows

Non-conventional devices for use in intermittent irrigation in Mexico


Carlos SolMorelos

- Stabilization lagoons

Modified stabilization lagoon system for municipal wastewater treatment in the Lerma River basin in Mexico

Nicaragua

Javier GarcRomano

- Microbasin management

Microbasin management in Nicaragua

Panama

Icela Muez de Rojas

- Mini-dams
- Irrigation with clay pots
- Agriculture and aquaculture water use

Utilization of spring waters for rural aqueducts in Panama


MarConcepcionoso

- Water recycling in rice cultivation and aquaculture system
- Drip irrigation
- Use of wind energy for pumping systems
- Aqueducts

Utilization of wind energy to augment water supply in the central provinces of Panama

Paraguay

Eugenio Godoy Valdovinos

- Rainwater harvesting using roofs and cisterns
- Rainwater harvesting using cultivation
- Artificial recharge of groundwater

Artificial recharge of groundwater in Central Chaco in Paraguay

Peru

Hugo Rodrez

- Harvesting use and storage of water with raised beds (Waru Waru) cultivation

The agro-ecosystem of Waru Waru: an alternative technology for agricultural development in the plateau of Puno


Juan Ocola Salazar

- Wastewater treatment using native plants (totora)

Treatment in oxidation lagoons using native plants (Totora) in Puno


Pablo Shez


Poncho Verde project in Cajamarca


Miguel Hadzich MarBR>


Pumping systems in Peru

Uruguay

Lourdes Batista

- Utilization and regulation of watersheds

Regulation, water use, and development plan for the region of Rocha in Uruguay

Venezuela

Carmen FermRegardiz

- Runoff collection and storage using road dikes
- Artificial lagoons
- Storage tanks with galvanized plates
- Toroba

Use of road dikes in the state of Nueva Esparta


HernL Herrera

- River basin rehabilitation

Rehabilitation of the Moriver basin in Venezuela

CEPIS/OPS

Julio Moscoso


Use of effluents from stabilization lagoons in aquaculture and agriculture in San Juan, Peru

B. Workshop on alternative technologies for freshwater augmentation in the Caribbean

Barbados, October 24-27, 1995

Country

Participant

Profiles of Technology

Case Study

Antigua and Barbuda

Vincent Sweeney

- Transportation of water by barges
- Desalination: reverse osmosis and distillation


Aruba

Theofilo Damian

- Desalination: multistage flash evaporation system
- Wastewater treatment

Rainwater harvesting in dams for agricultural purposes in Aruba

Bahamas

Cadrington Coleby

- Desalination: reverse osmosis
- Trench wells for groundwater extraction
- Barging

Barging/tanking water from neighboring islands in the Bahamas

Barbados

John Bwalya Mwansa

- Rainwater harvesting
- Surface runoff impoundments
- Artificial recharge of groundwater
- Wastewater treatment and reuse

Sam Lord's Castle Hotel's treated wastewater reuse scheme, Barbados

British Virgin Islands

Rajkumar Roopchand*

- Rainwater harvesting
- Seawater/brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis

Implementation of seawater desalination on the island of Virgin Gorda

Haiti

Bernardine Georges*

- Rainwater harvesting
- Hand pumps
- Winch

Rainwater cistern in Miragoane, Haiti


Michael Merisier


Photovoltaic system to pump water in St. Jean du Sud, Haiti

Jamaica

Basil Fernandez

- Rainwater harvesting
- Transportation of water by pipeline; interbasin transfer
- Artificial recharge of groundwater
- Wastewater treatment and reuse
- Recycling of industrial effluent

Artificial groundwater recharge of a karstic limestone aquifer using sinkholes as injection points in Jamaica

Montserrat

Margaret Dyer-Howe

- Rainwater harvesting

Floating chlorinator and gas chlorinator in Montserrat

Netherlands Antilles

Martha Pinedo-Medina

- Rainwater harvesting
- Artificial recharge of groundwater
- Wastewater treatment

Water desalination by distillation in Cura (multistage flash evaporation system)

Saint Lucia

Vincent Sweeney

- Rainwater harvesting
- Root zone wastewater treatment
- Dual distribution system

Root zone wastewater treatment in Saint Lucia


Martin Satney

- Rainwater harvesting
- Runoff harvesting
- Wastewater reuse

Transportation of water by canal/pipeline for irrigation in Saint Lucia

Suriname

Moekiran Amatali

- Rainwater harvesting
- Storage in natural wetlands
- Storage in dammed-up feat lands

The use of the manmade Lake Brokopondo in Suriname

Turks and Caicos Islands

Joseph Williams

- Rainwater harvesting
- Desalination; reverse osmosis
- Dual distribution systems
- Groundwater exploration

Rainwater harvesting in the Turks and Caicos Islands

U.S. Virgin Islands

Henry Smith

- Rainwater harvesting
- Dual distribution system
- Desalination

Mandatory rainwater harvesting for residential use in the U.S. Virgin Islands

* Mr. Rajkimar Roopchand and Ms. Bernardine Georges were not able to participate in the workshop, but sent their contributions.

Annex 4 - Table of conversion factors for metric and english units

This water-quantity equivalents and conversion factor list is for those interested in converting units. The right-hand column includes units expressed in two systems - U.S. Customary and International System (metric). Units, which are written in abbreviated form below, are spelled out in parentheses the first time they appear. To convert from the unit in the left-hand column to that in the right, multiply by the number in the right-hand column. Most of the quantities listed were rounded to five significant figures. However, for many purposes, the first two or three significant figures are adequate for determining many water-quantity relations, such as general comparisons of water availability with water use or calculations in which the accuracy of the original data itself does not justify more than three significant figures. Quantities shown in italics are exact equivalents - no rounding was necessary. Regarding length of time, each calendar year is assumed (for this list) to consist of 365 days.

U.S. Customary


U.S. Customary or Metric


Length


1 in (inch)

=

25.4 mm (millimeters)

1 ft(foot)

=

0.3048 m (meter)

1 mi (mile, statute)

=

5 280 ft


=

1 609.344 m


=

1.609344 km (kilometers)


Area


1 ft2 (square foot)

=

0.09290304 m2 (square meter)

1 acre

=

43 560 ft2


=

0.0015 62 5 mi2


=

0.40469 ha (hectare)

1mi2

=

640 acres


=

259 ha


=

2.59 km2 (square kilometers)


Volume or Capacity (liquid measure)


1 qt (quart, U.S.)

=

0.94635 l (liter)

1 gal (gallon, U.S.)

=

231 in3 (cubic inches)


=

0.13368 ft3 (cubic foot)


=

3.78541


=

0.003 7854 m3 (cubic meter)

1 Mgal (million gallon)


0.1 3368 Mft3 (million cubic feet)

1 Mgal

=

3.0689 acre-ft (acre-feet)


=

3,785.4 m3

1ft3

=

1,728. In3


=

7.4805 gal


=

28.317 l


=

0.028317m3

1 Mft3

=

28,317m3

1 acre-ft (volume of water, 1 ft deep, covering an area of 1 acre)

=

43.560 ft3


=

0.32585 Mgal


=

1,233.5 m3

1 mi3 (cubic mile)

=

1,101.1 billion gal


=

147.20 billion ft3


=

3.3792 million acre-ft


=

4.1682 km3 (cubic kilometers)


Speed (or, when used In a vector sense, velocity)


1 ft/s (foot per second)

=

0.3048 m/s (meter per second)


=

0.68182 mi/hour (mile per hour)

1 mi/hr

=

1.4667 ft/s


=

0.44704 m/s


Volume per Unit of Time (discharge, water supply, water use, and so forth)


1 gpm (gallon per minute)

=

0.00144 mgd (million gallons per day)


=

0.0022280 ft3/s (cubic foot per second)


=

0.0044192 acre-ft/d (acre-foot per day)


=

3.7854 l/min (liters per minute)


=

0.063090 l/s (liters per second)

1 mgd

=

694.44 gal/min


=

1.5472 ft3/s


=

3.0689 acre-ft/d


=

1,120.0 acre-ft/d (acre-feet per year)


=

0.043813 m3/s (cubic meter per second)


=

3,785.4 m3/d (cubic meters per day)

1 billion gal/yr (billion gallons per year)

=

0.0013817 km3/yr (cubic kilometer per year)

1 ft3/s

=

2.7397 mgd


=

448.83 gal/min


=

0.6463 2 mgd


=

1.9835 acre-ft/d


=

723.97 acre-ft/yr


=

28.317 l/s


=

0.028317 m3/d


=

2,446.6 m3/d


=

0.00089300 km3/yr

1 acre-ft/yr

=

892.74 gal/d (gallons per day)


=

0.61996 gal/min


=

0.0013813 ft3/s


=

3.3794 m3/d

1 acre-ft/d

=

0.50417 ft3/s


Volume, Discharge, or Use per Unit of Area


1 in of rain or runoff

=

17.379 Mgal/mi3


=

27,154. Gal/acre (gallons per acre)


=

25,400. M3/km2 (cubic meters per square kilometer)

1 in/yr

=

0.047613 (Mgal/d)/mi2


=

0.073668 (ft/s)/mi2

1 (Mgal/d)/mi2

=

21.003 in/yr (inches of rain or runqffper year)

1 (ft3/s)mi2

=

13.574 in/yr


=

0.010933 (m3/s)/km2 (cubic meter per second per square kilometer)


Mass (pure water in dry air)


1 gal at 15° Celsius (59° Fahrenheit)

=

8.3290 lb (pounds avoir du pois)

1 gal at 4° Celsius (39.2° Fahrenheit)

=

8.3359 lb

1 lb

=

0.45359 kg (kilogram)

1 ton, short (2,000 lb)

=

0.90718 Mg (megagram) or ton, metric

Prepared by John C. Krammer, U.S. Geological Survey (National Water Summary 1990-1991).